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2019人教版 高中英语 一轮复习 语法专题十一、定语从句

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︱︱高中总复习高中总复习︱︱一轮一轮··英语英语


       十一、定语从句
               ︱︱高中总复习高中总复习︱︱一轮一轮··英语英语

                         语法精讲

考点一 关系代词who,whom,whose引导的定语从句
1.who指人,在定语从句中作主语。
  The little boy who is singing there can recite quite a number of 
  poems.正在那儿唱歌的那个小男孩能背诵很多首诗。
2.whom指人,在定语从句中充当宾语,可省略。
  The author (whom) you criticized has written a letter in reply.你
  批评的那位作者写了一封回信。
               ︱︱高中总复习高中总复习︱︱一轮一轮··英语英语

3.whose通常指人,也可指物,在定语从句中作定语。
  Many children,whose parents are away working in big cities,are 
  taken good care of in the village.很多父母去大城市工作的孩子,在村
  里得到了很好的照顾。
  The building whose roof is red is a post office.
  红顶的那幢大楼是邮政局。
                ︱︱高中总复习高中总复习︱︱一轮一轮··英语英语

考点二 关系代词that和which的区别
   类别                                 说明
           先行词是everything,anything,nothing,few,little,all,none等不
           定代词或被all,little,few,much,any,every,no等修饰时
 只用that    先行词被序数词、形容词最高级修饰或先行词本身就是序数词、形
 不用which   容词最高级时
  的情况      先行词被the very,the only等修饰时
           当主句中的先行词是疑问词           who或which时
           先行词既有人也有物时
 只用which   非限制性定语从句中
 不用that    关系代词前有介词时
  的情况      先行词是that或those时
               ︱︱高中总复习高中总复习︱︱一轮一轮··英语英语

There seems to be nothing that seems impossible for him in the 
world.
世界上对他来说好像没有不可能的事。
Do you know the things and persons that they are talking about?
你知道他们正在谈论的人和事吗?
My house,which I bought last year,has got a lovely garden.
我去年买的那幢房子带着个漂亮的花园。
The reason for which he refused the invitation is not clear.他拒绝邀
请的原因不清楚。
What’s that which was put in the car?
被放入车内的是什么?
               ︱︱高中总复习高中总复习︱︱一轮一轮··英语英语

考点三 as和which引导的定语从句
1.as和which都可以在非限制性定语从句中作主语、宾语或表语,代表前面的整
  个句子。
  He opposed the idea,as/which could be expected.
  正如所料,他反对这个想法。
  They have invited me to dinner,which/as is very kind of them.
  他们真好,邀请我去参加宴会。
               ︱︱高中总复习高中总复习︱︱一轮一轮··英语英语

2.位置不同。as引导的非限制性定语从句可以放在主句之前,也可放在主句之
  后,还可以放在主句之中,位置相当灵活,而which引导的非限制性定语从句,
  则只能放在主句之后。
  As has been said before,grammar is not a set of dead rules.
  如前所述,语法并不是一套死板的规定。(不能用which)
  As anybody can see,great changes have taken place in the village.
  有目共睹的是乡村已经发生了翻天覆地的变化。
                 ︱︱高中总复习高中总复习︱︱一轮一轮··英语英语

3.使用的句子结构不同。as作关系代词还可用于the same...as,such...as等结构中,
  而which作关系代词不能用在上述结构中,但有时可用which引导的从句来改写。如:
  Here is such a big stone as no one can lift.
  =Here is a big stone which no one can lift.
  这是那么大的一块石头,没人能搬得动。
  She wears the same kind of clothes as her younger sister.
  她穿着和她妹妹所穿的一样的衣服。
4.表述的意义不同。从句含有贬义色彩时只能用which。如果从句所表达的意义给主句 
  披上一层贬义色彩,非限制性定语从句只能用which来引导,不宜用as来引导。
  He married her,which was disgraceful(=shameful).
  他娶了她,这真令人作呕。(不能说:He married her,as was disgraceful.)
                 ︱︱高中总复习高中总复习︱︱一轮一轮··英语英语

考点四 “介词+关系代词”引导的定语从句
1.简单介词+关系代词
      在这种结构中,关系代词指人时只能用whom,指物时只能用which;介词的选择主要
  是根据与从句中相关的动词、形容词、名词的固定搭配而定;或者根据先行词与从句
  中动词的关系而定;或者以先行词在定语从句中的作用而定。
  Is that the newspaper for which you often write articles?
  那是你经常为其写文章的报社吗?(for与the newspaper搭配) 
  Can you explain to me how to use these idioms about which I am not sure?
  你能给我介绍一下如何使用这些我不确定的习语吗?(about与sure搭配)
  1949 was the year in which our country was founded.
  我们国家是在1949年成立的。(in与the year搭配)
  Do you know the man to whom I spoke just now?(to与spoke搭配)
  你认识我刚才和他讲话的那个人吗?
               ︱︱高中总复习高中总复习︱︱一轮一轮··英语英语

2.简单介词+关系代词+名词
  Last month,part of Southeast Asia was struck by floods,from whose
  effects the people are still suffering.上个月东南亚局部受洪水袭
  击。如今,人们仍在遭受洪水的影响。
3.the+名词+of+关系代词
  该结构表示所有关系,口语中常用“whose+名词”代替,非正式文体中可以用
  “of which the+名词”。
  The man pulled out a gold watch,the hands of which were made of 
  small diamonds.
  那个人拿出一块金表,表的指针是用小钻石做成的。
  The journey around the world took the old sailor nine months,of  
  which the sailing time was 226 days.
  这位老水手的这次环球旅行历时9个月,其中有226天是航行时间。
               ︱︱高中总复习高中总复习︱︱一轮一轮··英语英语

4.表示整体或部分的词语+of+关系代词
  表示整体或部分的词语常见的有:不定代词all,both,none,neither,either,
  some,any;数词(含基数词、序数词、分数和百分数);数词+名词;the+最高级/
  比较级,以及表示数目或数量的词语many,most,few,several,enough,half,a 
  quarter等
  The growing speed of a plant is influenced by a number of factors,
  most of which are beyond our control.
  一种植物的生长速度受很多因素的影响,其中大多数的因素是我们控制不
  了的。
  Last week,only two people came to look at the house,neither of 
  whom wanted to buy it.
  上周,只有两个人看房子,而且他俩都不想买。
               ︱︱高中总复习高中总复习︱︱一轮一轮··英语英语

考点五 关系副词when,where,why引导的定语从句
1.关系副词when引导的定语从句
  先行词是表示时间的名词,从句中不缺少主语、宾语或表语,引导词常用关
  系副词when,when在从句中充当时间状语,也可用“介词+which”结构代替。
  I still remember the day when I first came to this school.我还记得
  我第一次来这所学校的那天。
  The book was written in 1946,since when the education system has 
  witnessed great changes.这本书写于1946年。自那时以来,教育制度已经
  历了巨大的变化。
  Jane is back in May,by when the new house should be finished.简五
  月回来,到那时,新房子应该完工了。
                 ︱︱高中总复习高中总复习︱︱一轮一轮··英语英语

2.关系副词where引导的定语从句
  (1)先行词是表示地点的名词时,从句中不缺少主语、宾语或表语,引导词常用关系副
     词where,where在从句中充当地点状语。
     Jane paused in front of a counter where some attractive ties were on 
     display.简停留在一个柜台前,一些吸引人的领带摆在那儿。
  (2)有时先行词是表示抽象意义的地点名词,像activity,business,career,case,
     job,point,position,race,stage,situation等,当从句中缺少状语时,用关系副
     词where。
     They have reached the point where they have to separate with each 
     other.
     他们已经到了必须分手的地步。
     It’s helpful to put children in a situation where they can see 
     themselves differently.
     把孩子放在一个能使他们从不同角度认识自己的处境中对他们是有帮助的。
               ︱︱高中总复习高中总复习︱︱一轮一轮··英语英语

3.关系副词why引导的定语从句
  关系副词why引导定语从句时,修饰表示原因的名词。只能在定语从句中作原
  因状语,可用for which代替,有时也可以省略。
  The reason why he didn’t pass the driving test was that he 
  lacked practice.
  因为缺少实践,他没有通过驾驶考试。
                 ︱︱高中总复习高中总复习︱︱一轮一轮··英语英语

特别提示   定语从句中的注意事项
①定语从句中谓语动词的单复数形式应与先行词保持一致。
  I,who am your teacher,will try my best to help you.
  我是你的老师,我将尽力帮助你。
  The Forbidden City is one of the world-famous buildings that draw a lot
  of visitors.
  故宫是世界著名的吸引大批游客的建筑之一。
  He is the only one of the students who has been a winner of scholarships 
  for three years.
  他是唯一一位三年获得奖学金的学生。
②关系代词that/which/whom在从句中作宾语时,可省略。如:
  There is no one else she can turn to,is there?
  她没有可以寻求帮助的人,对吧?
                ︱︱高中总复习高中总复习︱︱一轮一轮··英语英语

真题链接
1.The best part of the process is that there’s enough room for improvement,
       means you’ll just keep getting better and better.(2017全国Ⅰ) 
2.But Sarah,     has taken part in shows along with top models,wants to
  prove that she has brains as well as beauty.(2017全国Ⅲ) 

答案及剖析:
1.which 此处所缺单词引导非限制性定语从句,修饰前面的句子,因此用
  which。
2.who 考查定语从句。设空处引导非限制性定语从句,先行词为Sarah并在
  从句中作主语,故填关系代词who。
               ︱︱高中总复习高中总复习︱︱一轮一轮··英语英语

3.Like anything,it is possible to have too much of both,     is 
  not good for the health.(2017全国Ⅱ) 
4.The little problems      we meet in our daily lives may be 
  inspirations for great inventions.(2017北京) 

 答案及剖析:
 3.which 考查定语从句。句意:和其他东西一样,两者都有可能食用过多,
   这对健康是没有好处的。设空处指代前面的整句话,引导非限制性定语从
   句,故填which。
 4.that/which 考查定语从句。句意:我们在日常生活中遇到的小麻烦有可
   能成为伟大发明的灵感。题干中,The little problems是先行词,从句中
   缺少宾语,因此用that/which引导定语从句.
               ︱︱高中总复习高中总复习︱︱一轮一轮··英语英语

5.My eldest son,     work takes him all over the world,is in New
  York at the moment.(2017天津) 

答案及剖析:
5.whose 考查定语从句。句意:我最大的儿子现在在纽约,他的工作让他走
  遍世界各地。先行词是my eldest son,定语从句中缺少定语,故用whose引
  导从句。
               ︱︱高中总复习高中总复习︱︱一轮一轮··英语英语
                          跟踪训练
Ⅰ.单句语法填空
1.Now,I am a quiet person,someone      prefers being alone to 
  social activities.(2018嘉兴一模) 
2.A few minutes later,he spots a patch of sand        appears to 
  have been disturbed by a turtle.(2018浙江七彩阳光联盟联考) 
答案及剖析:
1.who/that 考查定语从句。此处所填单词作引导词,引导一个定语从句,
  指人,同时作主语,因此用who或that。
2.which/that 考查定语从句。根据句意和句子结构,此处所填单词引导一
  个定语从句,同时作句子主语,表示物,因此用that或which。
               ︱︱高中总复习高中总复习︱︱一轮一轮··英语英语

3.In 2015,Hou enrolled at a school in the district    traditional
  Chinese culture was an essential part of the curriculum.
                                            (2018金华十校一模) 
4.Metro system will be expanded,     can reduce traffic jams.
                                            (2018江西红色七校) 

 答案及剖析:
 3.where 考查定语从句。在本句中,所填单词作引导词,引导定语从句修饰
   district,同时,引导词在从句中作地点状语。
 4.which 考查非限制性定语从句。此处,所填单词引导一个非限制性定语
   从句,修饰前面整个句子,因此用which.
               ︱︱高中总复习高中总复习︱︱一轮一轮··英语英语

5.There are many forms of communication,   include:texting,cell 
  phones,e-mail,and social media.(2017宁诺附中质检) 
6.As for me,I’d like to silently thank those people around me 
       make me what I am. 

 答案及剖析:
 5.which 考查非限制性定语从句。此处,所缺的词引导非限制性定语从句,
   在从句中作主语,故用which。
 6.who/that 考查定语从句。句意:作为我,我将默默地感谢周围那些造就
   了我的人。根据句意及句子结构,此处所缺单词引导一个定语从句,修饰
   people,同时在从句中作主语,因此可以用who或that。
              ︱︱高中总复习高中总复习︱︱一轮一轮··英语英语

7.He was working in a factory      there are many people from 
  rural area. 
8.He turned around to see a red car like his own pulled out of 
  the street      he had parked. 

答案及剖析:
7.where 考查定语从句。此处,所填单词引导一个定语从句,同时在定语从
  句中作地点状语从句,因此用where。
8.where 考查定语从句。此处的语境是“他转过头,结果发现一辆和他的车
  子一样的红色汽车被从他停车的地方拖出了街道”。此处所缺单词引导定
  语从句,同时在从句中作地点状语,因此用where。
              ︱︱高中总复习高中总复习︱︱一轮一轮··英语英语

9.Little Tom has been looking forward to the big day      he 
  can show his talent at school. 
10.Our special thanks go to thousands of volunteers,without 
       tireless work none of this would be possible. 

答案及剖析:
9.when 句意:小汤姆一直在盼望一个他能够展示他的才能的伟大的日子。
  此处,所缺的词引导一个定语从句,修饰day,同时作定语从句中的时间状
  语,因此用when。
10.whose 考查定语从句。句意:我们特别致谢成千上万的志愿者,没有他
   们的辛苦工作,这一切不可能成功。此处所缺的词和前面的介词without
   一起引导一个定语从句,修饰volunteers,同时,关系词作定语,修饰
   tireless work,因此用whose。
               ︱︱高中总复习高中总复习︱︱一轮一轮··英语英语

11.Now Kleyn is receiving photos and stories of people        .
   clean their waterways from places as far as Taiwan,China. 
12.There,lying in the muddy river bed was a little dog about two 
   months old,     front legs were tightly tied with ropes.
                                          (2017江西红色七校联考) 

 答案及剖析:
 11.who/that 考查定语从句。此处所缺单词作引导词引导一个定语从句,修
    饰people,同时在从句中作主语,表示人,因此用who或that。
 12.whose 考查定语从句。先行词为a little dog,且引导词在从句中作定
    语,故用whose 引导。
              ︱︱高中总复习高中总复习︱︱一轮一轮··英语英语

13.Sierra Leone is a country      basic health facilities are 
   lacking and many people are struggling with poverty.
                                           (2017广东汕头模拟) 
14.We live in an age      more information is available with 
   greater ease than ever before. 

答案及剖析:
13.where 考查定语从句。句意:塞拉利昂是一个基础医疗设备短缺、很多
   人都在与贫困进行斗争的国家。先行词为a country,表示地点,且从句中
   不缺少主语和表语,故用where引导从句,在从句中作地点状语。
14.when 考查定语从句。先行词为an age,关系词在定语从句中作时间状语
,
   故用when。
               ︱︱高中总复习高中总复习︱︱一轮一轮··英语英语

15.A friend of mine works at the corporate headquarters of “Pepsi”,
        is a major sponsor of the movie. 
16.The heart-warming story began in September last year      a 
   woman asked the primary school in her neighborhood to accept her 
   six-year-old son. 

答案及剖析:
15.which 考查定语从句。空处引导非限制性定语从句,说明名词“Pepsi”
   的情况,在从句中作主语,故用which。
16.when 考查定语从句。句意:那个温馨的故事发生在去年的九月,当时,一
   位女士请求她所在社区小学接受她6岁的儿子。先行词为last year,表示
   时间,且从句中不缺少主语和宾语,故用when 引导从句,在从句中作时间
   状语。
               ︱︱高中总复习高中总复习︱︱一轮一轮··英语英语

17.     we all know,baked or fried foods may be tasty,but 
   eating too much of them will probably result in some illnesses. 
18.Some of the teachers at the college asked Dr.Naismith to invent
   a game      can be played indoors. 

答案及剖析:
17.As 考查非限制性定语从句。空处指代主句内容,在从句中作宾语,意为
  “正如”,故填as。
18.that/which 考查定语从句。句意:那所大学的一些教师请奈史密斯博士
   发明一种可以在室内玩的游戏。先行词为a game,引导词在限制性定语从
   句中作主语,且指物,故用that 或which 引导。
               ︱︱高中总复习高中总复习︱︱一轮一轮··英语英语

19.Get yourself familiar with local laws and customs of the 
   countries to      you are travelling. 
20.I’m buying some Christmas gifts for those      work with
   me,but it’s really a headache. 

答案及剖析:
19.which 考查定语从句。空处引导定语从句,且在从句中作介词to的宾语,
   先行词为countries,故用which。
20.who 考查定语从句。空处引导定语从句,且在从句中作主语,先行词为指
   人的those,故用who。
               ︱︱高中总复习高中总复习︱︱一轮一轮··英语英语

Ⅱ.语篇语法填空
  In the past,human activities 1.     (have) little effect on 
global warming,but now they have  caused the rise of  the earth 
temperature.All scientists agree that the increase in the temperature 
results 2.     the burning of fossil fuels.One of some byproducts 
3.     (call) greenhouse gases is carbon dioxide which can trap 
more heat energy in the atmosphere. 
               ︱︱高中总复习高中总复习︱︱一轮一轮··英语英语

      Over the  last 100 years,the temperature of the earth has 
increased.The 4.     (attitude) towards this rise are completely 
different.Some are positive 5.     others are negative.Those who 
are positive think that without the greenhouse gases the earth would 
be 6.     (cool) than it is,7.     would not be suitable to 
live on.Others think the rise of the earth temperature may cause 
severe storms,floods,droughts and so on. 
    8.     (actual),green house gases will continue to build up 
in the atmosphere.Luckily,we human beings are doing what we can 
9.        (reduce)  green house gases.More importantly,individuals 
can make 10.     difference. 
              ︱︱高中总复习高中总复习︱︱一轮一轮··英语英语

答案及剖析:
1.had 考查时态。根据时间状语 in the past可知谓语用一般过去时。
2.from 考查介词。 result from起因于……;由……造成。
3.called 考查非谓语动词。此处作后置定语,修饰byproducts,由于
  byproducts与call之间表被动意义,因此用过去分词。被叫做温室气体副
  产品之一的是二氧化碳。
4.attitudes 考查名词。根据下文的系表成分are completely different
  可知,主语用复数。
5.while 考查连词。空格前后为对比、对照关系,故用while。有些看法是
  积极的然而有些是消极的。
6.cooler 考查比较级。根据空格后的than可知用形容词比较级形式。
              ︱︱高中总复习高中总复习︱︱一轮一轮··英语英语

7.which 考查关系代词。此处引导非限制性定语从句,修饰整个主句,此处
  所用的关系词在从句中作主语,因此用which。
8.Actually 考查副词。此处位于句首,后有逗号,应用副词Actually修饰后
  面的整个句子。大气中温室效应不断加强。
9.to reduce 考查非谓语动词。what we can 作doing的宾语,此处用动词
  不定式作目的状语。
10.a 考查冠词。make a difference是固定搭配,意为:有影响,至关重
   要的。 
︱︱高中总复习高中总复习︱︱一轮一轮··英语英语
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