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2018年江苏高考二轮专题限时集训(18)阅读理解:主旨大意题

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 专题限时集训(十八) 阅读理解 主旨大意
                                 题

                           (对应学生用书第       151 页)
                          加★的为主旨大意题
                                     A 
                                                  【导学号:25874074】
      (2017·南京、盐城高三二模)Last        year Congress issued a moral call to action 
 when it ordered the National Institutes of Health to reevaluate its ethical oversight(伦
理上的疏忽)of      government­funded primate(灵长类)research.Although the scientific 
 community widely  sees nonhuman  primates as essential for advances in 
 biomedicine(they have caused major gains in the fights against AIDS and 
neurological diseases such as Parkinson's,for example),researchers agree more can 
be done to treat the animals more humanely and conduct research less wastefully.To 
that end,the NIH gathered famous scientists last September to discuss the future of 

 primate­based research—and they agreed that data sharing is the way forward.
      Researchers could reduce experiments on nonhuman primates by studying data 
 that have already been collected to answer new questions,says David O'Connor,a 
 pathologist at the University of Wisconsin Madison.O'Connor is walking_the_walk:
 his laboratory studies the Zika virus in primates,and he immediately posts all the 
results online.The goal is to figure out ways to fight Zika as quickly as possible 
without placing an undue burden on research primates.The Seattle­based Allen 
Institute for Brain Science,which uses rhesus macaques,small South Asian 
monkeys,to study the molecular basis of brain development,also makes all results 

public.O'Connor says this practice should be more widespread so that “researchers 
who are using this scarce but vital resource can learn as much as possible from as few 
animals as necessary”.Still,he is skeptical that data sharing will catch on because it 

would  require a change in “normative behavior”—science's strong culture of 
secrecy,in which  data are kept under wraps until they are published in a 

peer­reviewed journal.One step toward full transparency is to follow the lead of 
                中国现代教育网    www.30edu.com  全国最大教师交流平台

 human clinical trials,says Christine Grady,a bioethicist at the NIH.U.S.law 
requires most clinical trials to register online and make their results public,even if a 
study fails or is inconclusive.This ensures that other researchers can learn from a trial 
regardless of its results—a move that could also safeguard primates against being 
used for the same thing twice.Nancy Haigwood,director of the Oregon National 
Primate Research Center,also says data sharing is “the way of the future”.Her 
center hosts 4,800 primates to study a variety of human diseases.She currently 

contributes results from her center to O'Connor's website.“I don't see a drawback,”
 she says,“We have to share data more quickly.”
 【语篇解读】 为了更人道地对待灵长类动物,在实验过程中减少对它们的伤
 害,研究者之间应该做到数据共享,增加实验数据的透明度。

 1.What does Congress think of the primate research?
   A.It has done a great deal of good to advances in biomedicine.
   B.It is a huge waste of money to conduct research on primates.
   C.Primate­based research must be stopped for moral reasons.
   D.Proper attention should be given to treating primates humanely.
   D [考查细节理解。根据文章第一段中的“Last                  year Congress issued a moral 
   call to action when it ordered the National Institutes of Health to reevaluate its 
   ethical  oversight(伦理上的疏忽)of      government­funded  primate(灵长类)

   research.”及“...researchers agree more can be done to treat the animals more 
   humanely and ...”可知美国国会要求研究人员更人道地对待灵长类动物。]

 ★2.The underlined phrase “walking the walk” in Paragraph 2 shows that O'Connor 
      ________.
   A.is the leader in fighting Zika virus in primates
   B.is walking away from his own responsibility
   C.is carrying out what he has said he should do
   D.is taking a tough road when posting his data
   C [考查词义猜测。根据画线部分后面的内容可知他的实验室把所有的研究
   结果公布在网络上,这与他前面所说的研究人员可以通过数据共享来减少对

   非人灵长类动物所做的实验一致,所以此处指他在践行他说的话。]
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 3.According to O'Connor,what might prevent scientists from sharing their data?
   A.The deep­rooted culture that data should be kept secret until published.
   B.The fact that scientists are reluctant to change their way of research.
   C.The requirement that most clinical trials should be registered online.
   D.The fear that they will be laughed at if a study fails or is inconclusive.
   A [考查细节理解。根据文章第二段中的“...because                  it would  require a 

   change in‘normative behavior’—science's strong culture of secrecy,in which 

   data are kept under wraps until they are published in a peer­reviewed journal.”可
   知阻碍数据共享的是人们根深蒂固的文化,即在出版之前研究数据必须保密。
   ]
 4.What could be the best title for the passage?
   A.The Merciless Practice of Primate Research
   B.To Treat Primates More Humanely:Transparency
   C.To Abandon Experiments on Primates:Final Goal
   D.The Burden of Research on Nonhuman Primates
   B [考查主旨大意。纵观全文可知,本文主要讲的是为了更人道地对待灵长
   类动物,在实验过程中减少对它们的伤害,研究人员应该和他人共享实验数

   据,做到实验数据的透明。所以选择                 B。]
                                     B 
                                                  【导学号:25874075】
      (2017·无锡高三一模)If     you intend using humor in your talk to make people 
smile,you must know how to identify shared experiences and problems.Your humor 
must be relevant to the audience and should help to show them that you are one of 
them or that you understand their situation and are in sympathy with their point of 
view.Depending on whom you are addressing,the problems will be different.If you 
are talking to a group of managers,you may refer to the disorganized methods of 
their secretaries;alternatively if you are addressing secretaries,you may want to 
comment on their disorganized bosses.
      Here is an example,which I heard at a nurses' convention,of a story which 
works well because the audience all shared the same view of doctors.A man arrives in 
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 heaven and is being shown around by St.Peter.He sees wonderful accommodations,
 beautiful gardens,sunny weather,and so on.Everyone is very peaceful,polite and 
 friendly until,waiting in line for lunch,the new arrival is suddenly pushed aside by 
 a man in a white coat,who rushes to the head of the line,grabs his food and 
 stomps(重踏)over to a table by himself.“Who is that?” the new arrival asks 

 St.Peter.“ Oh,that's God,” comes the reply,“but sometimes he thinks he's a 

 doctor.”
      If you are part of the group which you are addressing,you will be in a position 
to know the experiences and problems which are common to all of you and it'll be 
appropriate for you to make a passing remark about the uneatable canteen food or the 
chairman's notorious(臭名昭著的)bad taste in ties.With other audiences you mustn't 
attempt to cut in with humor as they will resent an outsider making remarks about 
their canteen or their chairman.You will be on safer ground if you stick to 
scapegoats(替身)like the Post Office or the telephone system.
      If you feel awkward being humorous,you must practice so that it becomes 

more natural.Include a few casual and apparently off­the­cuff(即兴)remarks which 
you can deliver in a relaxed and unforced manner.Often it's the delivery which causes 
the audience to smile,so speak slowly and remember that a raised eyebrow or an 
unbelieving look may help to show that you are making a light­hearted remark.
      Look for the humor.It often comes from the unexpected.A twist on a familiar 
quote “If  at first you don't succeed,give up” or a play on words or a 
situation.Search for exaggeration and understatements(轻描淡写).Look at your talk 
and pick out a few words or sentences which you can turn about and inject with 
humor.
 【语篇解读】 这是一篇议论文。文章主要阐述如何在你的谈话中有效地使用
 幽默。

 5.To make your humor work,you should ________.
   A.take advantage of different kinds of audience
   B.make fun of the disorganized people
   C.address different problems to different people
   D.show sympathy for your listeners
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   C [考查细节理解。根据第一段中的“Depending                   on   whom   you   are 
   addressing,the problems will be different.”可知,根据听众的不同,你必须
   与不同的人谈论不同的问题。故答案为                  C。]
 6.In the eyes of nurses,the joke about doctors implies that they are ________.
   A.impolite to new arrivals
   B.entitled(有资格)to some privileges
   C.very conscious of their godlike role
   D.very busy even during lunch hours
   C [考查推理判断。根据第二段的内容尤其是“the                    new  arrival is suddenly 
   pushed aside ...a doctor”可知,在护士眼中,医生感受到了他们神一样的地位。
   故答案为     C。]
 7.It can be inferred from the text that public services ________.
   A.have benefited many people
   B.are the focus of public attention
   C.are an inappropriate subject for humor
   D.have often been the laughing stock
   D [考查推理判断。根据第三段中的“You will be on safer ground if you stick 
   to scapegoats(替身)like the Post Office or the telephone system.”可知,如果你
   选择去评论邮局系统或电话系统这样的“替罪羊”,那你就会更安全。由此

   可知,公共事业经常会成为笑柄。故答案为                    D。]

 ★8.The best title for the text may be ________.
   A.Effective ways to use humor
   B.An appropriate topic matters in humor
   C.How to add humor to speech
   D.Casualness makes for natural humor
   A [考查主旨大意。根据全文来看,文章主要讨论的是如何在谈话中有效地
   使用幽默。故答案为          A。]
                                     C
      (2017·苏州高三一模)Robotic surgery is one thing,but sending a robot inside 
the body to carry out an operation quite another,which has long been a goal of some 
                中国现代教育网    www.30edu.com  全国最大教师交流平台

 researchers to produce tiny robotic devices being capable of traveling through the 
body to deliver drugs or to make repairs without the need for a single cut,the 
possibility of which has just got a bit closer.
      However,unlike the plot of one film—which featured a microscopic crew and 

submarine traveling through a scientist's bloodstream—this device could not be 
inserted into blood vessels(管)because it is too big.While other types of miniature 
swallowable robots have been developed in the past years,their role has mostly been 
limited to capturing images inside the body.In a presentation this week to an 
International Conference,Daniela Rus and Shuhei Miyashita of the Massachusetts 
Institute of Technology described a robot they have developed that can be swallowed 
and used to collect dangerous objects accidentally taken in.
      To test their latest version,Dr Rus and Dr Miyashita designed a robot as a 
battery hunter,which might seem to be an odd task,but more than 3,500 people 
in America alone,most of them children,swallow the tiny button cells used in 
small electronic devices by accident every year.To start with,the researchers created 
an artificial esophagus(食道)and stomach made out of silicone(硅胶).It is closely 
modeled on that found in a pig and filled with medical liquid;the robot itself is made 
from several layers of different materials,including pig intestines(肠),and contains 

a little magnet.This is folded up and encased in a 10mm × 27mm capsule of ice.Once 
this reaches the stomach the ice melts and the robot unfolds which is moved and 
guided with the use of a magnetic field outside the body.In their tests,the robot was 
able to touch a button battery and draw it with its own magnet,and during dragging 
it along,the robot could then be directed towards the intestines where it would 
eventually be gotten rid of through the anus(肛门).After it,the researchers sent in 
another robot loaded with medication to deliver it to the site of the battery burn to 
speed up healing.
      The artificial stomach being transparent on one side,the researchers were able 
to see the batteries and visually control the robots.If not,that will require help with 
the help of the imaging system,which will be a bit more of a challenge,but Dr Rus 
and Dr Miyashita are determined to succeed.
 【语篇解读】 本文是一篇说明文。文章主要介绍了一款最新的可以被置于人
               中国现代教育网    www.30edu.com  全国最大教师交流平台

体中给人类“做手术”的机器人。

9.According to the passage,the robot operation will probably be able to 
   ________.
  A.travel through a scientist's bloodstream
  B.photograph the body to convey messages to the doctor
  C.enter the body to deliver drugs or make repairs
  D.operate on a person outside the body completely
  C [考查细节理解。根据第一段中的“...being              capable of traveling through the 
  body to deliver drugs or to make repairs”可知,该款机器人能够进入到人体中
  输送药物或进行治疗。故答案为               C。]
10.We learn from Paragraph 3 that ________.
  A.the researchers did the experiment on a chosen animal
  B.the robot took necessary drugs besides a little magnet
  C.digesting the swallowed batteries is difficult for children
  D.the actual size of the robot may be larger than the capsule of ice
  D [考查推理判断。文章第三段讲了机器人的实验操作原理“...This                              is 

  folded up and encased in a 10mm ×27mm capsule of ice.Once this reaches the 

  stomach the ice melts and the robot unfolds”,即把机器人折叠后包裹在冰块
  胶囊里,然后胶囊在胃里融化后,机器人会随之展开。故由此可推出机器人

  的实际大小比冰块胶囊的要大。]
11.What may the experiment mean to the medical world?
  A.The surgeries will cost patients much money.
  B.Patients will suffer less for some surgeries.
  C.Fewer children will swallow the button cells.
  D.A robot will be invented traveling blood vessels.
  B [考查推理判断。根据第一段中的“...without             the need for a single cut”以及
  第三段中的“After       it,the researchers sent in another robot loaded with 

  medication to deliver it to the site of the battery burn to speed up healing.”可知,
  这种机器人治疗无须对身体动刀;且机器人可以输送药物到指定位置以帮助

  身体加快痊愈。故答案为            B。]
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★12.Which can be the most suitable title for the passage?
  A.An Experiment on Robots
  B.Tiny Robot,Significant Role
  C.The Fantastic Robotic Voyage
  D.The Exploration of Robot Technology
  C [考查主旨大意。文章第一段主要介绍了“Robotic                    surgery”的概念;第二
  段继续阐明主题并引出了新研发的可被吞咽的机器人;第三段具体说明了这
  种机器人的工作原理;最后一段总结了这种机器人的优势并表明了研究者们

  的展望。所以       C “奇幻的机器人之旅”作文章的标题生动形象。]
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