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专题四    第二节    分类突破
一、原文词汇类
内容索引


                            真题研析

                           微技能突破

                           随堂限时练
真题研析
(2017·江苏)
                    Population Change
   Why  is the world’s population growing?The answer is not what
you might think.The reason for the explosion is not that people have
been reproducing like rabbits,but that people have stopped dropping
dead like flies.In 1900,people died at the average age of 30.By 2000 the
average age was 65.But while increasing health was a typical feature of
the 20th century,declining birth rate could be a defining one of the 21st.
   Statistics show that the average number of births per woman has
fallen from 4.9 in the early 1960s to 2.5 nowadays.Furthermore,around
50% of the world’s population live in regions where the figure is now
below the replacement level (i.e.2.1 births per woman) and almost all
developed nations are experiencing sub-replacement birth rate.You
might think that developing nations would make up the loss (especially
since 80% of the world’s people now live in such nations),but you’d
be wrong.Declining birth rate is a major problem in many developing
regions too,which might cause catastrophic global shortages of work
force within a few decades.
   A great decline in young work force is likely to occur in China,
for instance.What does it imply?First,China needs to undergo
rapid economic development before a population decline hits the
country.Second,if other factors such as technology remain constant,
economic growth and material expectations will fall well below recent
standards and this could invite trouble.
   Russia is another country with population problems that could
break its economic promise.Since 1992 the number of people dying has
been bigger than that of those being born by a massive 50%.Indeed
official figures suggest the country has shrunk by 5% since 1993 and
people in Russia live a shorter life now than those in 1961.Why is this
occurring?Nobody is quite sure,but poor diet and above all long-time
alcoholism have much to do with it.If current trends don’t bend,
Russia’s population will be about the size of Yemen’s by the year 2050.
    In the north of India,the population is booming due to high birth
rates,but in the south,where most economic development is taking
place,birth rate is falling rapidly.In a further twist,birth rate is
highest in poorly educated rural areas and lowest in highly educated
urban areas.In total,25% of India’s working-age population has no
education.In 2030,a sixth of the country’s potential work force
could be totally uneducated.
   One  solution is obviously to import foreign workers via
immigration.As for the USA,it is almost unique among developed
nations in having a population that is expected to grow by 20% from
2010—2030.Moreover,the USA has a track record of successfully
accepting immigrants.As a result it’s likely to see a rise in the size of its
working-age population and to witness strong economic growth over the
longer term.
                      Population Change

                 The birth rate in the 21st century may be much
                 71.lower than it was in the 20th.

Decline of the   It would be difficult for developed countries to
birth rate       maintain the 72.size/scale of population.

                 The impact of dropping birth rate on developing
                 countries may not be 73.immediate but disastrous.
                   To guarantee its economic growth, China needs to deal
                   with the population issue properly, as its workers are
                   getting 75.old/older.

                   The 76.earlier death of Russians may result in a
Population and     shrinking population, which would damage its economic
74.economic        future. It would be better if it can change people’s way of
pressure           77.living/life.

                   Leaving aside the birth rate issue,India’s economy may
                   take off when the country achieves 78.equality of
                   educational opportunity.
              The USA will increase,from 2010-2030,its population by
American
              20% through 79.immigration.This will 80.compensate
solution
              for the lack of young work force.
考场思维模式
第一步:读表格,知文章大意
通过略读树状图,可知本文话题是“人口下降”,并且分析了几个国家
存在的人口问题。
第二步:定位,定词,定性,定形
任务型阅读树状图高度概括了原文信息,为了节约时间并且提高解题的
针对性,先读图中的内容,然后在原文中进行定位,定位后进行定词,
定词后定性(如名词、动词、形容词、副词),最后定形(如单复数、非谓
语形式、大小写等)。
1.原文词汇类
74.答案   economic
解析    文章第三、四、五段分别分析了中国、俄罗斯、印度存在的人口
问题以及对本国经济发展的影响,结合第三、五段中出现的economic
development以及第四段中出现的economic       promise可判断填economic。
79.答案   immigration
解析    最后一段介绍了美国解决人口问题的办法,即通过移民入境增加
外国劳动力。根据“One        solution is obviously to import foreign workers
via immigration.”可判断填immigration。
2.转换词汇类
73.答案   immediate
解析     根据第二段中的“...which       might cause catastrophic global
shortages of work force within a few decades.”可知,发展中国家出生
率的下降可能会导致几十年后灾难性的劳动力短缺,由within                      a few
decades可知出生率下降带来的影响可能不会立即显现出来,故填
immediate。
75.答案   old/older
解析    根据第三段第一句“A        great decline in young work force is likely
to occur in China,for instance.”可知,中国很有可能出现年轻劳动力
减少的问题,也就是说中国的劳动力群体正在变老,此处既可以用old
的原级,也可以用其比较级。
76.答案   earlier
解析    根据第四段中的“...people    in Russia live a shorter life now than
those in 1961.”可知,当前俄罗斯人的寿命比1961年时要短,live              a
shorter life可以同义替换为earlier death(早逝)。
3.概括词汇类
71.答案   lower
解析    根据第一段最后一句“...declining     birth rate could be a defining
one of the 21st.”可知,出生率的下降是21世纪的特征,也就是说,21
世纪的出生率可能会比20世纪的更低,故填lower。
72.答案   size/scale
解析      根 据 第  二 段  中 的 “...almost all developed nations are
experiencing sub-replacement birth rate.”可知,大部分发达国家正经
历着人口负增长,也就是说发达国家难以保持人口的规模,“人口的规
模”用the   size/scale of population表达。
77.答案   living/life
解析   根据第四段中的“...but      poor diet and above all long-time alcoholism have
much to do with it.”可知,糟糕的饮食习惯尤其是长期酗酒与俄罗斯人寿命变短有
很大的关系,所以需要改变人们的生活方式,“生活方式”可以用way                        of living/life
表达。
78.答案   equality
解析   根据第五段中的“In       a further twist,birth rate is highest in poorly educated
rural areas and lowest in highly educated urban areas.”可知,在教育水平落后的农
村地区出生率最高,而在教育水平发达的城市地区出生率最低。由此可以推断,暂
时不考虑出生率问题,如果印度能够实现教育机会均等的话,它的经济可能会腾飞,
故填equality。
80.答案   compensate
解析   根据最后一段可知,移民入境将会弥补美国年轻劳动力不足的
问题,“弥补”可用compensate       for表示。
第三步:复查并且将答案填在答题卡上
    复查完确认不需要修改之后,将试卷上所写答案填在答题卡指定
区域,注意要认真书写,不能潦草。
微技能突破
信息捕捉题就是常见的原文词汇题,这是属于对学生英语中低层水平能
力的考查。一般占50%左右,原文词汇题是基础题目,考查学生从文章
中捕捉信息的能力。一般可以直接通过表格和原文进行对照,边读文章
边可以找出与试题相关的信息,获取到相关单词,有时候试题和原文句
型的句式不同,需进行简单的逻辑推理然后找到相应的单词,不需变化,
直接填入。解题关键是信息的定位和筛选。
随堂限时练
(2018·盐城三模)
    Artificial intelligence(AI) is rushing into business.Firms of all types are
using AI to forecast demand,hire workers and deal with customers.The
McKinsey Global Institute,a think-tank within a consultancy,forecasts
that just applying AI to marketing,sales and supply chains could create
economic value of $2.7 trn over the next 20 years.
    Such grand forecasts fuel anxiety as well as hope.Less familiar,but
just as important,is how AI will transform the workplace.
   Start with the benefits.AI ought to improve productivity.Humanyze,
a people analytics software provider,combines data from its badges(工牌)
with employees’ calendars and e-mails to work out,say,whether office
layouts favour teamwork.Slack , a workplace messaging app , helps
managers assess how quickly employees accomplish tasks.Companies will
see when workers are not just dozing off but also misbehaving.
    Employees will gain,too.Thanks to advances in computer vision,
AI can check that workers are wearing safety equipment and that no one
has been harmed on the factory floor.Some will appreciate more
feedback on their work and welcome a sense of how to do better.
    Machines can help ensure that pay rises and promotions go to those
who deserve them.That starts with hiring.People often have biases but
algorithms(算法),if designed correctly,can be more unprejudiced.
Software can flag patterns that people might miss.
    Yet AI’s benefits will come with many potential drawbacks.
Algorithms may not be free of the biases of their programmers,which
can have unintended consequences.The length of a travel may predict
whether an employee will quit a job,but this focus may harm poorer
applicants.Older staff might work more slowly than younger ones and
could risk losing their positions if all AI looks for is productivity.And
surveillance(监控) may feel Orwellian—a sensitive matter now that
people have begun to question how much Facebook and other tech
giants know about their private lives.
    As regulators and employers weigh the pros and cons of AI in the
workplace,three principles ought to guide its spread.First,data
should be anonymised where possible.Microsoft,for example,has a
product that shows individuals how they manage their time in the office,
but gives managers information only in aggregated(整合) form.Second,
the use of AI ought to be transparent.Employees should be told what
technologies are being used in their workplaces and which data are being
gathered.As a matter of routine,algorithms used by firms to hire,fire
and promote should be tested for bias and unintended consequences.
Last,countries should let individuals request their own data,whether
they are exworkers wishing to contest a dismissal or jobseekers hoping
to demonstrate their ability to prospective employers.
    The march of AI into the workplace calls for tradeoffs between
privacy and performance.A fairer,more productive workforce is a
prize worth having,but not if it chains employees.Striking a balance
will require thought,a willingness for both employers and employees to
adapt,and a strong dose of humanity.
                           AI Spy
 Passage outline              Supporting details
              While its future in business is full of 71.___promise/hope___________,AI 
  Introduction
              affects the workplace negatively.
              •AI makes business more productive by analyzing the office 
              layout,assessing the employees’ working efficiency and 
              72._______monitoring____ their behavior.
Advantages of AI •AI can 73.______guarantee/ensure__________ employees’ safety and provide 
              feedback for them to better themselves.
              •AI helps businesses hire more suitable employees and 
              develop a better 74.________system  of promotion and pay rise.
                     解析71   解析72  解析73   解析74   语篇解读     答案
              •Undesirable results may arise due to the biases of the 
              programmers.
   Potential 
              •Poorer applicants and older staff are at a 75.__disadvantage_________.
drawbacks of AI
              •Employees’ privacy is 76.____violated/disturbed____________ in the age 
              of AI.


                                           解析75  解析76   答案
            •Keep the data anonymous when they are gathered and 
            used.
  Principles •78.________Inform  employees of technologies used in the 
 77.________guiding  workplace and test the algorithms to avoid undesirable 
AI’s spread results.
            •79.___Permit/Allow_________ employees to access data for their own 
            sake.
            Only when employees and employers are 80.______willing to 
  Summary   adapt and respect each other,can AI make workplace 
            fairer and more productive.

                             解析77  解析78   解析79  解析80   答案
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