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初中英语人教版八年级下册

        Unit8
     语法专项课件
    (现在完成时1)
     现在完成时结构

             肯定句:主语 + have/ has + 过去分词+...

                  I have finished my homework. 

          否定句:主语+haven’t ( have  not) +过去分词…       
结构
                  主语+hasn’t ( has  not )  +过去分词...
                  I haven’t finished my homework. 

              疑问句:Have / Has+主语+过去分词...?

                  Have you finished your homework? 
现在完成时三大用法                用法1

   1) 表示到现在为止已经完成或刚刚完成的
   动作。

    By now, I have collected all the data I need.

    Now we have planted all the trees.
现在完成时三大用法                用法2

    2) 表示过去发生的动作,强调结果或对现在
    的影响。

     Someone has broken the window. (窗户现在是坏的)
     I have just cleaned my hands.  (手是干净的)
现在完成时三大用法                用法3

    3) 表示从过去开始并持续到现在的动作或
    状态。        

     She  has  learned  English  for  5 years. 
     He  has  lived  in Beijing  since  he  was  born .
过去式、过去分词               规则变化

 (1)一般动词,在词尾直接加“ ed ”。
      work---worked---worked    
 (2)以“ e ”结尾的动词,只在词尾加“ d ”。 
   live---lived---lived 
 (3)以“辅音字母   + y ”结尾的动词,将“y”      变为  “i”
 ,再加“ ed ”。
     study---studied---studied            
 (4)重读闭音节结尾,末尾只有一个辅音字母,先                 
 双写该辅音字母,再加“ ed ”。     
      drop---dropped--dropped 
 过去式、过去分词               不规则变化

A.过去分词与过去式形式一样

have—had—had                   spend —spent—spent 

make—made—made            say—said—said                

find—found—found             hear—heard—heard 

meet—met—met                   leave—left—left
过去式、过去分词               不规则变化

B.过去分词与过去式形式不一样

take—took—taken 

speak —spoke—spoken 

sing—sang—sung 

drive—drove—driven                

be—was/were—been    

go—went—gone 
过去式、过去分词               不规则变化

C.过去分词、过去式与动词原形一样

cut—cut—cut

put —put—put 

let—let—let

read—read—read               
  易错点       现在完成时VS一般过去时

 started learning English   learning
             3 years

 2012    have learned English 2015

I started learning English in 2012. (一般过去时)

I am learning English these days. (现在进行时)

I have learned English for 3 years. (现在完成时)
        易错点       现在完成时/一般过去时用法不同

           现在完成时                       一般过去时

用法1:表示到现在为止已经完成的                用法1:表示过去某时发生的动
动作。                             作。

用法2:表示动作发生在过去,对现                用法2:表示过去存在的某种状
在造成影响。                          态。

用法3:表示动作开始于过去,一直                用法3:表示过去经常性发生的
持续到现在,并有可能继续持续下                 动作或状态。
去。
 易错点      现在完成时/一般过去时用法不同


I saw this film yesterday. (一般过去时:强调动作)
I have seen this film. (现在完成时:强调影响)

    已经知道内容
         易错点         现在完成时/一般过去时结构不同

         现在完成时                           一般过去时

肯定句:                            肯定句:主语 + 过去式 +...
主语 + have/ has + 过去分词 +...                      主语 + was/were + 表语.

否定句:                            否定句:
主语+haven’t ( have  not) +过去分词   主语 + did not (didn’t) + 动词原形 + …
+...                            …was/were not (wasn’t/weren’t) + 表
主语+hasn’t ( has  not )  +过去分词+... 语.
疑问句:Have / Has+主语+过去分词...?      疑问句:Did + 主语 + 动词原形 + …?
                                                Was/Were + 主语 + 表语?
 易错点       现在完成时/一般过去时结构不同


现在完成时经典例句:
I have been to Australia before.
I haven’t been to Australia before.
Have you been to Australia before?
 易错点       现在完成时/一般过去时结构不同

一般过去时经典例句:
My father flew to Australia yesterday.
My father didn’t fly to Australia yesterday.
Did you father fly to Australia yesterday?
    易错点        现在完成时/一般过去时标志词不同

     现在完成时                         一般过去时

副词作标志词:just, already,    过去时间点:just now, at that time, 
yet                      yesterday, this morning, three years ago

since + 时间点/(时间段+ago)/   过去时间段:in the past, in + 过去的年份, 
一般过去时句子                  last week, once upon a time等
for + 时间段

表示次数的时间状语:once,          特殊结构:
twice, three times, ever, never used to + 动词原形 (过去常常)
 易错点      现在完成时/一般过去时标志词不同


He has been in New York for many years.
                              (现在完成时)
Have you ever been to Beijing?

She returned yesterday. 
                              (一般过去时)
There was a temple in the past.
【典例1】He _______ in this factory for 20 years 
already.
            A. will work   B. works 
            C. has worked  D. is working

  考查时态。already为现在完成时标志词,且 for + 时间
  段表明对现在的“影响”,故选用现在完成时结构
  have/has done。
【典例2】—Is Richard still living here?
            —No, he ______ to Paris already.
            A. had moved B. moved 
            C. will move D. has moved 


 考查时态。No说明Richard不在此处,且already为完
 成时标志词,选用现在完成时结构have/has done。
【典例3】Julie’s father ______ to London last month. He 
            ______ there three times.
            A. went, had gone       B. has gone, has been
            C. went, has been        D. has been, had gone


  考查时态。last     month为一般过去时标志词,选用
  went;three times表明去伦敦的“结果”“影响”,选用
  现在完成时。
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