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专题二    完形填空
第一节        技法点拨
内容索引


                            题型分析

                            策略指导
题型分析
                 把脉近三年天津卷考向分布

           年份        2018           2017        2016
       体裁         6月     3月     6月      3月      6月
    个数
                记叙文     记叙文    记叙文     记叙文     记叙文
题型
 句内层次(较易)          9     10      9       10     10
 句组层次(中等)          8      7      8       8       8
 语篇层次(较难)          3      3      3       2       2
    分析近3年的天津卷高考试题,我们不难发现,完形填空的文章
体裁主要是记叙文。内容主要是传播知识,传递正能量,可读性较强。
题型分为句内层次、句组层次、语篇层次等三个层次,以句内层次和
句组层次题为主,语篇层次题为辅,较难的语篇层次题仅有3道左右。
这就要求考生在做完形填空题时,心中始终有这三个层次,认真甄别
每道题是属于哪种层次,然后再确定用何种方法来解题,从而做到万
无一失。
策略指导
一、解题步骤
1.通读全文,把握主旨。         在速读全文的过程中要重视首句、首段的信
息,注意找出文章的关键词、中心词,画出某些代表人物和情节的词句,
理清“情节线”和“情感线”,形成对整篇文章概貌的理解。
2.上下求索,先易后难。         完形填空设题通常分为句内、句组和语篇三
个层次,做题时先易后难,遇到没有把握的题目时,可暂时跳过空格,
顺着原来的思路推进,等到大部分空格选出答案后,借助已补全的信息,
回头扫除“最牛钉子户”。
3.复读全文,微调答案。         做完题后,把填好的短文通读一遍,看看有
没有明显的语法错误和逻辑冲突,必要时加以改正。
二、解题策略
   完形填空题的解答实际上就是通过已知信息去破解未知信息。这
需要考生从完形填空文章所包含的庞杂的已知信息体系中分析、查找、
排查无关的已知信息,定位和查找出与每处具体的填空相关联的已知
信息,再根据这些信息最终得出正确答案。下面我们将介绍句内、句
组和语篇三种层次题的常用解题技巧,看看应如何利用已知信息来确
定未知信息。
(一)句内层次题
1.利用习惯搭配及固定结构解题
完形填空中经常会考查一些习惯搭配和固定结构,这时考生就需要运
用习惯搭配及固定结构来解题。
例题   (2017·6月天津)This combination of healing myself and healing
the world 26 me as the perfect solution.
A.scared                B.considered
C.confused              D.struck
分析   本题可以利用固定搭配解题。strike          sb. as sth. 给某人以某种印
象,让某人觉得。故选D。
                                                      分析
2.利用生活常识和文化背景解题
完形填空文章中往往渗透着诸如文化科学、历史地理、风俗民情等
方面的知识。考生在做题时,若能积极地调动自己的文化背景知识
和生活常识,巧妙地加以运用,特别是注意中西文化的差异,将会
大大简化复杂的分析与判断过程,节省宝贵的时间,顺利地沿作者
的思路阅读下去。
例题   (2018·6月天津)No one is born a winner. People make themselves
into winners by their own 16 .
A.luck                  B.tests
C.efforts               D.nature
分析   本题可以利用生活常识和文化背景解题。根据常识可知,只有
依靠自己的努力才能成为赢家。luck幸运;test测试;effort努力;
nature自然。根据前一句“No       one is born a winner.”(没有人天生就是
赢家),可知选C。

                                                      分析
3.利用对应成分分析法解题
完形填空文章的上下文之间以及句子内部之间往往有着一定的逻辑
关系,它使句子的各个成分之间形成一定的对应关系。考生可以根
据这种逻辑关系找出与未知填空相对应的已知成分,将它作为线索,
通过它推断出未知填空的答案。
例题   (2017·全国Ⅱ)Before the school year 47.ended,I gave the kids a
special 48.gift,T-shirts with the words “Verbs Are Your 49.Friends”
on them.I had advised the kids that while verbs(动词) may seem dull,
most of the 50 things they do throughout their lives will be verbs.
50.A.simple             B.unique
C.fun                   D.clever


                                                      分析
4.利用逻辑关系解题
此方法是通过分析未知填空前后文已知信息之间的逻辑关系来确定答
案,主要应用于完形填空的两类题型:一是考查连接词和起连接词作
用的短语;二是考查上下文的逻辑关系。
例题   (2018·6月天津)It was a tradition for the school’s old team to
play against the 19 team at the end of spring practice.
A.successful            B.excellent
C.strong                D.new
分析   本题可以利用逻辑关系解题。根据前半句“It                was a tradition
for the school’s old team”中的old team提示可知,春季训练结束时,
学校新老队伍对抗是一个传统。故选D。
                                                      分析
5.利用语境暗示分析法解题
上下文语境具体体现为:全文的中心主线和主题、作者的态度倾向和
评价、上下文语篇衔接、句际和段际关系。在句内层次中,我们通常
可以通过上下文语境,即根据已知信息,推导出正确答案。
例题   Several years ago I 37 a letter from seventeen-year-old Kerry,
who described herself as a world-class fault-finder,almost always
38.bothered by things.
37.A.received           B.answered
C.expected              D.rejected

                                                      分析
(二)句组层次题
1.利用语义复现解题
复现是一种语义衔接手段,它通过原词、同义词或近义词、反义词、
上义词、下义词、同源词或同根词等重复出现来表达某一概念,使整
篇文章上下连贯、有机地衔接在一起。因此,考生可根据文章的具体
情况,理解文章的结构和语境,利用文章中的语义复现现象来选择正
确的答案。
例题   (2017·6月天津)That year,I 21.attended a seminar where we
were asked to create a project that would touch the world.A seminar
leader shared her 22.success story—she had not only lost 125 pounds,
but also raised $25,000 for homeless children.
   23.Influenced by her story,I created the As We Heal(痊愈),the
World Heals 24 .
24.A.project            B.business
C.system                D.custom
分析   本题可以利用语义复现解题。本题为原词复现。根据上文中的
“we were asked to create a project”可知,此处应填project。project
项目;business生意;system系统;custom风俗。故选A。
                                                      分析
2.利用作者态度或感情色彩关联解题
在高考完形填空文章中,我们一定要在快速阅读文章的过程中,仔细
找出能够反映作者态度和感情色彩的重要词汇,它们往往是名词、形
容词、副词或动词等。这些词汇通常是我们做题时重要的参照线索,
可以帮助我们快速确定某些题目的正确答案。
例题   (2016·天津)She had a 26.firm intention within herself to be the
best she could be. My ten-year-old was growing and changing right
before my eyes,into this 27 human being with a passion and a
mission....But that didn’t stop her from trying.
27.A.trusted            B.determined
C.experienced           D.embarrassed
分析   本题可以利用作者态度或感情色彩关联解题。联系上文的“She
had a firm intention”及下文的“But   that didn’t stop her from
trying.”可以看出,她是一个意志坚定的(determined)人。故选B。

                                                      分析
3.利用逻辑关系解题
在句组层次题中,利用逻辑关系解题同样是一种重要的方法。
例题    (2016·全国Ⅱ)Everything they know about you 42.came through
this device,sometimes from hundreds of miles away. 43 they feel they
can know you 44.just from the sound of your voice.
43.A.Thus                B.Yet
C.Then                   D.Indeed
分析    本题可以利用逻辑关系解题。前文提到“他们对你的了解全部通
过这台装置,有时来自数百英里远的地方”,本空用副词yet表示转折
含义:可是他们觉得仅仅通过你的声音他们就能够了解你。故选B。
                                                       分析
4.利用语境暗示分析法解题
在句组层次题中,有些题目我们往往也需要通过上下文语境,即根据
已知信息,推导出正确答案。
例题   (2016·全国Ⅲ)When  I was 13 my only purpose was to become the
star on our football team.That meant 41.beating out Miller King,who
was the best 42 at our school.
42.A.coach              B.student
C.teacher               D.player

                                                      分析
(三)语篇层次题
1.利用语义复现解题
在语篇层次题中,我们同样可以利用语义复现解题。
例题    (2017·6月天津)27.As I began my own personal weight program,
I was filled with the fear that I would 28.run into the same difficulties that
beat me before.While the 29 hung over my head,there were also signs...
29.A.excitement          B.joy
C.anger                  D.fear
分析    本题可以利用语义复现解题。本题为原词复现。根据上文中的
“I was filled with the fear”可知,此处应填fear。故选D。
                                                       分析
2.利用总分结构对照分析法解题
完形填空往往采用总分对照结构,这种结构可以为我们提供重要的解
题线索。
例题   In our modern world,when something wears out,we throw it
away and buy a new one.The 36.problem is that countries around the
world have growing mountains of 37.rubbish because people are
throwing out more rubbish than ever before.
   How  did we 38  a throwaway society?First of all,it is now
easier to 39.replace an object than to spend time and money to repair it.
40.Thanks to modern manufacturing( 制造业) and technology ,
companies are able to produce products quickly and inexpensively.
Products are plentiful and41.cheap.
   Another cause is our42.love of disposable(一次性的) products.As
43.busy people,we are always looking for 44.ways to save time and
make our lives easier.Companies 45.produce thousands of different
kinds of disposable products:paper plates,plastic cups,and cameras,
to name a few.
    Our appetite for new products also 46.contributes to the problem.
We  are 47.addicted to buying new things.Advertisements persuade us
that 48.newer is better and that we will be happier with the latest
products.The result is that we 49.throw away useful possessions to make
room for new ones.
38.A.face                B.become
C.observe                D.change


                                                       分析
3.利用逻辑关系解题
在语篇层次题中,利用逻辑关系也是一种重要的解题方法。
例题   Dario and his mother loved their new apartment.The living room
was large enough for their piano.That night,the two of them 36.sat
side by side at the piano.They played jazz music to celebrate their new
home.The loud 37.music filled the room and made them feel very happy.
   The next morning, 38 ,their happiness disappeared.Someone
had left a 39.note under their door during the night.One of their
neighbors had written to complain(抱怨) about the sound of the piano.
Dario’s mother asked the building superintendent(管理员) if he knew
anything about it.But he said that they were all 40.nice people and he
couldn’t imagine any of them had done that.Later that morning,
Dario suggestedthat they write a letter to their 41.neighbors and
apologize for their playing.
38.A.therefore          B.however
C.otherwise             D.instead
                                                      分析
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