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中考英语阅读理解专项复习教案

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                   中考英语阅读理解专项复习

 Reading comprehension choose the best answer 1 in 4
 Task-based reading  chart/form fill in the blanks
 阅读理解文章的体裁主要有三类:叙述文、说明文和议论文。
     1)、叙述文
     叙述文一般以讲述个人生活经历为主,对于经历的陈述通常由一定的时间
 概念贯穿其中,或顺序或倒序。但是在考试中一般不出现单纯的叙述文,因为
 单纯的叙述文比较简单、易懂。所以中考中的叙述文大多是夹叙夹议的文章。
 这类文章的基本结构模式是:
     (1)一段概括性的话引入要叙述的经历(话题)
     (2)叙述先前的经历及其感悟或发现
     (3)叙述接下来的经历及其感悟或发现
    (4)做出总结或结论
     2)、说明文(描述文)
     说明文的一般结构模式和叙述文的结构模式有相通之处即:提出问题(或
 以一个事例引出问题)----          发现直接原因-----      分析深层原因-----得出结论或找
 到出路。     知道了类似的文章结构特点,就可以据此来进行考题预测。比如,我
 们看出了该篇文章属于这种结构类型,就能判断出几个问题中肯定有一个要问
 原因,还有可能要出现推断题。 
     3)、议论文
     我们大家最容易辨认出来的议论文模式是主张---反主张模式。在这一模式
 中,作者首先提出一种普遍认可的观点或某些人认可的主张或观点,然后进行
 澄清,说明自己的主张或观点,或者说提出反主张或真实情况。                             议论文的这种
 结构特点决定了它的主要题型是作者观点态度题,文章主旨题以及推理判断题。
 只要发现了这种结构特点,解答问题的主要任务就变成了到段落内找答案,                                  基
 本上不存在任何困难。
     通过研究以上的文章结构特点,我们不难发现,在我省中考阅读理解中无
 论任何体裁的文章往往都遵循着这样一个共同的模式:提出话题(观点或事例)
 ---- 用事例分析原因(或批驳观点)------得出结论。对文章结构特点的把握有助于
 读者更加自觉地关注文章的开始和结尾,分清观点和事例,从而在阅读理解中
 准确定位,快速答题。
       语句理解题      要求正确理解短文中一些关健词、短语或句子的含义。常用
的手段是利用多种表达法、词的多义性、同近义语替换、习语释义、句型或语
态转换等。
       解题技巧:
       1 透彻理解题意,从短文中找到相关的词、短语或句子,根据特定的语
 境判断理解,推敲斟酌,最后确定含义。 
       2 要熟悉常见的设问形式: 
       1) The underlined word in the … paragraph refers to /means ________.
       2) What does “______” in paragraph … stand for /mean?
       3) “______” could best be replaced by which of the following?
       4) The expression /phrase “_______” means ______.
       5) The word “______” is closest in meaning to ______.
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       Examples:
       Another factor(因素) that may contribute to(促使) the good health of these 
 people is their isolation. Most of them are kept off the modern  world.
       74. What does the word “isolation” means in Chinese?
          A. 自我封闭     B、与世隔绝        C、独立      D、淡泊 
       通过通读文章,从后面句子可以推断出这个单词的汉语意思是                           B。
       猜测词义的技巧:
       1)上下文间意义的联系;
       2)同义关系,反义关系;
       3)词的定义;
       4)对词的解释和举例; 
       5)构词法知识猜测词义。 
       点晴:Words, like people, are frequently known by the company they keep. A 
word’s context or surroundings, can provide clues to meaning.
       推理判断题      主要对短文的结论、隐含意义(寓意)、作者的倾向、文章
的论调、写作的思路及目的等进行考查,纵观全文,在汇集短文提供的各项信
息的基础上,严格按照短文陈述的观点或描述事实,进行正确的、合乎逻辑的
推论和引申,包括事情的前因后果、人物的目的动机和性格特征、作者的倾向
态度、语言中的语态和语气等。有时还可能会假设一种情况要求考生对原文中
没有提及情况进行推理和想象,对题目中提出各种可能性进行推敲,从而选出
符合原文信息或作者意图的最佳答案。
       解题技巧:
       1、读懂原文,抓住关键词、短语、句子或段落,透彻理解文章内容注意
 文章结构层次和逻辑关系, 
 并结合阅读材料外的有关生活、社会常识,仔细斟酌,作出准确的推断和引申。

       2、熟悉常用的设问方式:
       1) We can infer /conclude from the passage that  ______.
       2) It can be inferred /concluded (from the passage) that ________.
       3) The passage /story /author /paragraph implies, but does not directly state 
that _______.
       4) The author strongly suggests that__________ ______.
       5) What do you think would happen (to…) at the end of the story?
      归纳概括题       此类题主要针对的主题、中心思想、文章的结构层次(主题
      句或题段)、作者的写作目的(purpose)等方面,要求考生在准确理解全文
      后,归纳短文要点、概括中心思想,也分析和归纳段落大意、重要情节、
      人物特征和环境特点等。 
       解题技巧:领会全文大意,灵活运用概念、判断、归纳、推理                              等逻辑
 方法,真正理解文章的话题和中心思想。一般而言,英语文章的话题往往用很
 少几个词加以概括,通常具体反映在文章的题目或一段短文的小标题上;不少
 文章一开头便展示出文章的主题,特点是新闻报道,第一段通常是故事的梗概
 (lead paragraph),这一段往往表达了文章的中心思想,但也要注意,不少文章的
中心思想也常贯穿于全文之中;主题段通常在文章简要概括文章中心思想,而
主题句(topic sentence)常在一段的开头,也有可能在段中或段末。
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      这类题常见的命题方式有:
      (1)What is the main idea (subject) of this passage ?
      (2)What does this passage mainly  talk about ?
      (3)The main theme of this passage is ___________.
      (4)   The main point of the passage is__________.
      (5)   Which of the following is the best title for the passage ?
      (6)   The title that best expresses the theme of the passage is ___________.
      (7)   The purpose of the writer in writing this passage _________.
      (8)   Which of the following best describes the passage as a whole ?
      1、关于主题型 找中心(Main Idea)
      Example 1:
      68.These two passages are  _____________.(07 中考 第 68 小题,阅读理
解 A 篇)
          A. diaries     B. reports    C. news    D. ads
        本题问及文章的体裁。通过快读(skimming                )我们知道这是一篇有两
段关于宾馆和前往美国的飞机航线的文章,根据所述内容和格式,可以知道
D 是正确答案。
      2、关于标题型        为文章选择标题(Title)
      Example :
      75.What would the best title for the passage?
        A. Good Health        B. The Old People in the Mountains
       C. Long-lived People    D. The Secret of Long Life
        本题是给文章选标题,实际上也是问及全篇的主旨。
      3、关于目的型        推断作者的写作意图(Purpose)
      类似:The author's purpose in writing this passage is to________.
    这类题要求阅读时不但要看懂个别的句子,而且要能够根据作者思路的展
开,把握作者在整篇文章中的观点,因此,必须看懂全篇文章的意思
    §答题的基本步骤
    1. 先看问题,再读文章:带着问题阅读短文,确定主攻方向,特别要注意
首尾段和首尾句,把握文章的主题和用户服务,摘取有用的材料,舍弃无关的
信息,有的放矢,高效省时。
    2. 细读全文,认真推敲:针对题目的要求,细心阅读与试题有的词汇、句
子或段落,要特别留心一些信息词,它们既是检查的重点,也是把握全文意思
的突破口。因此必须准确判断,仔细斟酌,以便选出最佳答案。
    3. 复读全文,验证答案:在选出全部答案后,应将答案带入问题中重读全
文,看前后意思是否贯通,有无矛盾,若前后不一致或意思矛盾,则要考虑重
选答案。
   1、抓细节、做记号。了解文章主旨后应该细读文章,并且边读边用铅笔做
      些记号,例如
把人物、时间、地点等圈出来,看完再回头找时便一目了然了。对于难一点的
题目,要回头再查阅短文,在文中划出依据。
    §注意事项
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     1、所选有据,避免主观 学会“虚实结合”
     2、符合原文的答案=正确答案≠最佳答案                    阅读题要求选的是最佳答案,
 有的答案从某个枝节来看是对,但从全文来看则不是最佳的。因此,必须通盘
 考虑,取主题,舍枝节。
     3、解题有法,但无定法,贵在得法。要答好阅读理解题,必须多读、巧读
 和善于思考。要不断扩大词汇量,拓宽阅读面,提高阅读速度,同时也要探索
 和总结适合自己方法或,实践出真知,多练出效益。

 近三年中考英语阅读真题
 2010
                                  A


   Do you learn from your mistakes? I hope so. But have you ever made the same 
 mistake twice? I have. Sometimes I make the same mistake three or four times! 
   Sometimes, good things happen because of mistakes. Once I got on the wrong train. 
That was a big mistake. But on that train, I saw a good friend. I was so happy I made 
 that mistake!
   Another time I ruined a surprise. My mother planned a surprise party for my father. 
She told me it was a secret. But I was just a little boy and I couldn’t keep the secret. I 
told my father about the party. At first, my mother was mad at me. But then my father 
said he was happy he knew about it. He said he didn’t like surprise.
   When a good thing comes out of a mistake, that’s a happy accident.
 56. The boy saw ___ on the wrong train.
     A. his friend                      B. his father 
     C. his mother                     D. his teacher  
 57. His mother asked him to ___.
     A. plan a surprise party             B. tell his father about the party
     C. keep a secret about the party       D. invite his friend to the party 
 58. What does the boy think of mistakes?
     A. Mistakes are not welcome.
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     B. A mistake is terrible thing..
     C. All mistakes men happy accidents.
     D. Sometimes a mistake can be a good thing. 


                                  B
   The panda is one of the animals most in danger. Three are about 1,000 pandas 
living in nature reserves today. Zoos and research centers look after about 160 pandas. 
 Scientists are studying how they live and more baby pandas are born in the zoos.
   Pandas live in the forests and mountains of Southern China. They mainly live on 
 bamboo, and each pandas needs to eat a lot of bamboo every day. The area of bamboo 
 is becoming smaller for many different reasons, so pandas have less and less land to 
 live on. Pandas don’t have many babies, and baby panda often dies. The situation is 
 becoming very serious.
   Our government is working hard to save pandas. There are more than 30 nature 
reserves to protect pandas but these are not enough. The government has made a new 
 plan to help pandas. The nature reserves will be bigger and the bamboo will grow 
better. Then the pandas will have enough food and enough places to live in. Pandas 
born in the zoos may go back to live in the nature reserves.
   Most people love pandas. The panda is one of the best-known animals in the world. 
It is the symbol for the World Wide Fund for Nature. The WWF works to protect all 
 animals in danger, so the panda has become the symbol of all animals in danger. 
 There is still a long way to save the panda. Think of other animals in danger. There is 
 still a long way to go to save the panda. Think of other animals in danger such as 

 tigers, whales, turtles and elephants—and we need to save them, too.

 59. There are about ___ pandas living in the nature reserves today.
    A. 30             B. 160           C. 300          D. 1,000
 60. Paragraph 2 is mainly about ___.
    A. why pandas are in danger           B. why baby pandas often die
    C. how to protect all animals           D. how to plant more bamboo
 61. The government is trying ___ to help the pandas.
    A. to build more zoos                 
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    B. to send more scientists
    C. to make bigger nature reserves       
    D. to ask the WWF to work in China
 62. ___ is the symbol for the World Wide Fund for Nature.
    A. The Tiger       B. The panda      C. The elephant      D. The Whale

                                  C
   Ron loved basketball. One afternoon on his way to a basketball game, he was 
walking and dreaming about playing college basketball the following year. As Ron 
 was walking to the game, a car hit him so hard that he was thrown three feet into the 
 air.
   Ron woke up in a hospital room. When he learned that both his legs were broken, 
he realized his college basketball dreams were over. Ron did what the doctors told 
 him, but his progress was slow. When he left the hospital, Ron was sent to a health 
 center for physical treatment.
   A week after he arrived there, he met Sunny. Sunny was a coach.His legs were 
 hurt  paralysed(瘫痪的) from a skiing accident. Even though he couldn't move his 
legs, Sunny coached of a basketball team called the Suns. Everybody on the team 
played from a wheelchair. Sunny invited Tony to join the game. Tony played badly, 
but for the first time since the accident, he stopped feeling sorry for himself.
   After becoming a part of the Suns, Ron improved quickly. Basketball was like   
medicine for him. And whenever Ron became depressed or angry, Sunny was there 
 to encourage and help him. The day before Ron left the center, he had dinner with 
 Sunny. He asked Sunny how he managed to be generous and cheerful, even with his 
 paralysis.
   Sunny smiled and said, “It’s really quite easy. When you keep your face to the sun, 
the shadows(阴影) fall behind.”

 63. What happened to Ron on his way to a basketball game?
     A. A car hit him.                  B. He met his coach.
     C. His doctor called him.           D. He fell down and cut his foot. 
 64. The underlined word “depressed” means ___ in Chinese.
     A. 懒惰的          B. 好奇的        C. 沮丧的          D. 激动的 
 65. What is the most important thing we can learn from the story?
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     A. Basketball can teach people about life.
     B. Keep smiling when you face difficulties.
     C. Life is more difficult for the paralysed.
     D. Skiing is more dangerous than basketball. 
2009
                                      A
     These days, more and more students in the UK are taking a "gap year" between their 
graduation from school and their university studies. This means that they take a year off, to do 
something else, before they start their studies.
     For most students, spending time in foreign countries is the favourite activity 一 and 
Australia is the favourite place to go.
     Many parents, teachers and business people agree that travelling can teach important values.
     "After a year of travelling. I learnt the importance of relationships with people, on all sorts 
of levels."
     There are many companies around the world that welcome these students on their projects 
一  helping people in poorer countries, or even in your home country. Although you don't get paid 
for your work, this kind of work can teach important skills ― decision making and finding 
answers to problems, for example ― that will help a student in a job one day.
     Finally, the knowledge and experience you get will one day be very useful in an area you 
hope to study or work in.
     If several university graduates are applying for the same job. gap year work experience 
allows you to say: "I've already had some experience of this kind of work." And that can get you 
the job!
56. These days,           students in the UK take a gap year.
A. few            B. many                 C. all            D. a few
57. Travelling can teach you values such as learning about           .
A. flights            B. money              C. relationships            D. jobs
58. To help poorer people, you have to be prepared           .
A. to live in another country          B. to be paid very well     
C. to be paid very little            D. to work for free
59. University graduates with some work experience often get             than graduates 
without experience.
A. more money            B. more important jobs
C. jobs more easily            D. more jobs in other countries
                                      B
    "What's wrong, Suzie?" asked Dad. "Why are you looking so unhappy?"
    "It's just that Amine has gone away. I will never see her again. Her whole family has moved 
to Sydney," cried Suzie. "She will go to a new school there, make new friends, lead a new life 
and... and forget me." Suzie couldn't speak any more with tears in her eyes.
    Dad held Suzie's small hand in his large one and gently patted (拍)her head.
    "It's OK, Suzie," he said, "I'm sure you'll find another friend. There are so many other 
children at school, aren't there?"
    "But.. .but it's not the same! Amine is my special friend ― the best friend Fve ever had. I 
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don't want to go to school without her."
    i£Now, dear, it is really sad to see Amine going away. But you have to move on with your 
own life. Listen to me, go to school and get yourself some new friends. Cheer up!"
    Suzie nodded her head and began reading her story book.
60. Who was Amine?
A. Suzie's best friend.                   B. Suzie's sister.
C. Suzie's teacher.                        D. Suzie's aunt.
61. How did Suzie feel about Amine's leaving?
A. Happy.           B. Sad.                C. Funny.            D. Proud.
62. What did Suzie's dad tell her?
A. Amine was not her friend.
B. Suzie couldn't go to school without Amine.
C. They would move to Sydney, too.
D. Suzie should get herself some new friends.
                                      C
     The post office has plenty of work to do. It handles (处理)thousands of letters every day. 
Let's follow a letter all the way across America.
     Julie lives in New York. She wrote a letter to Dave. Dave lives in Oregon. Julie put the 
letter in the mailbox (邮箱)on Monday night. On Tuesday morning a truck stopped at the mailbox. 
The mail carrier (投递员)put the letters into a large bag and took the bag to a post office in New 
York.
     On  Tuesday afternoon the letters were sorted. Zip codes were used to sort the mail. A 
machine picked up a letter and held it. A worker read the zip code. Then the worker pushed five 
buttons on another machine. The worker had only one second to do this. After the worker pushed 
the buttons, the machine put the letter in a box. By Tuesday night the box was on a truck. The 
truck went to the airport. An airplane took off for Oregon on Wednesday morning. Julie's letter 
went on the airplane.
     By noon the letters were in an airport in Oregon. Mail trucks then took them to post offices. 
One of these was in Dave's town. On Wednesday night people in Dave's town sorted the letters by 
street name.
     On  Thursday morning the mail carrier for Main Street picked up her pile of letters. She 
sorted all of them by street address before delivering (递送).The people at 1 Main Street got their 
mail first. Da\e lived at 221 Main Street. He got his letter before lunch.
63. Where did Julie's letter travel first?
A. To a post office in New York.
B. On a truck that went to the airport.
C. To a post office in Oregon.
D. On the airplane for Oregon.
64. What does the underlined word "Zip codes" mean in Chinese?
A. 密码              B. 电话号码          C. 邮政编码         D. 身份证号码
65. The title of the passage is           .
A. How a Letter Is Written 
B. How Mail Is Delivered
C. How a Letter Gets to the Airport
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D. How a Machine Picks up Letters

2008

                                      A
 When I was 16 years ago a boy gave me an important gift. It was a smile.
 It was the early autumn of my first year at a junior high school, and my old school was far away. 
 As a result, no one knew who I was. I was very lonely, and afraid to make friends with anyone.
   Every time I heard the other students talking and laughing, I felt my heart break. I couldn’t talk 
 about anyone with my problems. And I didn’t my parents to worry about me.
 Then one day, my classmates talked happily with their friends, but I sat at my desk unhappily as 
 usual. At that moment, a boy entered the classroom. I didn’t know who he was. He passed me 
 and then turned back. He looked at me, without a word, a smile.
   Suddenly, I felt the touch of something bright and friendly. It made me feel happy, lively and 
 warm.
   That smile changed my life. I started to talk with other students and made friends. Day by day, 
 I became closer to everyone in my class. The boy with the lucky smile has become my best 
 friend now.
   One day I asked him why he smiled, but he couldn’t remember smiling at me!
   It doesn’t matter because all the dark days have gone. I believe that the world is what you 
 think it is. If you think it lonely, you might always be alone. So smile at world and it will smile 
 back.
 56. Why was the smile an important gift?
    A. Because the writer’s old school was far away.
    B. Because the writer didn’t know who the boy was.
    C. Because the smile didn’t mean anything to the boy.
    D. Because it made the writer feel happy, lively and warm.
 57. The writer didn’t talk to anyone in her new school about her problem because       .
    A. she was always unhappy  B. she didn’t have any friends there
    C. she was in the first year at the junior high school
    D. she didn’t want her parents to worry about her
 58. How did the smile change her life?543
    A. She started to make friends.    B. She became the best friend with the boy.
    C. Her parents didn’t worry about her any more.
    D. She realized that she was lonely.
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59. Where does she now think her feeling of unhappiness came from?
   A. From her old school.    B. From her parents.
   C. From herself            D. From her classmate at the new school
                                     B
When we asked students what they want to be, they often talk about unusual jobs, things like 
teachers and doctors. But if you think about it, many people don’t plan to do their jobs. They just 
start doing them by accident. We have talked to two people with unusual jobs.
Emily is a dentist but she doesn’t work with people. She works with horses. After university she 
took care of animal’s health for several years, but she notices that there were few people who 
could help horses’ teeth. She deicide to go to college and study again. Then she had to buy 
special tools, but she is never out of work. She’d always very busy taking care of horses’ teeth. “I 
couldn’t be a dentist for people now,” Emily said, “because I really enjoy working with horses.”
As soon as David could read, he read books about robots, but the robots he build today don’t 
look like the strange robot people in his books. He build robots for industry. Early one he made 
up his mind to study math, science and computers so that he could break into the world of robot 
engineering. “Some of the math is very difficult.” say David, “but you must study math to be an 
engineer.” Fortunately he got top marks in all his math exams.
60. Emily doesn’t want to be a dentist because       .
   A. the pay is low              B. she has to buy special tools
   C. she will be out of work     D. she likes working with horses
61. To become a robot engineer, David       .
   A. need to worry       B. bought a lot of robots
   C. had to study hard   D. didn’t have to go to college
62. David got top marks in all his math exams, although       .
   A. math was not easy to study      B. he has to study math to be an engineer
   C. he could break into the world of robot engineering
   D. he made up his mind to study math, science and computers
                                     C
We all dream although we remember only a few of our dreams. Some people train themselves to 
remember their dreams. As soon as they wake up, they record what their dreams were about.
  Scientists believe that we have different kinds of sleep. One kind is called R.E.M. R.E.W. 
stands for rapid eye movement. During this kind of sleep our eyes move quickly, even though 
they are closed. Although we are asleep, there is a lot of brain activities. We probably have 
dreams at this time.
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  Sometimes people talk in their sleep. In these dreams the dreamer is usually unhappy or 
worried about something. The worst of the dreams are so frightening that we call them 
nightmares. In a nightmare we often dream that we are being closed () or that we are trapped in 
some way.
  Scientists or others have written books about the meanings of dreams. The most famous of 
these scientists was Sigmund Freud who wrote a hundred years ago. He suggested different 
meanings to certain kinds of dreams. It is possible, however, that every dream has a special 
meaning only for the person who dreams it, and that this dream about something in that person’s 
life.
63. How can we tell if someone is having an R.E.M. dream?
   A. They are talking in their sleep.   B. They are worried about something.
   C. Their eyes are moving quickly.  D. heir eyes are moving slowly.
64. What does the word “nightmare” in the 3rd paragraph means in Chinese?
   A. 噩梦           B. 睡眠          C. 美梦           D. 失眠
65. What is the main idea of Paragraph Four?
   A. Bad Dreams                  B. The meaning of dreams
  C. People and their dreams      D. R.E.M. and sleep and dreams
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