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新疆巴州且末县中学 人教版 必修一 Unit 4 Earthquakes 定语从句语法知识讲解

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This is the film which I 
saw last night.
Here are two pictures 
that are taken from 
the film .
This is the film whose 
name is Harry Potter .
The man whom you see 
in the first  picture is a 
headmaster.
   the          This is the film whichwhich I 
                saw last night.
Attributive
                Here are two pictures 
  Clause        that are taken from 
                the film .
                This is the film whose 
                name is Harry Potter .
                The man  whomwhom you see 
                In the first  picture is a 
                headmaster.
定语从句
      用作定语的从句叫定语从句。定语从句所修 
饰的名(代)词叫作先行词。引导定语从句的词
叫“关系词”。关系词有两个作用:一、引导定语
从句。二、代替先行词在其引导的定语从句中充
当一定的句子成分。定语从句一般紧跟在先行词
的后面。
1. The students (who don’t study hard) will not pass
   先行词          定语从句
    the exam.
  主句: The students will not pass the exam.
 2. The woman (whom you saw in the park) is our
    先行词           定语从句
    English teacher.
  主句: The woman is our English teacher.

   从句的主语:you      从句的宾语:whom
3. A shoe shop is a shop (which sells shoes).
主句:A shoe shop is a shop.
从句的主语:    which
4. The book (that you want) is on the desk.
主句  The book is on the desk.
从句的主语: you                        从句的宾语:that

  注意:必须保持主句的完整性
引导定语从句的关系代词常见的有that, which,who
whom等。关系代词放在先行词和定语从句之间,
起连接作用,同时又作定语从句的一个成份。
 eg. The man (that/who told us a funny story) 
              主语
       is in the next room.

   I lost the book(( that/which ) you gave me).
                   宾语
           关系代词的用法关系代词的用法


           指代      所做成分     是否可省略

 that     人;物     主语;宾语     作宾语可省
 which      物     主语;宾语     作宾语可省
 who        人     主语;宾语     作宾语可省
 whom       人        宾语       可省

whose     人;物        定语     不可省
  关系词      指代          所做成分
   which   物
           人         subject(主语)
   that    物          object(宾语)
   who     人
   whom    人         object(宾语)

   whose   人/物      attribute(定语)

Fill in the blanks with :
      who, whom, whose, which, that
AHeMr clocknurse isBlack the is  ________ manawhose machineperson _______________(whom/who/that) work  _______________________who/that isthat/which teaching looksI met  in 
tellaftertheEnglish  parkpeople sick  yesterdayis  peopletheregarded time . . .as the best 
teacher in the school .
定语从句:是指在复合句中,
修饰名    词或    代的从句词 .
被定语从句所修饰的名词或代
词叫做“先行      ”词.
引导定语从句的词叫“关系      ”词 
 引导定语从句的关系词
                          关
指代人     who   ,whom,that
                          系
指代事物 which   ,that
                          代
所属关系 whose   ,of which
                          词
指地点     where   关
指时间     when    系
指原因     why     副
                词
  关系代词的实质
Join the following sentences:

 A plane is a machine. 
 The machine can fly.
   关系代词的实质

Join the following sentences:

A plane is a machine. The machine can fly.

A plane is  a    machine                the        machine               can fly.
   关系代词的实质

Join the following sentences:

A plane is a machine. The machine can fly.

A plane is  a    machine                 that         /which             can fly.
关系代词的实质
Join the following 
sentences:

The girl is Mary. 
We saw her yesterday.


                
 关系代词的实质

Join the following sentences:

The girl is Mary. We saw her yesterday.

   The        girl      we saw    her       yesterday is Mary.
 关系代词的实质

Join the following sentences:

The girl is Mary. We saw her yesterday.

                her
   The        girl      we saw           yesterday is Mary.
 关系代词的实质

Join the following sentences:

The girl is Mary. We saw her yesterday.

               her
   The        girl      we saw           yesterday is Mary.
 关系代词的实质

Join the following sentences:

The girl is Mary. We saw her yesterday.

           her
   The        girl          we saw           yesterday is Mary.
 关系代词的实质

Join the following sentences:

The girl is Mary. We saw her yesterday.

         her
   The        girl                we saw    yesterday is Mary.
 关系代词的实质

Join the following sentences:

The girl is Mary. We saw her yesterday.

   The        girl        her        we saw    yesterday is Mary.
 关系代词的实质

Join the following sentences:

The girl is Mary. We saw her yesterday.

   The        girl        her                        we saw    yesterday 
is Mary.
 关系代词的实质

Join the following sentences:

The girl is Mary. We saw her yesterday.

   The        girl         that/who/whom                               we saw  yesterday 
is Mary.
                      注意避免重复
                             a boy       
                             has a scar     
                             forehead  


Harry Porter is a boy who/that has a scar 
on his forehead.
         The boy  is holding a dog .
       The   Theboy  boyis holding is Jim a  .dog   .
         His hair is golden .
        He   Thehas  boygolden is  hairholding .  a dog .

The    boyThe whowhose boy has hairwho golden  isis  goldenholdinghair is is  holding aholding dog  isa  a dog. Jimdog ..
                     He is one of the
                      persons in the 
                      film.

                     The police are 
                     looking for him.

He is one of the persons that/whom/who
the police are looking for.
               This is a very interesting
               game .
               Tom played it last night.


This is a very interesting game which/that
Tom played last night. 
     the city


 Beijing  is the city 
 where /in which
 the 2008 Olympic 
 Games was 
 held.

Beijing     2008
   Oct. 1, 1949    the day    found

Oct.1,1949 is the day when/ on which 
the PRC was founded.
  It                    a city
        people live happily 
It is a city where/in which people are 
living happily.
He is  thethe  manman  whowho  taughttaught  usus  howhow  toto  bebe  aa  
soldier.先行词

               To lead the clause
    关系词
               To act as one part 
               of the clause
1.1. All All, that  ismuch, needed  isnone, a supply everything, of oil.  
anything,what  something, the one作先行
2.词时 The city is the one that /--- I remember.
 3.The2. 当先行词是序数词或被序数词修饰时 first book that I chose yesterday is interesting.
3.当先行词被4.This is the very/rightonly book,any that/---,just I, amright looking,  for.
very,few,little,no,all修饰时
         just the book
4.当先行词为最高级或被最高级修饰时5. This is the best film that has been made by 
children.
He is the best man that/who/whom/--- I have met.
                  (人不受限制)
5.当先行词中有人又有物时 6. They are talking about the 
people and the school that/--- they 
paid a visit to.
6.which引导的特殊疑问句,避免
重复只用7. Which isthat the book that/--- you bought?
8. 它不再是以前那只漂亮的小猪了。
7.当关系代词在从句中作表语时只
用Itthat isn,且不可以省’t the beautiful pig that it was.
1. 由who引导的特殊疑问句,为避免
重复只用that
eg:Who is the man that is talking with 
Mr. Black?
2.当关系代词在从句中作表语时只用
that
eg: He isn’t the clever boy that he was.
                     =used to 
                     be.
 1.先行词为one,ones,anyone,
 those,he时,只用who
 eg:He who laughs last laughs best.

 2.在there be句型中,先行词为人
 只用who
 eg: 那儿有个偷东西的人。
  There is a man who is stealing.
先行词与从句的主语构成从属关系
eg: He is the lawyer whose daughter went 
abroad.     = the daughter of whom
            = of whom the daughter

eg: 他们住在一间门是兰色的房子里。
     They live in a house whose door is blue.
                  = the door of which
                  = of which the door

China has hundreds of islands, the 
largest  _____whichof  is Taiwan.
He is the person_____whomto  you will 
write.
    _____whom by  the book was written. 
   _____whomfrom  I learnt a lot.
    _____whom to  I can turn for help. 
        (turn to sb. for help)
   _____whom with  I worked in the factory.
This is the book _____which  on  I spent 8 
yuan.
      _____which for  I paid 8 yuan.
      _____from which I learned a lot.
      _____which they are talking. 
     _____in  which there are few new  
    words.
This I have is the lots river of friends, some/none of 
 whom_____areby/beside_______which friendly. there is a factory.
  I on   have_______ which lots   ofthere friends, is a boat. and some of 
 them
 over/across  ____are______________a friendly. which  bridge was built.
    along__________weI have which lots of friends. often have Some a  walk.of 
 them____are friendly.
 Non-restrictive attributive clause(非限定
 性定语从句)
 特征:用逗号隔开,起补充说明作用,译
 成两句话.
 He will go to see his wife, who is in Beijing.
     他将去北京看望妻子,她在北京工作.
(没有逗号翻译成:他将去看望在北京工
作的那个妻子.)
 He passed the exam, which makes 
 me happy.
定语从句分限制性定语从句和非限制性定语
从句。
非限制性定语从句的先行词和关系词常用逗
号隔开,且不能用that引导。
e.g. 
1、She had eight children, three of whom 
lived to grow up.
2、Smoking, which is a bad habit,is very 
popular.
1. Watch the girl and her dog _____D
    are crossing the bridge! 
  A.which             B. who
     
  C. they               D. that
单项选择
 1. The man _____A  you just talked to was 
      a friend of mine.
   A. whom     B. which    D. whose   D. where 
 2. The necklace ____C  my father bought me is 
      very expensive.
   A. who      B. whose   C. that   D. where
 3. The doctor ____B  is leaving for Africa 
     next month.
   A. the nurse is talking to him
   B. whom the nurse is talking to
      C. the nurse is talking to
      D. that the nurse is talking
4. Ms. Ji ____A loves us very much is our math
    teacher.
    A. who   B. whom   C. whose  D. which
5. The bike ________wasC  stolen.
    A. which my mother buys me
    B.  who my mother bought me
    C. which my mother bought me
    D. that my mother buys me
6. The dog ___B  owner is an old man is very lovely.
       A. which    B. whose     C. that   D. who 
2. He is the only one of the three 
_____  got the new idea.      
  A. who have     
  B. whom have    
  C. who has   
  D. whose had
3. In the school there are one 
      thousand students, and 45% 
      of _____ are girls. 

     A.    which           B.    those 
    
     C.    whom           D.    them
4. The reason _____ he didn’t do 
his homework was _____ he wasn’t 
told to.
         
   A. why; that      B. which; because
  
   C. which; that    D. why; because
5.You can hardly imagine the 
 difficulty she had ______ enough 
 evidence(证据)to prove the case.
  A. collected          
  B. to collect     
  C. collecting         
  D. to have collected
6. Can you think of  a scene _____ 
 this word can be used? 
      
     A. where           B. which 
  
     C. while            D. why 
            Tips:

• 1. 关系词的选用,取决于先行词在
 从句中的成份,而不是它本身。
• 2.定语从句不能滥用。如果能用简单      
 句表达出来的东西就不用从句来表
 达。
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