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初中英语总复习知识点归纳

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                   初中英语总复习知识点归纳

       冠词 a / an 的用法 
     a 用于辅音音素前  a useful book,   a university,   a “u” 
     Once a week     have a swim/walk/talk/look/dance/drink/ rest   have a 
cold/ headache / fever /cough    have a good time   have a try   in a hurry     
after a while    keep a diary    go for a walk   in a minute    in a word   in 
a short while   
     an 则用于元音音素前 an hour, an honest boy , an “A E F H I L M N O R S X” 
     keep an eye on 
     定冠词   the 的用法:
     1)特指双方都明白的人或物: Give me the book.
     2)上文提到过的人或事: ---Do you know the lady in blue? –Yes, she is a 
teacher of a university. 
     3)指世上独一物二的事物          the sun ( sky / moon/ earth/  world/  nature/ 
 universe )
     4)单数名词连用表示一类事物,如:the dollar 美元;  The lion is a wild 
animal.或与形容词或分词连用,表示一类人:the rich /poor/ blind/ aged / living / 
impossible 
     5)用在序数词和形容词最高级,及形容词                 only,very, same 等前面:I live on 
the second floor. 
     6)用在表示身体部位的名词前: She caught me by the arm. 
     7)用在表示乐器和表方位的名词之前:  She plays the piano \violin \ guitar 
 in the north of China 
     8)用在普通名词构成专有名词前: the People's Republic of China  the 
United States  the Great Wall  the Summer Palace 
     9) 用在姓氏的复数名词之前,表示一家人:the Greens are playing the piano.  
     10) in the day, in the morning (afternoon,evening), in the middle (of), 
in the end,  all the time   at the same time   on the whole, by the way, go 
to the cinema  at he age of six  at the beginning of the twenty-first century 
  on the other side of   at the moment   the day after tomorrow   the day 
before yesterday, the next morning, in the sky (water,field,country) in 
the dark, in the rain,  
     不用定冠词的情况
     1) 国名,人名前通常不用定冠词:China , Europe  欧洲 Lei Feng 雷锋   
     2)物质名词和抽象名词表示一般概念时,通常不加冠词;当表示特定的意思时,需
要加定冠词     Failure is the mother of success. 失败乃成功之母。 
     3)在季节、月份、节日、 假日、日期、星期等表示时间的名词之前,不加冠词; 
Children’s Day   Mother’s Day   Father’s Day  
     4)在称呼或表示官衔,职位的名词前不加冠词; He is captain of the team. 
     5)在三餐、四季,球类运动、学科、娱乐运动的名称前,不加冠词 如:have 
breakfast /supper / lunch,play basketball / football / volleyball / chess , in 
spring/summer/ autumn/ winter 
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     6)当  by 与火车等交通工具连用,表示一种方式时,中间无冠词;by bus/ train/ 
taxi/ bus/ ship   
     7)Day and night  face to face  side by side  step by step   watch TV  at 
school / work / home  at first/ last  in danger  in trouble  on foot  on duty  
on watch  in bed  on time   in time  go to school   go to work  by taxi / bike  
at noon  at night  on TV  at town 
     部分词组有无冠词的区别
     in hospital 生病住院 in the hospital 在医院里
     in front of 在---的前面   in the front of 在----内部的前面
     go to school 上学  go to the school 到学校去
     a number of = a lot of 许多,谓语动词用复数。
     The number of ----的数目,----的总数, 谓语动词用单数(第三人称单数)
     名词:专有名词和普通名词(个体名词、集体名词、物质名词、抽象名词)
     可数名词的单数变复数①一般情况加               s  ②以   s, x sh ch,等结尾的词加-es  bus-
buses  watch-watches  ③以  o 结尾的名词,无生命的加           s,如: photo---photos 
piano---pianos 有生命的    es,如:potato--potatoes tomato--tomatoes  均可,如:
zero---zeros / zeroes ④以   f 或 fe 结尾的名词,去       f, fe 加 ves,如:half---
halves knife---knives leaf---leaves wolf---wolves wife---wives life---lives 
thief---thieves (加  s,如:belief---beliefs roof---roofs safe---safes  gulf-
--gulfs;)⑤以辅音字母+y        结尾的词,变      y 为 i,再加    es  baby---babies   ⑥不规则:
a. 单复数形式一样。Sheep, deer, Chinese, Japanese. People, police, scissors, 
trousers  b. 其他的。foot—feet  tooth---teeth  child—children mouse---mice 
man---men woman---women  businessman ---businessmen 
     German---Germans    women doctors 
     集体名词: People, police,(一般表示一个整体,谓用复数) class, family, 
glasses 
     不可数名词:
     常见的不可数名词有:information, news, room (空间), work, work, weather, 
advice, bread , food, milk, tea, ice, glasses, meat  
     ①    A little, a bit of, some, much, a lot of, quite a lot of 常修饰不可
数名词.
     ②    不可数名词作主语,谓语动词用单数。
     ③    如果用    and 连接两个不可数名词作主语时,谓语动词用复数。Time and money 
are-
     ④    A  cup\  glass  \bottle  \box  \ kilo  \  group  \ crowd  \ class \  
pair  of 
     Two and a half kilos of = two kilos and a half of 
     名词所有格  在英语中有些名词可以加"'s"来表示所有关系,带这种词尾的名词形式
称为该名词的所有格,如:a teacher's book。名词所有格的规则如下: 
        1) 单数名词词尾加"'s",复数名词词尾没有                s,也要加"  's  ",如      the boy's 
bag,men's room  Children’s Day  Mother’s Day  Father’s Day 
        2) 若名词已有复数词尾-s ,只加"  '  ",如:Teachers’ Day  ladies’ 
room  twenty minutes’ walk 
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     3) 凡不能加"'s"的名词,都可以用"名词+of +名词"的结构来表示所有关系,如:
the title of the song 歌的名字; A picture of family; a map of China 
        4) 在表示店铺或教堂的名字或某人的家时,名词所有格的后面常常不出现它所
修饰的名词,如:the barber's 理发店。 
        5) 如果两个名词并列,并且分别有's,则表示"分别有";只有一个's,则表示
'共有'。 John's and Mary's room(两间)  John and Mary's room(一间) 
        6) 复合名词或短语,'s 加在最后一个词的词尾。 如:a month or two's 
absence
     7)双重所有格  a friend of mine / hers / his / theirs   a friend of 
Mary’s mother’s 
     代词
     1、人称代词、物主代词和反身代词
     I—me—my—mine—myself   you —you—your—yourself (yourselves)    
     he—him—his—his—himself  she—her—her—hers—herself  
     it—it—its—its—itself   we—us—our—ours—ourselves  
     they—them—their—theirs—themselves  
     人称顺序    you, he, she, I ;  we, you, they 
     主格作主语;宾格作宾语,动词和介词之后通常作宾格;形容词性物主代词不能单独
使用,通常放在名词之前;名词性物主代词=形容词性物主代词+名词,“of+名词性物
主代词”表示所属关系。A friend of mine           我的一位朋友; teacher of hers 她的老师
     代词  it 的用法:
     ①指代前面提到过的事物。     ②表天气。            ③表距离。
     ④指婴儿和不明身份的人。 ---John, someone in your class phoned you this 
morning. ---Oh, who was it? 
     ⑤用作形式主语。
     It’s kind / good / nice /clever /polite / foolish of sb. to do sth. 
     It’s important / necessary / possible / easy / difficult for sb to do sth, 

     It’s time to get up. 
     It’s time for lunch. 
     It’s one’s turn to do 
     It seems that  
     It takes sb. some time to do sth. 
     ⑥用作形式宾语。Find / think / feel + it +adj +to do sth
     It one 的区别
     It 特指上文提到的同一对象,同一事物。
     one 同类而不同一。
     that 常用于比较结构中,代替前面提到的名词,以避免重复。
        反身代词  
        构成规则:一、二物主,三为宾。
        运用:hurt/ teach/ wash / buy/ enjoy oneself 
              by / Help oneself (one selves) to --- / Look after oneself  / Say 
to oneself  / Come to oneself
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        2、不定代词 little, a little, few, a few=several(some), some, any much, 
too much, much too, more then =over, less than= nearly  
     something 某事,某物,用于肯定句。                    注意:⑴由复合不定代词作主
     anything 任何事物,某事物,用于否                 语时,谓语动词用第三人称单数。
定句、疑问句。                                    Everyone is here. 
     everything 每件事,一切事物,用于                    ⑵修饰不定代词的形容词后置。
各种句型。                                      I have something important to 
     nothing 没什么,没有任何东西。=not tell you. 
----any thing                                  ⑶在反意疑问句中,表示人的
     somebody 某人,有人=someone                复合代词在陈述句中作主语时,附
     anybody 任何人(用于否定句、疑问句,加问句中的主语用                          he 或  they,表
条件从句中)                                     物的用    it 。
     nobody 没有人
     little, 几乎没有,表示否定意思,用以修饰不可数名词。
     A little  ①一点点,表示肯定,用以修饰不可数名词。Only a little 仅一点点.
②也可修饰形容词和副词。③一点点,放在动词、动词宾语后。
     few 几乎没有,表示否定意思,用以修饰可数名词。
     a few=several 几个, 一些,表示肯定意思,用以修饰可数名词。
     some  一些,修饰可数名词,后跟复数形式名词或                  ones, 也可修饰不可数名词。在表
示请求、委婉语气的疑问句和表示希望得到对方的肯定回答的问句中,常用                                some. Could 
you give me some apples? 
     any 一些,任何一些。 一般用于疑问句中或否定句中和                     IF 引导的条件句中。 
     much 许多。修饰不可数名词,放在不可数名词前,可用                     a lot of 替换。
     too much 太多的,用法相当于        much ,放在不可数名词前。Heath is very 
important to us. We should eat more vegetables and fruit instead of too much 
rich food. 
     much too 太,用法相当于      too, 放在形容词和副词前。Keep quiet! It’s much too 
noisy here. 
     more than 超过,多于。=over 
     more or less 或多或少,差不多。=about 
     at least 至少
     a lot 许多,修饰动词。Thanks a lot. 
     a lot of = lots of 许多的,可修饰可数名词和不可数名词。
     a number of 许多的,= many 只用于修饰复数形式名词,放在可数名词复数前。
     every 用于三个或三个以上,着眼于整体。后可跟数词。词组有                        every ten minuets 
     each 用于两个或两个以上,着眼于个体。词组有                  each of 
     either  两个中任何一个  
     either ----or  
     both  两个都   
     both ---- and ---     
     both of --- 
     neither 两个中一个也没有   e.g.  ---Do you like talking with your friends 
on the telephone or mobile phone? ---Neither, I enjoy using QQ. 
     neither --- nor --- 
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     any 三个以上中任何一个
     all 三个以上中全部
     none 三个以上中一个也没有。 None of ---中没有一个,表示三个或以上数目的人
或物中没有一个,表否定,作主语时,谓语动词一般用单数。
     others  表示“泛指”除自己外,别的人。Some ----, others -----
     the other 表示两个中的另一个。One ----, the other ----
     the others 表示特指的另一些。 
     another 后跟单数名词。表示泛指另一个人。后跟带数词的复数名词,表示“再,还
要”的意思。
     other 别的,另外的,一般后跟复数名词或               ones , 在 other 前可加   some, many 或
数词,表示“几个,一些别的”
     Such a tall building    such an exciting football match  
     so many people 
     each other 相互,彼此,指两个或两个物时 。one another 相互,彼此,指三者或
三者以上的彼此。one another’s 相互的,彼此的。
     数词  
        表示数目多少或顺序多少的词叫数词,数词分为基数词和序数词。表示数目多少
的数词叫基数词;表示顺序的数词叫序数词。 
     一、基数词和序数词
      1)基数词写法和读法: ①百位与十位,用 and,  十位与个位,写时用“—”②先
确定分节号,从右至左,每隔三位数是一个分节号。③第一个分节号是千位 thousand  
4 第二个分节号是千位 million  ⑤第三个分号节是十亿位 billion.      1, 234 ,567, 
892 one billion two hundred and thirty-four million five hundred and sixty-
seven thousand eight hundred and ninety-two  
     2)分数表示法 构成:分子基,分母序,分子大于                    1 时,分母在序数词后加         S:  1/2 
a half   1/3 one-third; 2/3  two thirds  3/4 three quarters = three fourths 
 2- 3/4 two and three fourths 
     3)表示"年代",用 in +the +数词复数; in the 1980s (20            世纪  80 年代)
     4)表某人几岁时:  in +物主代词+数词的复数形式 in one’s twenties 
     5)He lives in Rom 88.  One plus two is three. Three times five is fifteen.
     6)hundred , thousand , million 等词前有具体的数字时,不能加             S  如 three 
hundreds 这种说法是错误的
     7)hundreds of   thousands of   millions of 
     8)a 21-year-old girl   three days and a half = three and a half days  one 
and a half hours = one hour and a half    we’ll have two weeks’ holiday (two-
week holiday)  
     9)(基数词变序数词的口诀)
     一、二、 三特别记,th         从四以上记;怎么加很容易,八减             t,九减   e;  f 来把  ve 替,
见  y 变 ie; 若是遇到几十几,变换个位就可以。
     One-first  two-second  three- third  five- fifth  eight-eighth  nine- 
ninth twelve – twelfth  thirteen- thirteenth  fifteen- fifteenth   eighteen- 
eighteenth  twenty- twentieth twenty-one---twenty-first  thirty-thirtieth  
forty-fortieth  fifty –fiftieth  sixty- sixtieth  seventy- seventieth  eighty-
eightieth  ninety-ninetieth  
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     序数词的缩写形式: first---1st second---2nd thirty-first---31st  
      形容和副词
     ①修饰   something, anything, everything, anybody 等不定代词的形容词,形容词
要放在不定代词之后。I have Something important to tell you. 
     ②enough 修饰形容词、副词时,enough          要放在形容词和副词之后。Far enough 
     ③interesting, exciting, boring, amazing, surprising, moving 主语为物。
Interested, excited, amazed, surprised, frightened, tired, pleased 主语为人。
     ④Much, far, a lot, a little, even 等后要用形容词或副词的比较级。  I fell 
even worse now. 
     5.连系动词    be, 感官动词(look, smell, taste, sound, feel )三个变(get, become, 
turn,) keep 后跟形容词.
     ⑥既可作形容词又可作副词的词有: 
     hard 作形容词=difficult , 作副词,放在         work, rain 等后,表努力地做。   
     well 作形容词身体好; 作副词,做得好。 
     long 作形容词,表事物的长度,作副词,放在                last, talk 等后,表动作持续。 
     Fast 作作形容,放在系动词后,作副词放在                rain, make sth.等词后,表“做得快”
。 
     High 作形容词“山,海浪的高。作副词, 放在               fly, jump 等后表飞得高,跳得高。
     ⑦五、形容词变为副词 ①+ly    useful, wide, strong ②改            y 为 i,再加  ly  
healthy , heavy, happy, lucky, noisy, ③good ——well  terrible---terribly   
probable---probably
     ⑧多数以    ly 结尾的词是副词。 但         friendly, lonely, lovely, likely, daily, 
lively 是形容词。
     ⑨China is larger than any other county in Asia. (同一范围内)  China is 
larger than any county in Afirca. (不同范围内)
     ⑩how many 对可数名词数量的提问。How many people are there in your family? 
     How much 对不可数名词数量的提问和提问价格。
     How long 多久,多长时间。回答常用:for + 段时间  since +点时间。
     How soon 多快,多久以后。回答常用:in +段时间
     How often 多长时间一次,提问频率。回答常用:once (twice) a week, three 
times a day, often 
     How far 多远,对距离提问。回答常用:fifteen minutes’ walk , 10 meters 
away 
     形容词和副词的比较级和最高级:
     原级: as +原级 + as ;  not as / so +原级 + as =反义词+than   English is as 
interesting as Chinese.  Mr. Zhang isn’t as old as Mr. Li. = Mr. Zhang is 
younger than Mr. Li. 
     比较级的标志词 ①than,  Lily’s bag is bigger than hers. 
                    ②much, far, a little, even , next time 
                    ③which / who ---- A, B ?  Which is more beautiful, Tom, 
Jim?
     ④the +比较级----,the+比较级----  The more we get together, the happier 
we’ll be. 
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     ⑤比较级+and+比较级 (多音节词和部分双音节词用                   more and more +原级)  越来
越----  harder and harder , our hometown is becoming more and more beautiful. 
     最高级标志词:①the + 最高级 + of  / in    Shanghai is the biggest city in 
China. 
                   ②One of the + 最高级 + 名词复数   Zhou Jiekun is one of the 
most popular singers. 
                   ③Which / who ----+ 最高级, A, B or C?   Who city is the 
most beautiful, Beijing, Shanghai or Kunming? 
                   ④序数词+最高级,表“第几最----” Chang jiang is the first 
longest river in China.  the second largest population   
     形容词和副词比较级和最高级的构成规则 (略)
     不规则: good / well --- better--- best     bad / badly/ ill ---worse--
worst    many / much -- more ----most   little ---less---least    far --- 
farther(较远)--- farthest       far---further(进一步) ----furthest  
     tired ---more tired ---the most tired (right, tired, glad. pleased. real )
     动词的时态 
     时态         结构           标志词                   被动语态               难点与
名称                                                               要点
     一般         ?am \is      sometimes,            am / is /          注意第
现在时        \ are        often, usually,        are +done         三人称单数
                ?there  always,                                  情况
           be 结构             every day, once 
                ?行为动    a week 
           词
     现在         am/ is       now, look,            am/ is/ are        动词
进行时        / are +Ving listen, right now,      +being +done      ING 形式的
                        at the moment,                           构成
                             it's +几点
     一般         ?was/        yesterday,            was / were         注意动
过去时        were +表语     last, ago  一家; just +done                词的过去式
           结构           now, in the old                          的构成
                ?Ved    days, a moment ago, 
                             long ago, ih 
                        the 1990s
     一般         ?will/       tomorrow, next        will / shall       注意动
将来时        shall +V  原  year, this year, at + be +done           词过去分词
           形            the end of this            be going to   的构成 (与
                ?be     term, from now on,     +be +done         过去式的区
           going to          in the future,                      别)
           +V 原形             in a few days'                           P255
                        time 
     过去         was /        at +具体时间,             was / were         与一般
进行时        were +Ving   at this time.,         +being +done      过去时的区
                        when+一般过去时从句                             别
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     现在         have /       already, yet,                            注意瞬
完成时        has +done    just, never, ever,                       间动词在现
                             for, since,                         在完成时中
                             so far                              的运用
     过去         ?would       宾语从句中,从句              Would/              
将来时        / should     动作在主句动作之后              should +be +done 
           +V 原形        发生.                        be going to 
                ?was /                         +be +done
           were going 
           to +V 原形
     过去         had          by+过去某一时点;            Had +been +         
完成时        +done                               done
                             before + 过去某
                        一时间点; by the 
                        time +从句;  从句动
                        作在主句动作前发生
     情态                                            情态动词+be             
动词                                             +done
     注:  不规则动词过去式和过去分词详见初三课本的                          255 页。
     祈使句  祈使句用以表达命令,要求,请求,劝告等。 
     1) 祈使句否定在句首加         Don't:  Don't move.   Don't be late.  
     2) Let’s ------shall we ?   let us \ him ----- will you / won't you?
     感叹句 
     How+形容词或副词+主语+谓语+其它    How lovely the baby is!
     What a / an + 形容词+可数名词单数+主语+谓语+其它   What a clever boy he is!
     What + 形容词+可数名词复数+主语+谓语+其它   What wonderful ideas (we have)!
     What + 形容词+不可数名词+主语+谓语+其它    What cold weather it is!
     反意疑问句
     1)  陈述部分用 no, nothing, nobody, never, few, seldom, hardly, rarely, 
little, too---to 等否定含义的词时,疑问部分用肯定含义。Some plants never blown 
(开花), do they ? 
     2) 陈述部分有      have to +v. (had to + v.),疑问部分常用      don't +主语(didn't 
+主语)。 
     We have to get there at eight tomorrow, don't we? 
     3) 陈述部分的谓语是         used to 时,疑问部分用      didn't +主语或 usedn't +主语。 
     He used to take pictures there, didn't he? / usedn't he? 
     4) 陈述部分有      had better + v. 疑问句部分用     hadn't you? 
     You'd better read it by yourself, hadn't you? 
     5) 陈述部分由      neither… nor, either… or 连接的并列主语时,疑问部分根据其
实际逻辑意义而定。  Neither you nor I am engineer, are we? 
     6) 陈述部分主语是指示代词或不定代词                everything, that, nothing, this, 疑问
部分主语用     it。 
     Everything is ready, isn't it? 
     7)  陈述部分为主语从句或并列复合句,疑问部分有三种情况:  
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     a. 并列复合句疑问部分,谓语动词根据邻近从句的谓语而定。 
     Mr. Smith had been to Beijing for several times, he should have been in 
China now, shouldn't he? 
     b. 带有定语从句,宾语从句的主从复合句,疑问部分谓语根据主句的谓语而定: 
     He is not the man who gave us a talk, is he?   He said he wanted to visit 
Japan, didn't he? 
     c. 上述部分主句谓语是         think, believe, expect, suppose, imagine 等引导的定语
从句,疑问部分与宾语从句相对应构成反意疑问句。 
     I don't think he is bright, is he?   We believe she can do it better, 
can't she? 
     8) 陈述部分主语是不定代词          everybody, anyone, somebody, nobody, no one 等,
疑问部分常用复数        they,有时也用单数       he。 
     Everyone knows the answer, don't they? (does he?)   
     Nobody knows about it, do they? (does he?) 
     9) 省去主语的祈使句的反意疑问句,疑问部分用                    will you。 
     Don't do that again, will you?   Go with me, will you / won't you ? 
     注意: Let's 开头的祈使句,后用           shall we?     Let's go and listen to the 
music, shall we?
     Let us 开头的祈使句,后用        will you?  Let us wait for you in the reading-
room, will you ?
     10) 陈述部分是"there be"结构的,疑问部分用              there 省略主语代词。 
     There is something wrong with your watch, isn't there? There will not be 
any trouble, will there? 
     11) 否定前缀不能视为否定词,其反意疑问句仍用否定形式。 
     It is impossible, isn't it?        He is not unkind to his classmates, is 
he?  
     并列句  
     and  和,并且, work hard, and you can pass the exam. 
     but 但是    he is rich but he is not happy. 
     Or 否则,要不然,或者(在否定句中表和) Hurry up, or you’ll be late. 
     so 因此,所以 Kate was ill so she didn’t go to school. 
     For 因为  I have to stay up late, for I have a lot of work to do. 
     状语从句
     当状语从句的引导词为          If, when, before, after, until, as soon as 等,主句和
从句有下列情况:
     主句                   从句          
     ①一般将来时               一般现        I will go to the park if it doesn’t 
(主将从现)               在时          rain tomorrow.  
     ②祈使句                 一般现         
                     在时
     ③含有情态动词              一般现         
的句子                  在时
     ④一般过去时               一般过         
                     去时
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     英语句子中如果一看到   Thought----but----; because----so---这种结构,就是错
误.
     倒装句     
     so+助动词\BE   动词\情态动词+另一主语,表示后者与前者一致。
     so+上句主语+助动词\BE       动词\情态动词,真的,确实如此。
     Tom watched TV last night, so did Ann. 
     Tom didn’t watch TV last night. Neither did Ann. 
     ---You’ve left the light on. ---So I have. I’ll go and turn it off. 
     宾语从句   
     ?从句用陈述句语序。
     ?主句与从句的关系。 
     A.主现从不限;
     B.主过从过;
     C.真金不怕火炼。The earth moves around the sun. 
      ③常见的宾语从句。
     She says that ---- 
     I hope / think / feel / wonder---- I wonder if he will join us in the 
discussion tonight. 
     Could you tell / show me---    Could you please tell me where the 
teacher’s office is? 
     Do you know----   Do you know where Mr. Li lives? 
     Please tell me --- 
     She asked me ---
     I don’t know ----  I don’t know whether Tom will go or not.
     定语从句
     that 和 which 在指物的情况下一般都可以互换, 但在下列情况下, 一般用                      that 而不
用  which。
     (1) 先行词为    all, everything, nothing, something, anything, little, much 等
不定代词时。
     I am sure she has something (that) you can borrow.
     (2)先行词被    all, every, no, some, any, little, much 等修饰时。I’ve read 
all the books that are not mine.
     (3)先行词被序数词或最高级修饰时。This is the first book (that) he has read.
     (4)先行词被    the only, the very, the same, the last 修饰时。
     This is the very book that belongs to him.
     一般用   that 而不用   who
     (1)  先行词是    who 或 who 引导的主句。      
     Who is the girl (that) drove the car?        Who (that) broke the window 
will be punished.
     (2)  主句以   There be 引导时 。  There are 200 people (that) didn’t 
     that 和 which 在指物的情况下一般都可以互换, 但在下列情况下, 一般用                      which 而不
用  that。
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     (1)关系代词在限制性定语从句中紧跟介词作宾语(介词提前)。
                              Those are many trees under (which) they can have 
a rest.
     (2)  在非限制性定语从句中。      Football , (which) is a very popular game, 
is played all over the world.
     后跟  ing 的词有
     Finish doing   Before 2008 Beijing we will finish building the Olympic 
Park. 
     enjoy doing 喜欢做某事  I enjoy reading English loudly. 
     mind doing  介意(反对)做某事  would you mind opening the window? 
     practice doing sth. 练习做某事 we should practice speaking English as 
often as possible. 
     be busy doing sth. 忙于做某事 
     be worth doing sth. 值得做某事
     feel like doing sth =want to do sth. 想要做某事
     spend --- (in) doing sth 花费时间做某事
     stop / prevent / keep ----from doing  阻止某人做某事
     have trouble \problem / a hard time doing sth. 做某事很困难
     Have fun doing sth. =have a good time doing sth. 做某事很快乐
     go on doing sth 接着做原来做着的事
     go shopping / swimming/ skating /surfing---
     do some running / washing/ cooking ---
     介词(for, with, without, about ---)
     后跟动词原形:
     why don't you 
     why not 
     you'd better (not) 
     would you please (not) 
     make\ let \ have\ [注意: 在被动语态中, t o 要加上] 
     后跟  ing 和 TO 的区别
     developing country 发展中国家        developed country 发达国家
     stop to do sth.停下手中的事而去做另外的事(事情有两件)  
     Stop doing sth. 停止正在做的事情(事情只有一件)
     Remember to do sth.记住要去做某事(事情没有做)  
     Remember doing sth. 记得曾经做过某事(事情已经做)
     Forget to do sth.  忘记去做某事(事情没做)
     Forget doing sth.  忘记曾经做过的事情 (事情已经做)
     Try to do sth. 努力去做某事
     Try doing sth. 试着去做某事
     Go on to do sth.  做完一件事,接着改做另外一件事
     Go on doing sth. 继续不停地做某事
     See / hear sb doing / do   
     情态动词
     Can ①能,可能,表示能力,猜测。过过式                could 
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     ②可能,也许。主要用在疑问句、否定句中,表示怀疑、估计,不用肯定句中。
     ③对  could 的委婉语气回答一般不直接用             yes 和 no,要用 certainly, of course. 
Ok. Sure. 
     ④ would you please not do---- ?
     ⑤would you like to play football with me tonight? Yes, I’d love to. 
Sorry, I am busy. Yes, I’d love to. But ----
     ⑥would you like some bananas?  Yes, please. No. thanks. 
     ⑦在表示请求、委婉语气的疑问句和表示希望得到对方的肯定回答的问句中,常用
some. Could you give me some apples?
     May
     ①可以,表许可。may I ----? 回答:Yes, you may. Yes, of course.  No, you 
may not.  No, you’d better not. 
     ②也许,可能。表猜测,但把握性不是很大。 
     ③maybe= perhaps 是副词,放在句首或句末。May  be           和  Maybe 不同。
     Must 
     ①Must I ----? 否定回答用     No, you needn’t. No, you don’t have to. 
     ②必须。应该。mustn’t 禁止,绝对不能。
     ③must 表主观。Have to 表客观。  Don’t have to = needn’t 
     ④must 一定。用于表推测。表示有很大的把握时用,只用于肯定句、不用疑问句。 
否定句中    can’t 有不可能之意。
     Need   
     ①don’t have to do sth. = needn’t do sth. 
     ②肯定回答     Yes, ----must.   否定回答    No, ---needn’t. 
     不定式
     不定式常跟在以下及物动词后面作宾语:want, like, wish, hope, try, ask, start, 
begin, forget, remember, learn, choose, agree, tell, decide, need 
     E.g.  Want to do sth.   Ask sb. (not )to do sth.  Tell sb. to do sth.  
Decide to do sth.  Would like to do sth.  Set out to do sth.   Warn sb to do 
sth.   Help sb. (to) do sth. 
     动词不定式还可用在某些表示感情的形容词之后:glad, happy, pleased, sorry, 
sad, afraid 
     不定式作宾语的有:something to drink \ eat; have sth to do ; the way to do 
sth. 
     不定式作宾语: 特殊疑问词(what, where )----+不定式     where to go 
      
     主谓一致
     1.邻近和靠近原则  由         there be, either … or, neither…nor, not only…but 
(also)连接两个并列的主语,谓语动词遵守就近原则。  
     2. Either of , neither of, each of 作主语,谓语动词用单数。
     3. Each, every, many a, no 修饰并列单句时,谓语动词用单数。
     4.在百分数、分数等后,如跟可数名词,谓语动词用复数。如跟不可数名词,谓语
动词用单数。 
     5.表示时间、重量、长度、价值等名词作为主语,谓语动词用单数。
     6.动词不定式或动名词作主语,谓语动词用单数。
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    7.算术题中主语是数词,谓语动词用单数。
    8. The number of +名词复数, 谓语动词用单数。A number of +名词复数, 谓语动
词用复数。
    9.One and a half +名词复数, 谓语动词用单数。
    单词的词性变化
    单词的词性变化
    动词变为名词 
    ①+e     clea    sel     playe    surfer           sin    owne
                                                                      
r(r)    ner,    ler     r                         ger    r
            jump    spe     trave    teacher          wor    pain
                                                                      
        er      aker    ler                       ker    ter,
            farm    div     drive    writer           waiter 
                                                                      
        er      er      r,                        (waitress)
            Runn    win     robbe                      
                                                                      
        er      ner     r
    ②+o     Visi    inventor         inspector(       Actor 
                                                                      
r       tor     conductor        检查员)             (actress )
    ③+i     cross——           wash——washing           meet——
                                                                      
ng      crossing                                  meeting
            park——            pack——packing(包         surf——
                                                                      
        parking           装)                      surfing
            mean——            hiking                  breathing
                                                                      
        meaning
            Beginning         Shopping                                
    ④describe---         invent ---     discuss--      disappear ---
description          invention      discussion     disappearance
    enter---entrance     know---        live---life    die---death
                     knowledge
    please---pleasure    sit ---        fly ---        rob ---
                     seat           flight         robbery
    develop ---          decide——                       
development          decision 

    二、动词变为形容词 
    Close ---closed           excited ——excited          frustrate —
                                                     —frustrated (挫
                                                     败的)
    interest——interested      surprise ——surprised       die——dead
    frighten ——               fry ——fried                worry ——
frightened                                           worried
    break ——broken            enjoy ——enjoyable          lose ——
                                                     lost
    amaze ——amazing           miss ——missing             follow ——
                                                     following (下列
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                                                     的)
    excite——exciting          interest——interesting      move ——
                                                     moving
    sleep ——asleep            wake——awake                 
    wonder——wonderful         thank——thankful            forget ——
                                                     forgetful
    三、名词变为形容词 
    care——careful        color——colorful      help——helpful
    Pain ——painful       use——useful          success——successful
    heath——healthy       luck——lucky          noise——noisy
    cloud——cloudy        rain ——rainy         mist——misty
    shower——showery      snow——snowy          wind——windy
    fog——foggy           sun ——sunny           
    south——southern      north——northern       
    wool——woolen         confidence ——        danger——dangerous
                     confident
    person ——            post ——postal        friend——friendly
personal
    America ——           Australia ——         Canada ——Canadian
American             Australian
    Italy ——Italian      china ——Chinese      Japan —— Japanese
    Britain ——           England ——           France ——French
British              English
    Germany ——                                 
German
    四、形容词变为名词 
    good——goodness          busy——business       different ——
                                             difference
    foreign ——              difficult ——         safe ——safety
foreigner               difficulty
    true——truth             dry ——drought        confident ——
    proud ----Pride         important ---    confidence (信心)
                        improtance                
    五、形容词变为副词 
    ①+ly    useful, wide, strong                    
    ②改  y 为,再加   ly        healthy , heavy, happy, lucky, noisy, 
    good ——well  terrible---terribly   probable---probably 

    六.形容词和副词同形。 
    early    enough    fast    far    first    hard    high    late    much    right    straight     
    七、否定的 
    unlucky       unknown      unlike    unhappy    unusual    unfriendly     
    discover      disappear                                                   
    impossible                                                                
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     careless       homeless                                                           
     八、其它。
     cross——across pass——past   science ——scientist   library——
librarian   friend ——friendship 
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