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新人教版英语初二八年级上册知识点

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                          八年级上册知识点清理

Unit 1 Where did you go on vacation?

1,一般过去时
    基本结构:主语+动词过去式+其他;
    否定形式:①was / were + not; ②在行为动词前加          didn't,同时还原动词;
   一般疑问句:①Was/Were+主语+其他?②Did+主语+动词原形+其他?
2,动词过去式规则变化           :直接加     ed;以不发音      e 结尾的单词     ,直接加     d;以辅音字
   母+y  结尾的,变      y 为 i 加 ed;以元音字母       +y 结尾的,直接加        ed;以重读闭音节
   结尾的,双写最后的辅音字母               +ed
   不规则变化的动词过去式            (见书本最后一页)
3,go on vacation 去度假     be on vacation 在度假
4,anyone  任何人,只用于指人,一般用在否定句、疑问句中,后面不接                          of 短语。做主语
时位于动词用单数。Eg:Is there anyone at home?
   any one 任何一个,指人或物,后面接           of 短语。Eg:You can take any one of these books.
5,adj 修饰不定代词后置         anything special      something important
   enough 作 adv,修饰   adj/ adv 后置   old enough     fast enough
   else 作 adj,修饰疑问代词和不定代词后置               what else    who else   something else
6,quite a few/ little 相当多
7,How/ what about+V-ing/ n/ 代词   …怎么样?(表建议、询问)
8,most students= most of the students
   “one of +the most +adj +n 复数”表示“最…之一”
    Eg:He is one of the most famous writers in China.
    A most +adj +n 非常   Eg:Hangzhou is a most beautiful city.
9,buy/ get sb sth= buy/ get sth for sb
10,what do you think of/ about…?= how do you like…?你认为…怎么样?
11,have fun,enjoy oneself,have a good/ great/ wonderful time+V-ing,
12,主语+ seem+(to be)+表语(n/adj)        eg:Tom seems to be a smart boy/ happy.
    It seems that 从句   eg:It seems that he understand.
    主语+ seem to do sth    eg:He seems to understand.
13,adj  以-ing 结尾“令人…的”exciting,interesting,relaxing,boring
        以-ed 结尾“人感到…的”excited,interested,relaxed,bored

14,询问价格:How much is… ?        What’s the price of… ?
    表示价格高低:…be expensive/ cheap
                  The price of … is high/ low
15,get to, arrive in/at, reach,到达(如果后面接地点的副词       home,here 或 there ,就不用介
    词 in ,at, to)
16,decide(not)to do
    decide that 从句
    decide+疑问词+不定式
17,try(not)to do sth 尽力
    try doing sth 尝试
    try/ do one’s best to do sth
    try it on 试穿(动副结构)      try out 试验  have a try 试一试
18,feel like 感觉像      feel like doing sth/ want to do sth/ would like to do sth
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19,a lot of= lots of =plenty of
20,in the past 在过去
21,enjoy/ like doing
22,感叹句:How+adj+主谓!
           How+adj+a/an +n 单+主谓!
           What+ a/an +adj+ n 单+主谓!
           What+ adj+ n 复/ 不可数+主谓!
23,more than=over 超过      less than 少于   more or less 或多或少
24,wait for 等待
25,too many“太多”修饰可数名词复数
    too much“太多”修饰不可数名词
    much too“实在太”修饰形容词或副词
26,because+从句     because of +n/ V-ing /代词
27,enough 作  adj 修饰 n,   enough time    enough  money
                have enough…to do sth  eg:I have enough time to finish the work.
   enough 作 adv 修饰 adj/ adv     old enough     fast enough
                …enough for sb to do sth  eg:The job is easy enough for me to do.
   not…enough to do    The book isn’t easy enough for me to read.
   too…to…            The book is too difficult for me to read.
   so…that…           The book is so difficult that I can’t read.
28,the next day 第二天
29,remember/ forget+to do 要做
                  +doing 做过
30,Stop sb from doing sth 阻止
   Stop to do 停下来去做其他事
   Stop doing 停止正在做的事
31,another two hours=two more hours
32,at the top of 在…顶端,名列…之前          强调点
    on the top of 在…上面                强调面
33,find out 查明,弄清        find 找到(结果)         look for 寻找(过程)
34,go on with/ doing sth 继续原来的事
    go on to do sth 继续做别的事
35,so +adj +that +结果状语从句“如此……以致……”
    eg:I was so busy that I didn’t go to sleep for 3 days.
    so that 引导目的状语从句,以便,为了(in order to)
    eg:they got up early so that they could catch the early bus.
    so +adj +(a/ an+n 单数)that  It is so important a meeting that I can’t miss it.
    such+ a/ an+ adj + n 单数+that  It is such an important meeting that I can’t miss it.
    such+ adj+n 复数/不可数+that

Unit 2 How often do you exercise?

1,How 如何(方式)
   how long 多长(时间)答语常用“(For/ about +)时间段”
   how far 多远(距离)答语常用“(It’s +)数词 +miles/ meters/ kilometers”
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   how often 多久一次(频率)答语常用“Always/ often/ every day/…”或 “次数+时间”
等表频率的状语
   How soon 多快,多久以后,常用在将来时中。答语常用“in +时间段”
   how many 多少(接可数名词)           how much(接不可数名词)
2,exercise 作 v    锻炼,运动
          作[c]   操,练习       do morning/ eye exercises
          作[uc]  锻炼      take much/ more exercise
3,at+钟点    at 7 o’clock   at noon/ at night(during/ in the day) at this/ that time  at the age 
of
   on+ 具体某天、星期、特指的一天、纪念日、节日       
    on April 1st   on Sunday   on a cold winter morning    on Teachers’ Day
   in +上午、下午、晚上、年、月、季节、年代、世纪                          in the morning/ afternoon/ 
   evening   in 1999  in August  in autumn  in 1960s  in the 21st century
4,help sb (to)do sth
   help sb with sth
   with sb’s help= with the help of sb
5,do(the)housework= do chores
6,频度副词(行前        be 后)
   Always  usually   often   sometimes  seldom  hardly  never
7,sometimes 有时(频度副词)           sometime(将来)有朝一日,(曾经)某天 
    Some times 几次,几倍         some time 一段时间(前面用介词         for)
8,go shopping= do some shopping
9,once     twice    three times
10,at once,right now,right away, in a minute,in a moment,in no time 立刻,马上
    once more 再一次,重新         once upon a time 从前,曾经
11,every day 每天      everyday 日常的,每天的
12,on the internet
13,what’s your favorite program?=what program do you like best?
14,free 空闲的     in one’s free time    be free
        自由的     as free as a fish    freedom n.自由
        免费的     The best things in life are free.
15,be full =be busy 忙的     be busy doing sth/ be busy with sth
    be full of 充满      eg:The bottle is full of milk.
16,How come?怎么会?为什么? 
17,may   be 为情态动词+动词原形,在句子中做谓语,maybe                  是副词,表示可能,大概,
一般放在句首(perhaps)。
18,stay up doing sth 熬夜做某事
19,stay/ keep healthy      be in good/ bad/ poor health    be good/ bad for one’s health
20,at least=no less than      at most=no more than
21,ask sb about sth      ask sb(not)to do sth      ask sb for help/ advice/ information
22,the result of…的结果      as a result 结果
23,be surprised that/ be surprised at/ be surprised to do   对…很惊讶
    To one’s surprise 另某人惊讶的是         in surprise 惊讶地
24,the answer to the question,a key to the door,a ticket to the ball game
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25,although=though(与  but 不能连用)
    Even though/ if 即使,尽管      as though/ if 仿佛,好像
26,by 介词+n/ v-ing/ 代词     通过…方式
    by oneself 独自地   by the way 顺便问/说一下     by chance/ accident 偶然地  
    by mistake 错误地    learn by heart 记住
27,the best way/ time to do 做某事最好的方式/时间

28,4  个花费:人+spend/ spends/ spent+时间/钱+(in)doing sth/ on sth     spend time with 
sb
            人+pay/ pays/ paid +钱+for sth
            It takes/ took sb +时间+to do sth
            物+cost/ costs/ cost +sb +钱
29,die v.死亡,消失         died 过去式
    dead  adj 死亡的,无生命的        dead dog  have/ has been dead for…=died…ago
    dying    adj 垂死的,快死的
    death    n 死亡      the death of…
30,before it’s too late 趁来得及
31,“数字+percent of+ n”作主语,谓语动词取决于             n
   Eg:Twenty percent of the students exercise every day.
       Twenty percent of time passes.
32,no one =nobody 指人,回答    who,anyone,anybody  的提问
    None 指人或物,可接       of 短语,(→all     ≥3)回答     how many/ much,any,及有特定
范围(which)的提问

    nothing 指物,回答    what,anything 的提问

Unit 3 I’m more outgoing than my sister.

1,比较级,最高级变化规则
   一般在词尾+      er 或 est;以 e 结尾的加    r 或 st;重读闭音节双写辅音字母+            er 或 est;辅
音字母+y    结尾的,改     y 为 i+ er 或 est;多音节词和部分双音节词,加           more 或 most。
   不规则变化见书本        P114
2,比较级用法
   基本句型:主语+be+比较级+than+比较对象
   两者相比较用比较级           eg:Who do you think is more outgoing,Lily or Lucy?
   Very,more,quite,so,too  等修饰原级;much,a little,a lot,a bit,far    ,even 等修
    饰比较级   
    eg:I’m much/ a little / a lot / a bit /far more outgoing than my sister.
        I’m even worse now.
   不能与人或事物自身相比较
    eg:He is taller than any other student in his class.
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        China is larger than any country in Africa.
   比较对象要一致(that       代替不可数名词,those       代替可数名词复数,所有格,ones)
    eg:The weather in Harbin is much colder than that in Wuhan.
        The students of Class One study harder than those of Class Two.
        My bike is newer than Tom’s.
   比较级中出现      of the two/ twins 结构时,adj 比较级前要+the,不可用       than
    Eg:Tom is the taller of the two brothers.
   “get/ become+  比较级+and   +比较级”表示“变得越来越……”(多音节或部分双音
    节用“more and more+原级)
    Eg: It gets warmer and warmer when spring comes.
       You’re getting more and more beautiful.
   “the+比较级……,the+比较级……”表示“越……,就越……”
    Eg: The more you exercise, the stronger you will be.
   “As…as”中间接原级,表示“与…一样”,否定为“not as/ so…as”表示“不如”
    Eg: He is as tall as his father.
       He is not as/ so tall as his father.
   “比较级+than”(more/ less +原级+than)与“not as/ so…as”可以互换
    Eg: I’m taller than you.             Chinese is more important than Biology.
       You’re shorter than me.          Biology is less important than Chinese
       You’re not as/ so tall as me.       Biology is not as/ so important as Chinese
   比……大/多/长/宽几倍,用“主语+be+……times+比较级+than+比较对象”
    Eg: Our classroom is twice larger than yours.
   重几斤,高几公分,大几岁……,用“主语+be+数量词+比较级+than+比较对象”
    Eg: I’m six years older than you.
3,loudly 大声地,响亮地(多含噪音之意)
   aloud 大声地,出声地(强调出声)read aloud             call aloud for help
   loud 大声地,高声地,常与         speak,shout,laugh,talk 连用
       响亮的,大声的         loud voice
4,fast 强调速度快       run/ drive fast
   quickly 强调动作、行动快
   soon 强调时间间隔短
5,competition 体育,书法,朗读,音乐等比赛
   match 体育竞技比赛,球类比赛
   race 速度方面的竞赛,赛跑,赛龙舟等
6,win+比赛,奖项
   beat+人,团队
7,ago  以前,用于一般过去时,放在一段时间后
   before 在……以前,通常用于完成时,放在时间点或事件之前
8,the same as→be different from     be similar to =be like
9,be good at+ V-ing=do well in 擅长于
   be good for 对…有益    (be bad for 对…有害)
   be good to 对…友好    (good  可用  friendly,nice,kind 替换)
   be good with 和…相处好=get on/ along well with
10,true/ truly 指故事、说法、答案等与标准事实、实际情况相符
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    real/ really 指人或事客观存在,不是想象的
11,take care of=look after 照顾
    care for 照料、关心某人,喜欢某人、某物
    care about 关心,计较,在乎
12,make sb do sth
    make sb/ sth +adj    make me happy
    make sb +n.        We made him monitor.
    make sb +过去分词      She spoke aloud to make herself heard.
    make it 约定时间,做成某事,及时抵达               Let’s make it at 10:00.  
                                         Don’t worry. He’ll make it.
13,both 位置:行前      be 后
    both of them/ us=they/ we both
    both 作主语,谓语动词用复数
    not both 为部分否定,全部否定要用          either…not 或者 neither
    both…and…=not only…but(also)…     否定为:neither…nor
14,be popular with sb 受某人欢迎       be popular in/ at 在某地受欢迎
15,it is +adj+for sb +to do sth (adj 修饰 to do sth)It is important for me to learn English.
    it is +adj+of sb +to do sth (adj 修饰 sb) It is kind/ friendly/ nice of you to help me.
16,bring out 使显现出
17,share sth with sb 和某人分享
18,other “其他的,另外的”,后接名词复数,有时                  other+n 复数=others
   another “又一(个),另一(个)”,泛指总数为三个或三个以上中的任意一个,后
接名词单数。
   the  other“(两者中的)另一个”,常与             one 连用,“one…the      other…”表示“一
个…,另一个…”
19,heart   learn sth by heart 用心记     lose heart 灰心
20,break the law/ rules/ world record 违法/违规/打破世界纪录
    Break off 打断    break away from 摆脱,脱离      break into 破门而入    break in 插嘴
    Break down 出故障     break out 爆发   break up 散火    break one’s words 食言
    Have a break/ rest 休息会儿
21,laugh 发笑     laugh at 嘲笑
    Smile 微笑    smile at 对…微笑
22,定语从句:在复合句中修饰名词或代词的从句叫定语从句。被定语从句修饰的名词或
代词叫做先行词。引导定语从句的词称为关系词。关系词位于先行词和定语从句之间,起
联系作用,同时又作定语从句的一个成分。

    定语从句的关系词引导定语的关系代词有:that,                 who (whom, whose), which; 关系副词
(在定语从句中只能作状语,且不能省略)有:when,                     where, why 等。关系词的选择主要
取决于两个因素:(1)先行词是什么(2)先行词在定语从句中作什么成分。

●关系代词(that,who,which,whose,whom)引导的定语从句。
①that/ who 在从句中作主语,先行词为人。
  Eg:The girl that/ who is reading is my sister.

②that/ which 在从句中作主语或宾语,先行词为物。
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  Eg:The book that/ which is on the desk belongs to Tom.(主)
       He came back for the book that/ which he had forgotten.(宾)

③whose  在从句中作定语,先行词为人或物。
  Eg:This is the pencil whose point is broken.
     That is the girl whose mother died two years ago.
④whom/ that 在从句中作宾语,先行词为人。
  Eg:The girl whom/ that I spoke to is my cousin.

●关系副词(when/ where/ why)引导的定语从句。
①When  在从句中作时间状语,其先行词是表示时间的词(day/ year/ season                  等)。
例如:我永远不会忘记我入团的那一天。I shall never forget the day______I joined the League.
      解放军战士在人们最需要的时刻来到。
      The PLA men come at the time ________ the people need them most.
②Where  在定语从句中作地点状语,其先行词是表示地点的词(place/ town/ home/ house)
例如:你还记得我们初次见面的地方吗?Do you still remember the place ____we first met?
      近来你去过你成长的小城吗?
      Have you been to the town _________ you grew up recently?
③Why  在从句中作原因状语,其先行词是               reason。
例如:没有人知道他为什么上学总迟到。
      Nobody knows the reason ____________ he is often late for school
23,call sb at +电话号码
24,information【UC】通过学习、阅读、观察等得到的信息、情报、资料(侧重内容)
    news【UC】    广播、电视等报道的新闻、消息(强调新鲜、及时)a piece of news
    message【C】   口信、短信、信息(强调传递)take a message for sb
                                             leave a message to sb
25,who do you think should get the job?=in your opinion,who should get the job?

Unit 4 What’s the best movie theater?

1, 最高级的用法
●  用于三者或三者以上的比较              eg:Which do you like best,Chinese,Math or English?
●  “one of+最高级+n.复数”表示“最…之一”
   Eg:Lu Xun is one of the greatest writers last century.
●  “the +序数词+最高级+n.单数+范围”表示“在…范围内…是第几…”
   Eg:Hainan is the second largest island in China.
●  先行词被最高级或序数词修饰,只能用                 that 引导定语从句
   Eg:My cousin is the funniest person(that) I know.
       This is the first letter(that)I received from my sister.
●  Of all +n.复数;of the +数(≥3)+ n.复数;in/ at+地点
2, Comfort v.使舒适,安慰            comfortable adj. 舒适的(→uncomfortable)   
    comfortably adv. 舒适地
3, Voice 嗓音(说话声、歌声、笑声、鸟鸣声)                  in a low voice 小声地
   Noise 杂音
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   Sound 任何可以听到的声音
4, be close to 靠近
5, choose-chose    choose from 从…中选择      choose to do sth 选择做某事
6, Can I ask you some/ a few questions?
7, Welcome to+地点
8, So far= until now= up to now 至今为止
9, Around/ near here= in the neighborhood
10,thanks for +n/ V-ing
    Thanks for your help/ thanks for helping me.
    Thanks for your invitation/ thanks for inviting/ asking me.
    —Thank you/ Thanks 
    —No  problem/ You’re welcome/ That’s all right/ Not at all/ It’s a pleasure/ My pleasure/ 
That’s OK.
11,talent n.天资,才能       talented adj.有天赋的 (→untalented)
    Have a talent for (doing) sth. 对(做)某事有天赋
12,around the world= all over the world
13,have…in common  有相同特征        in common with 同…一样
14,Kind of 相当于副词,修饰形容词或副词,意为“稍微,有点”,与                         a little/ bit 相近
    A kind of 意为“一种”,some       kinds of 意为“几种”,different   kinds of 意为“不同
种类的”,all kinds of   意为“各种各样的”。这里的            kind 是“种,类,属”的意思。
15,and so on 等等
16,be up to 是…的职责,由…决定           be up to sb to do sth 应由某人做某事
17,play a role/ part in doing sth 在…中扮演角色,在…中发挥作用,有影响
18,部分否定:all,both,everyone,everybody,everything,everywhere,every,each,
             always 等与 not 连用表示部分否定。
   全部否定:all—none,both—neither,everyone—no        one/  nobody/  not   anyone,
             everything—nothing/ not anything,every—no,always—never
19,make up 编造(故事、谎言)
20,take…seriously 认真对待
21,for example 例如    follow the example of…以…为榜样    give an example 举例   set an 
    example to 给…树立榜样     such as   例如
22,come true
23,finish+ n/ v-ing
24,crowd v.拥挤     eg:They crowd into the room.
         n.人群    eg:There was a big crowd at the football match.
                      A crowd of students are waiting for the bus
    Crowded  adj. 拥挤的
.
Unit 5 Do you want to watch a game show?

1, 不定式做宾语:want/ hope/ expect/ plan to do
2, Learn…from  从…学习       learn sth by heart 熟记   learn sth by oneself 自学
3, Plan to do sth/ plan on sth 计划、打算做某事
   Plan for sth 考虑到某事     make a plan for… 为…制定计划
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4, Hope to do/ hope that 希望  (没有 hope sb to do 的表达)
   I hope so/ I hope not
5, Happen to sb/ sth 某人/物发生不幸的事        eg:What happened to him?
   Happen to do/ it happens that 碰巧
   Happen 偶然发生         take place 事先安排的、人为的发生
6, Expect (sb) to do/ expect that  期待
7, One day 某天(过去、将来)some day        某天(将来)       the other day=a few days ago 前几
    天
8, Mean v.意味着(三单为       means)
   Means n.方法、工具、手段          by means of
   Meaning n. 意义、含义       the meaning of
   Meaningless adj. 毫无意义的
9, Mind v.介意   would/ do you mind (one’s)(not) doing sth?
                I don’t mind them.
   make up one’s mind 下决心   change one’s mind 改变主意  never mind 没关系、不必担心  
   keep in one’s mind 记住
10,think of 认为、想起      think about 认为、考虑     think over 仔细考虑
11,be famous for 因为…而著名         be famous as 作为…而著名
12,appear v.出现(→disappear  消失)      appearance n. 出现、露面、外表
13,come out 出版、发表,出来,开花
14,succeed v.成功   succeed in (doing) sth 成功地做某事
    Success n.成功  
    Successful adj.成功的   be successful in (doing) sth 成功地做某事
    Successfully adv.成功地
15,reason 结论性原因       cause 起因     excuse 借口
16,danger n.危险   be in great danger 处于极大危险中       out of danger 脱离危险
    endanger v. 使遭遇危险,危及
    dangerous adj. 危险的        endangered adj.有灭绝危险的
17,luck n.运气—lucky adj.幸运的(→unlucky    不幸的)—luckily adv.   幸运地
18,be ready to do sth 愿意做某事    get ready to do sth 准备去做某事  get ready for 为…做准
备
19,a pair of+ n 复数   做主语,谓语动词用单数             eg:A pair of glasses is enough for me.
20,Take one’s place to do sth 代替某人做某事
21,do a good job 干得好
22,wear  表状态,接服装、手套、眼镜、香水等
    put on 表动作,接服装(→take off)
    dress 表动作,接    sb/ oneself       get dressed 穿衣   dress up 盛装打扮
    try on 试穿(动副结构)       try it on
    (be) in+颜色或衣服      eg:The girl in a red coat is my sister.

Unit 6 I am going to study computer science

1,be going to 表将来(计划、打算)
   肯定:主语+ be going to+ V   原
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   否定:主语+ be not going to+ V  原
   疑问:be+主语+ going to+ V   原
   There be 的将来时:there is/ are going to be
2,practice (doing)sth
3,grow up 长大
4,keep doing sth 继续不断地做某事
   Keep on doing sth 坚持做某事
   Keep sb doing sth 使某人持续做某事
   Keep sb from doing sth= stop sb (from) doing sth 阻止某人做某事
5,be sure about/ of +n/ v-ing/ 代词    对…确信,有把握
   Make sure 确保
   Be sure to do 务必、一定
6,worry about      be worried about 担心
7,medicine[UC] take medicine 吃药   pill[C]药丸
   Medical adj.医学的     medically adv.
8,日期、月份、年份等前面有             next、last、this 等词语时,要省略前面的介词           on、in
9,send sth to 把…寄往     send sth to sb= send sb sth
   Send sb to do 派人去做    send for 派人去请     send up 发射  send out 分发  send off 寄
出
10,be able to do 能够做某事     able adj.能够(→disable)   ability n.能力(→disability)
11,make promises 许诺    promise to do sth
12,at the beginning of 在…的开始
13,improve one’s life 改善某人的生活      improve oneself 提升自己    self-improvement n.
14,write down 写下   动副结构
15,have to do with 关于,与…有关      have nothing to do with 与…无关
16,take up 培养,学着做,占用(时间、空间)
17,no+ n 单数= not a/ an + n 单数 There is no book on the desk= There is not a book on the 
desk.
   no+ n 复数= not any+ n 复数 I have no resolutions= I don’t have any resolutions.
   no+ [UC]= not any + [UC]  There is no water there= There is not any water there.
18,one’s own 某人自己的

Unit 7 Will people have robots

1, will 表将来
   肯定:主语+ will+ V    原
   否定:主语+ will not (won’t)+ V 原
   疑问:will+主语+ V    原
   There be 的将来时:there will be   there won’t be   Will there be
2, Do you know+ 陈述语序       回答时,针对从句部分回答
   —Do you know there will be a football match this afternoon?
   —Yes, there will./ No, there won’t
3, at home      in one’s home
4,paper[UC]纸张    a piece of paper   paper [C]报纸(=newspaper)、论文、试卷
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5,In+时间段是指以现在时间为起点的"在一段时间以后",也可以表示"在将来多少时间之
内",句中的谓语动词要用一般将来时态。
   After 常常指以过去时间为起点的"在一段时间之后",After+时间段常与过去时态连用。
   当 after+时间点,可以与将来时态连用。
   Later 是副词,     "一段时间+later"表示"一段时间之后",用于过去时;如果单独使用,
   可与将来时或过去时连用。Later on           后来
6,pollute v.污染
   Pollution [UC] 污染  white/ air/ water/ noise pollution
   Polluted adj. 被污染的    polluted water
7,predict v.预测   prediction n.预测
8,on the earth 在地球上    on earth 究竟    in the earth 在地里
9,save 拯救     save the earth
        节约     save water/ money
10,few-fewer-fewest+ [C]   little-less-least+ [UC]
    few, little 含有否定意味,意味"几乎没有" 
    a few, a little 含有肯定意味,意味"一点,一些"
11,Space[UC]太空,空间,一般情况下不与冠词连用,如果                    space 前面有表示太空情况的
形容词(如     dark,cold,airless)修饰,则可与定冠词连用。Space[C]空间,空地(=room)
    Room[C]房间;[UC]空间        Make room for...为...腾出空间
    Place[C] 指某一具体"地点,地方"
12,hundred,thousand(千),million(百万)表示不确切的数目时,在词尾加              s,且和 of 连用,
表示"数百,数千,数百万"。
    当这些词前有数词或         several,some 等修饰词时则不加      s,也不跟介词    of 连用,直接跟名
词。
13,in the future 在将来    in future= from now on 从今往后
14,I/ We believe 接宾语从句,含有否定时要用否定转移
    Believe sb 相信某人所为      believe in 信任某人的为人,信仰
15,over and over again 反复,再三
16,get bored 觉得无聊
17,wake up 醒来,叫醒(动副结构)
18,fall down 倒塌,
19,During 指"在...时间内,在...的期间",一般有明确的时间长度和起止时间。谓语动词常
为持续性的动作或状态,时间段前常有限定词(the,物主代词等),表特指。during                             指动作
所发生的时间,回答         when 的问题。
    In "在...时间内",一般情况下可以和           during 互换,用   in 时往往强调某一动作发生在某
一时间段中的某一时间点;during           既可用在"在整个时间段期间",也可用在"某时间段内的
某个时间点"。
    For"(时间)长达...",强调时间由始至终,动作也贯穿这段时间的始终,可以和完成
时或过去时连用。强调持续时间的长短,回答                    how long 的问题

Unit 8 How do you make a banana milk shake

1, 可数名词[C]与不可数名词[UC]
●[C]有复数形式,可以与定冠词             a/ an 连用    a pen   an orange
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  [UC]没有复数形式,不可以与定冠词              a/ an 连用
●[C]表示复数意义时可用          many,a few 等词修饰。如:many apples;a few pens 
  [UC]则要用   much、a little 等词修饰。如:      much meat ;little water 
      这两类名词都可以被       some、any、a lot of(lost of)等修饰。
●  [C]前面可用具体的数字修饰            three books
   [UC]要用“数字+量词+of”修饰            a cup of tea,a piece of paper/ news/ chalk,a bottle of 
milk
●  [C]做主语,主谓一致                 There is a book and two pens on the desk.
                               There are two pens and a book on the desk.
   [UC]做主语,谓语动词用单数             There is some milk in the bottle. 
   [UC]做主语,如果前面有复数名词短语修饰,谓语动词用复数。
                               There are two bottles of milk on the table.
●  对[C]提问用    how many         How many bananas do we need?
   对[UC]提问用    how much        How much sugar do we need?
   [UC 前面有表示数量的名词短语修饰时,提问用                  how many
                                How many cups of tea are there on the table?
●  有的名词,既可以做[C]又可以做[UC]
   Fish 鱼,鱼类             →鱼肉 
   Room  房间             →空间
   Chicken 小鸡            →鸡肉
   Orange 橙子            →橙汁
   Work 作品,著作            →工作
   Exercise 练习,操        →运动,锻炼
   Time 次数,倍数            →时间
   Glass 玻璃杯             →玻璃
   Paper 报纸,论文,试卷        →纸张
   Hair 几根毛发             →毛发总称
   (fish  鱼,单复数同形,one fish        一条鱼,two fish    两条鱼;two fishes    两种鱼)
2, 祈使句要用动词原形,变否定加              Don’t
3, Turn on 打开  turn off 关闭  turn up 调大,出现    turn down 调小,拒绝
4, Cut up 切碎= cut…into pieces    cut sth in two/ half 将某物切成两半
5, Pour…into…  把…倒进…里           pour…out 把…倒出来
6, Put…in/ into… 把…放进…里           put on 穿上      put out 熄灭      put down 放下    
    put up 举起,搭建     put away 把…收起来放好        put off 推迟
7, Make 创造、生产、制造,指用原材料做某种东西
   Do 干、做,指做具体某项工作
   有关   make 的短语:make up    编造(故事、谎言)            make the bed 铺床  make tea 沏茶  
   make a telephone call 打电话   make one’s way to 往…走去  make room for 为…腾空间   
   make faces 做鬼脸   make (a lot of )money 赚(许多)钱     make a decision 做决定   
   make sure 务必      make trouble 惹麻烦   make friends 交朋友   make progress 取得进
    步 make a living 谋生 make a visit 拜访 make a mistake 犯错误 make a noise 弄出噪音 
   make up one’s mind to do sth 下决心  make it 约定时间,及时赶到,做到
8,First…Next…Then…Finally   首先……接下来……然后…….最后……
9,ten more minutes = another ten minutes    
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    基数词    + more + 名词  = another + 基数词   + 名词
10,need to do sth.需要做某事
    Need doing= need to be done 需要被…
    Needn’t= don’t have to 不必要
11,add…to…把…加到…上
    Add to 增加、添加        add up 把…加在一起         add up to 合计
12,half a/ an… 一半的…      half a cup 半杯
    Half of+ n 做主语,谓语动词取决于后面的            n
    Eg:Half of the books are novels.
        Half of his money was stolen.
13,be always doing sth 总是做某事,
14,It’s time (for sb) to do sth.    到某人做某事的时候了。
    It’s time for sth.   到做某事的时候了。
    There’s no time to do sth 没有时间做某事
15,在  here, there 开头的倒装句中,谓语动词与后面的名词在数上保持一致。
    Eg:Here are some books for you.
        Here comes the bus.
    主语为代词时,不需要倒装。Eg:Here he comes.
16,mix…into/ to…  把…混合进…里         mix up(动副结构)把…混合在一起
17,fill A with B 用 B 填充 A    A be filled with B  = be full of   充满….
    The boy filled the bottle with sand.    /   The bag was full of clothes.
18,cover A with B   用 B 把 A 覆盖   A be covered with B  A 被 B 所覆盖 
    Ann covered her face with her hands. /  Ann’s face was covered with her hands.
    cover n.封面,盖子       The cover of the magazine is nice.
19,with 和,带有       without 没有
    With+ n +介词    表伴随      The teacher came in with a smile on her face.
20,serve sb (with) sth      serve sth to sb 把某物提供给某人,招待某人某物
    Serve up 端上食物
21,have/ run a temperature 发烧    take one’s temperature 给某人量体温
22,one by one 一个接一个;逐个;依次
23,for a long time 很长时间

Unit 9 Can you come to my party?

1,邀请:Can/ Could you……?
          Would you like/ love to……?
          Shall we……?
          Will you please……?
   接受:Sure/ Certainly/ Yes/ With pleasure/ Of course/ I’d love to / That sound great /Thank 
         you for inviting(asking) me/ It’s very kind (nice) of you.  
   拒绝:    Sorry, I can’t. But……/ I’m afraid not./ I’d love to, but…… / Sorry, I’m afraid I can’t.
2,prepare for sth 为…做准备      prepare to do sth  准备做某事  
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   prepare sb for sth 使某人对某物有所准备        prepare sb to do sth 使某人准备做某事
   prepare sb sth= prepare sth for sb 为某人准备某物
   be prepared for sth= get ready for sth 为某事做好了准备
3,have the flu 患流感    have a cold  感冒    have a cough   咳嗽    have a fever  发烧   
   have a sore throat   喉咙痛    have a headache    头痛    have a toothache  牙痛
4,pass the exam 考试通过      fail (in) the exam 考试不及格   take/ do an exam 参加考试
5,available  人做主语意为“有空的,能够出席的”
            物做主语意为“有效的,有用的,可获得的”
6,invite sb. to do sth 邀请某人做某事    invite sb. to a place 邀请某人去某地
7,not…until…直到…才…
8,hang out / around/ about 常去某地、闲逛 hang up  挂电话,悬挂,挂起          hang on 紧紧抓
   住    hang-hung-hung
9,catch the bus 赶公交车    catch one’s meaning 理解某人的意思     catch up with 赶上  
   catch fire 着火   catch a cold 感冒   catch you = bye   catch sb’s eye 引起某人注意
   catch hold of 抓住   catch-caught
10,accept 接受,反义词为:refuse。accept      指主观上愿意接受,receive        收到,指客观上收
    到或拿到,但主观上不一定会接受。 
    Eg:I received his gift yesterday, but I wouldn’t like to accept it.
11,refuse to do sth 拒绝做某事
12,the day before yesterday  前天              the day after tomorrow 后天
13,What’s today? 今天几号,星期几?          
    What’s the date today?今天几号?          
    What day is it today?今天星期几?
14,turn down 拒绝、调小
15,take a trip
16,at the end of 在…末尾,在…尽头         by the end of 到…末为止      in the end 终于
17,be glad to do sth 很高兴做某事
18,leave for 出发前往某地        leave A for B 离开 A 去 B
19,have a surprise party for sb
20,so that 以便
21,look forward to 期待,盼望,to    是介词,后跟名词,代词或动名词作宾语
    look forward to doing sth 期待做某事
22,hear from sb 收到某人的来信      = get/ receive a letter from sb.
   hear of = hear about 听说
23,reply in writing 书面回复         reply to sth/sb. 对…..作出回答
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Unit 10 If you go to the party, you’ll have a great time!
1, 主将从现:if     引导条件状语从句,主句用一般将来时,从句用一般现在时

2, have a great /good/ excellent/ wonderful/ nice/ pleasant time= have fun= enjoy oneself+V-ing
3, 交通工具的表达:take+限定词+交通工具               take the bus 乘公共汽车
                    By+交通工具      by bus 乘公共汽车
                    In/ on+限定词+交通工具       in the car     on the plane 
                    On foot 步行
4, do/ does/ did 代替前文出现的事 
   eg:I think I’ll take the bus to the party.     If you do, you’ll be late
5, let sb in/ out(动副结构)让某人进去/出来
6, tomorrow night 明天晚上
7, hold/ have a meeting 开会  attend a meeting 出席会议   call a meeting 召开会议  
    meeting place 会场
8, half the class 一半的同学
9, organize v.组织,筹备            organized adj.有组织的            organizer n.组织者  
   organization n.组织、团体、机构
10,order food 点餐      in order(not) to do 为了(不)  in the order 按顺序
    order sb (not) to do 命令某人(不)做某事         take one’s order 点餐
11,疑问词+不定式做宾语            eg:I don’t know what to do= I don’t know how to do it
                             I can’t decide where to go.
12,be upset about/ that  对…感到难过
13,give sb. some advice 给某人提一些建议      take/ follow one’s advice 听从某人的意见
    Advice[UC]  suggestion [C]
    Advise v.建议    advise sb. to do sth.劝告某人做某事

14,travel around the world 环游世界
15,keep…to oneself 保守秘密
16,in life 在生活中
17,agree/ disagree with sb 同意/不同意某人
18,be angry with sb.生某人的气       be angry at/about sth.因某事生气
19,make careless mistakes 犯粗心的错误     by mistake 错误地    mistake A for B 错把 A 当
B
20,be afraid of sb/ sth 害怕某人/某物   be afraid of doing sth 害怕/担心某事发生
    be afraid to do sth 不敢做某事 be afraid for 为…担心  be afraid (that)恐怕…(让对方失
望)
21,it is best (not) do= had better (not) do   最好(不)做某事
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22,run awayfrom 逃避;逃跑
23,the first step 第一步       step by step 一步步、循序渐进
24,in half 分成两半
25,solve a problem 解决问题
26,experience [C]经历  [UC]经验    v.经历
    By experience 从经验中     extract experience from 从…中获取经验  
    lack experience 缺乏经验    sum up experience 总结经验
27,其他的    else 放在不定代词、疑问词后             something else      what else
          Other+ n 复数     other students
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