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2018-2019 高考英语改错专项练习之词语搭配

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                       高考改错专项练习之词语搭配

                                     教学内容


                          词语搭配

热点诠释

   词语搭配涉及的知识点也比较多,最为重要的有介词和名词的固定搭配,动词与介词或副
词的搭配,动词与非谓语动词的搭配,以及某些句型的固定搭配等都会成为短文改错的考查点。


   热点一:介词和名词的固定搭配错误

   介词和名词的固定搭配错误在高考短文改错中所占比值最大,主要表现在:

   1.介词和名词搭配中冠词误用

  【典例   1】Though the young couple got to know each other quite by a chance, they had a 
lot in common.

   解析:去掉第一个         a。by chance  是固定搭配,意为“碰巧;偶然地”。

   请注意以下“介词+名词”搭配中均省略冠词:

   “by+名词”类:by airplane    乘飞机    by birth 生来 by comparison 比较起来    by day 在白天  by 
design 故意地   by force 强迫地  by turns 轮流 by weight 按重量计算

   “in+名词”类:in     general 大体上;一般而言      in store 贮藏着;保存着;准备着          in detail 详细
地 in particular 特别地 in charge 负责;主管    in case 一旦;万一    in brief 简而言之   in cash 用现
金(支付)in      conclusion 总之  in control 控制中  in  danger(处境)危险         in debt 负债  in 
place 在原来位置;在适当位置          in reality 事实上 in return 作为回报  in short 简而言之   in total 总
共;总计
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   “on+名词”类:on duty     在值班    on business 在出差  on guard 在站岗   on end 连续;竖立     on 
fire 着火 on show 在展示   on holiday 在度假   on time 准时  on average 平均  on board 在(车、
船)上   on earth 根本;地球上     on foot 步行  on sale 出售

   “at+名词”类:at     dawn 在黎明    at ease 自由自在    at hand 在手边,   在附近    at large 未被捕, 
详尽  at length 最后, 详细地   at peace 处于和平状态      at sea 在大海上,    迷茫  at sunrise 日出时  at 
table 在餐桌边吃饭     at war 交战

   “under+名词”类:under      arrest 被捕 under discussion 在讨论   under control 控制住 under 
way 进行中

    2.一些固定搭配中介词误用

    【典例   2】The car went to the direction of the post office.

    解析:to→in。in the direction of 是固定搭配,意为“朝……方向”。

    请注意以下常用且易混淆的短语:

    with one’s help 在……的帮助下

    under the leadership of 在……的领导下

    to one’s surprise 令某人惊讶的是

    in surprise 惊讶地

    take…by surprise 使……大吃一惊;突然袭击

    thanks for 感谢……

    thanks to 多亏……

    in the sunshine 在阳光下

    under the bridge 在桥下
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 at a time 每次;同时

 at the time 当时;目前

 at times 有时,不是

 at all times 总是;一直

 at that time 那时侯

 at one time 过去;曾经有段时间

 at no time 从不,从来没有

 The town was taken by surprise.

 城市被突然攻陷。

 I stopped the car very quickly thanks to the good brakes.

 由于闸好,我很快煞住了汽车。

 Thanks for your help.

 谢谢您的帮助。

 She spoke half an hour at a time.

 她一次讲了半个小时。

 In 1969 the first men landed on the moon--I was twelve at the time.

 一九六九年人类第一次登上月球——那时我十二岁。

3.固定搭配中可数名词与不可数名词混用等。
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   【典例    3】Parents  often have  troubles in finding restaurants that welcome young 
children.

   解析:troubles→trouble。have trouble in doing sth.是固定搭配,意为“在……方面有困难”
,trouble 是不可数名词,前边用          much, little, a little, no 等修饰。

   请注意以下常见短语中名词的用法:

   on a visit to 对……的访问

   with pleasure 乐意地 

   for fun 为了乐趣

   in comfort 舒适地

   of value 有价值的 

   热点二:动词与介词或副词的搭配

   动词与介词或副词的搭配在短文改错中所占比重比较大,主要围绕常见动词如                                   look, keep, 
take, get, hand, turn 等所构成的短语动词中。考生平时应加强基本训练,牢记常见短语的基本
含义和延伸意义,做到既要知其一,还要知其二。

   请注意以下常见“动词+介词/副词“搭配的含义:

   “add  +介词/副词”短语:add        to(在原来基础上)增加,          加到;add…to     把…添加到;add 
up 加起来;add up to    总计(不能用于被动结构)

    “break +介词/副词”短语:break away from        突然逃掉;脱离       break down(谈判)破裂;
(机器、车辆)抛锚;(身体)累跨;分解                   break       in 突然进来;打岔(不接宾语)break 
into 破门而入;勉强动用        break off 中断(谈判);解除(婚约);突然停止                 break out 突然发
生(争吵、疾病);突然(大声)break through              突破;取得重大成果          break up 驱散(人群);
(中小学)学期结束;分开

   “call +介词/副词”短语:call       up 召唤;回忆;应征入伍;使想起              call for 需要;要求;值
得 call off 取消 call on 拜访;呼吁;邀请       call at (a place)访问(某地);停泊      call back 召回;
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收回;回忆;回电话         call in 叫来;召集    call out 大声喊叫

   “die+介词/副词”短语:die away        意思是“渐弱”,多指声音、光线、风等               die down(火、风
暴、兴奋)渐渐平静下来           die for 为……而牺牲     die from 意为“死于(吸烟、事故)”,侧重外部
原因  die of 意为“死于(饥饿、悲伤)”,侧重内部原因 die                 off 相继死去   die out 通常指“(动植
物及风俗习惯)灭绝;消失”

   “get   +介词/副词”短语:get        across 讲清楚;被理解       get  ahead 比人强;得到成功         get 
along with 在……方面有进展;与……相处             get away from 走开;避开     get down to 开始认真干
(某事)get in touch with  与……取得联系       get in 进站;收(庄稼)get off      下车;脱下;使不受
惩罚;使入睡      get over 克服;摆脱(情绪)get         on 上车;取得进展        get round 传播;蔓延     get 
through 做完;通过(考试);接通电话             get together 欢聚  get up 起床;举办;化装

   “give  +介词/副词”短语:give        away 泄露(秘密);赠送       give back 归还;报复;后退        give 
off 发出,放出(蒸汽、气味等)          give out 分发;公布(及物动词短语);(力气、食物)用完,
用尽(不接宾语)give in       屈服;投降;退让(接宾语时后加              to) give up 放弃;停止

   “go  +介词/副词”短语:go        about 到处走动    go against 违背  go ahead 继续(说、做)go 
at 冲向;努力去做      go by 遵照;凭…判断;经过          go down 下降;下跌;被接受          go far 够分配;
成功  go for 冲向;责备;想获得         go in for 参加(考试);酷爱       go off(爆竹、铃等)响;失去
知觉  go  on 发生;前进;继续        go out 出走;熄灭     go over 视察;复习;(表演)很受欢迎              go 
through 经历;经受;批准       go up 涨价;爆炸     go with 同意;调和     go without 没有……也忍受过
去

   “hand +介词/副词”短语:hand down          传给后代     hand in 上缴  hand out 交出;   分发  hand 
over 移交;让与

   “leave +介词/副词”短语:leave        about 把东西丢下不管;        乱丢  leave…alone 不理会    leave 
aside(把某事)搁置一边      leave  behind 留下;遗留;超过        leave out 遗漏;   省略;忽略       leave 
over 把...留待以后处理

   “make +介词/副词”短语:make for         移向;走向;攻击        make off 匆匆逃走    make out 理解;
写(支票、账目等);把…说成              make  up 和解;化妆;化装;虚构;组成               make  up for 补偿
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make out of 用……制造出     make over 修改;移交

   “put+介词/副词”短语:put          about    散布(消息);宣称         put   across 解释;表达     put 
aside 节省(钱、时间);储蓄;撇开;put               away 储存(钱);储存…备用;put             back 拨回;
向后移;放回原处        put  down  写下;击败;平定        put  forward 提出(意见、建议);推荐            put 
off 延期;使…气馁      put on 假装;上演(戏剧);穿戴            put out 熄灭;出产    put through 接通电
话 put together 商量;累加    put up 举起;公布;为…提供食宿           put up with 忍受

   “set +介词/副词”短语:set about(doing) sth.开始做,着手处理             set aside 留出;拔出;废
止 set back 使受挫折;拨回(钟表的针)           set down 放下;记载     set free 释放 set off 出发;使爆
炸;使引起(情绪变化)set out          出发;开始做;阐明          set up 建立(事业)

   “take +介词/副词”短语:take off      成功;脱掉(衣服);(飞机)起飞                take after 相似 take 
for 当作;误认为     take in 收留;理解;欺骗       take on 雇用;开始显现       take over 接任;接管    take 
up 开始从事;继续;占(地方);          费(时间)

   “turn +介词/副词”短语:turn       against(使)和……敌对      turn away 把……打发走;转过脸去
turn down 减弱,降低(力量、声音等);拒绝                turn in 拐进去;上缴     turn off 关(自来水、灯、
收音机等)     ;岔开(话题)     turn on 打开(煤气、自来水、灯等);以……为转移                   turn out 生产;
出产;结果是(后接形容词、to                be 或 that 从句)turn     over 翻阅(书刊);营业额达到         turn 
to 向…求助   turn up 发现;被找到;露面;把声音开大

   【典例4】When I walked into the classroom, the teacher was handing in the tests.

   解析:in→out。hand in     表示“上缴”,而      hand out 表示“分发”,符合语境逻辑要求。

   【典例    5】The  final examination is coming up soon. It’s time for us to get down our 
studies.

   解析:down     后加  to。get down to 意为“着手干某事”,to       是介词。

   【典例    6】I'm sure they will laugh to me and see me as a fool.

   解析:to→at。laugh      at 是习惯搭配,意为“嘲笑;取笑”。该句意为:我相信他们会取笑我
并把我当成傻瓜。
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   热点三:动词与非谓语动词的搭配错误

   动词与非谓语动词的搭配错误主要见于以下几种情况:

   1.英语中一些结构常与动词不定式连用,这些结构有:would                           rather do…than    do…, 
prefer to do…rather than do…, do nothing but do…, have no choice but to do…等。如:

   She prefers to stay at hoe rather than go fishing. 

   她宁愿呆在家里而不愿去钓鱼。

   Then the animals have no choice but to lie down and sleep.

   然后这些动物别无选择,只好躺下来睡觉。

  【典例   7】To enjoy the scenery, Irene would rather spend long hours on the train to travel 
by air.

   解析:to→than。would rather do...than do sth.是常见句型,意为“宁愿……而不愿”。

   2.一些结构常与动词-ing         形式连用,如:prefer doing…to doing, can’t help doing, spend 
time/money doing…等。如:

   Hearing the story, we couldn’t help laughing.

   听了这个故事,我们禁不住大笑起来。

   She preferred watching TV to listening to music. 

   她宁愿看电视而不愿听音乐。

  【典例   8】According to a recent U.S. survey, children spent up to 25 hours a week watch 
TV.

   解析:watch→watching。spend       time (in) doing sth.是常见句型,意为“花费……时间做某
事”

   3.某些动词,如        want, need, require 等常用动词-ing   形式作宾语,主动形式表示被动意义。
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  【典例   9】In my opinion, your clothes badly require wash.

   解析:wash→washed。这里         require washing= require to be washed。再如:

   The flowers want watering.

   这些花需要浇水。

   I think your composition needs rewriting. 

   我想你的作文需要重新写一遍。

【好题调研】

1. Please drop in on my home when you are free.

2. Helen always helps her mother even though going to school makes up most of her day.

3. Her fluency in English gives her an advantage on other girls for the job.

4. We wanted to get home before dark, but it didn’t quite turn up as planned.

5. They kept in touch with each other through writing.

6. John is leaving for London tomorrow and I will see him out at the airport.

7. It was a pity that the great writer died from his works unfinished.

8. They are staying with us at the time being until they find a place of their own.

9. Everybody in the village likes Jack because he is good at telling and making for jokes.

10. What shall we use for power when all the oil in the world has given up?

答案与解析:

1. on→at。易混动词短语误用。drop           in on sb. 顺便走访某人;drop       in at a place 顺便走访某
个地方。

2. makes→takes。动词短语使用错误。make up            编造,乔装打扮,take up        占据(时间、空间)
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。

3. on→over。介词使用错误。give          sb.  an  advantage  over 给某人优势。固定搭配。注意
advantage 的搭配:have the advantage of sb.较某人有利,比某人强            take advantage of sb.欺
骗某人,捉弄某人,take advantage of sth        利用某事。

4. up→out。动词搭配错误。turn         out 证明是;结果是;turn        up 出现,露面。根据句意事情结
果并不像计划的一样,可知此处应为                turn out。

5. through→by。介词使用错误。表示使用某种方法,手段用介词                      by。

6.       out→off。动词搭配错误。句意“John          明天要去伦敦,我要去机场送他”;表示送行用
see…off, see…out“送出”,不符合句意。

7.   from→with。固定结构介词使用错误。本句是一个                  with 复合结构,with        his   works 
unfinished 作结果状语。

8. at→for。for the time being 是固定搭配,意为“暂时;目前”。

9. for→up。动词搭配错误。make up jokes        意为“编笑话”;make for     则意为“走向;移向;促成”
。

10. up→out。动词搭配错误。give out       这里作“用尽,耗尽”讲。

【强化闯关】

1. Thanks for the rich farmland, we are growing more crops.

2. The forest guards often find campfires that have not been put up completely.

3. Many kinds of new cars were on the show in Beijing on June 10.

4. We'll talk with our plan for the weekend over dinner.

5. He thought the jar made of earth with little value and let me have it for only one dollar.

6. Rose was wild with joy as the result of the examination.

7. We are now short for fresh water. Something must be done to stop people from polluting it.
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8. I am writing to thank you with your kind help.

9. There is no such perfect solution of all problems.

10. I can hardly hear the radio. Would you please turn it on?

11. It is no use try to solve problems by force. Dialogue is the only solution.

12. If you don’t know what to do, you can turn to your friends on advice.

13. You should take more exercise. It’s good at your health.

14. He got to the station early, for fear missing his train.

15. I’d like to buy a house—modern, comfortable, and after all in a quiet neighborhood.

1. for→to。动词搭配错误。thanks to      表示“多亏” thanks for“感谢……”。

2. up→out。动词搭配错误。根据句意这里表示“扑灭,熄灭”,应用                        put out,而  put up 表示“张
贴”。

3. 去掉  the。冠词的误用。on show        固定搭配,“在展览”。

4. with→about。动词搭配错误。talk about sth,谈论某事,talk with sb.“和某人交谈”。

5. with→of。介词搭配错误。本句中            made  of 意为“由……制成(可看出原料)”。同时,该句
是“think…of great value”结构,介词短语作宾语补足语。

6. as→at。介词使用错误。句意“Rose           听到考试的结果十分高兴”,表示“听到……”用                   at,含有
动作的意味。

7. for→of。动词固定搭配错误。be short of        缺少。

8. with→for。介词使用错误。表示“因……而感谢某人时”,要用                     thank sb. for……

9. of→to。介词使用错误。问题的解决用               solution to problems。类似表达:问题的答案            the 
answer to the question,门上的钥匙    the key to the door,课文注释   the notes to the text 等。

10.  on→up。动词固定搭配错误。根据句意“我几乎听不见收音机,能把它调大一点吗?”,知
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道要表示“调大声音”,用         turn up。turn on 表示打开,turn down     表示调低,turn off   表示关闭。

11. try→trying。It is no use doing sth.是常见句型,意为“做……是没有用的”,It           作形式主语。

12. on→for。动词搭配错误。征求某人意见              turn to sb. for advice。

13. at→for。动词搭配错误。be good at“擅长于”,be good for“对……有益”。

14. fear 后加 of。属于介词搭配不完整。for           fear of“惟恐,生怕”,后用名词或动词-ing            形式,
for fear (that)“惟恐,以免”,后用从句。

15. after→above。介词搭配错误。after all     毕竟;above all   首先,最重要的是。
总结:


综合练习

Dear Andy, 

   I’m glad to learn from you that if you’re coming to China 1. __________

and will stay at my home. My parents and I are pleasing 2. __________

to have you with us. Now let me tell you that we have 3. __________

arranged for you. I knew the school will organize several 4. __________

thing for you to do in the morning, but in the afternoon, I’ll 5. __________

show you around and take you to some places of interests.6. __________

We’ll mostly stay at home in the evening watching TV, 7. __________
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play games, and meeting people. I’m sure that we will 8. __________

have wonderful time and enjoy each other’s company. 9. __________

   I’m looking forward very much meeting you soon. 10. __________

                            Yours sincerely,

                      测试  2

   Li Hua

Ladies and gentlemen,

    I’m very glad to have the chance run for the president     1.____________

of the student union. I am a student on Grade Three. Since     2.____________

I come to the high school, I have always been the monitor      3.____________

of my class. I have done a very good job for my classmate      4.____________

and my teachers give me a good praise. I’m quite expert at     5.____________

communication and organize and always ready to help others.    6.____________

Moreover, I have a variety of the hobbies and I’m sure that I  7.____________

am qualified for this position. If I will become the president, 8.____________

I’ll try my best to make the union attractively by organizing  9.____________

different activities. I’ll do many things for you to meet our 10.____________

demands as well. I hope you will give me a chance.

    Thank you. 

1. 去掉  if。that 后接宾语从句,if     是多余的。

2. pleasing→pleased。be pleased to do 对做……感到满意。
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3. that→what。what 引导宾语从句并充当谓语            arranged 的宾语。

4. knew→know。结合语境,这里应用一般现在时表示目前的现状。 

5. thing→things。several 后接复数名词。

6. interests→interest。a place of interest 一处名胜,其中  interest 是不可数名词。

7. √。此行无错。

8. play→playing。这里三个动词-ing      短语作并列的伴随状语。

9. have 后加 a。have a wonderful time 玩得很愉快。

10. meeting 前加 to。look forward to (doing)sth.是固定搭配,意为“盼望(做)某事”。

测试  2

1. run 前加 to。这里不定式短语作定语而不是              have sb. do sth.句型。

2. on→in。表示“在……班级/年级”都应用介词              in。

3. come→came。联系语境这里表示“自过去某个时间以来”,因此                      Since 从句应用一般过去时。


4. √。此行无错。

5. classmate→classmates。结合常识,同学不止一个,复数概念。

6. organize→organizing。organizing 逻辑上作介词      at 的宾语,与前边的        communication 构成
 并列宾语。

7. 去掉  the。这里仅是笼统提到自己的兴趣,属于泛指,因此名词前省略冠词。

8. 去掉  will。when, if, as soon as 等引导的时间、条件状语从句常用一般现在时代替一般将来
 时等。

9. attractively→attractive。根据语境这里应用形容词作         make 的宾语补足语。

10. our→your。代词逻辑不一致,这里指“我会为你们大家干很多事情满足你们的需求。”
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总结:


 HOMEWORK

     Mrs Cleaner was an old lady. She had a dog names Bobby.    1. __________

 She liked the dog very much. One day Mrs Cleaner go shopping    2. __________

 with Bobby. They were walking along the street while Mrs     3. __________

 Cleaner suddenly saw some nice grapes on a fruit stand (摊位).     4. __________

 "Oh, aren't these grapes lovely?" said the old lady. "I think of      5. __________

 I'll take some." But the stand keeper didn't seem very happily       6. __________

 because he saw a dog begin eating some grapes. "Excuse me,       7. __________

 Madam," he said politely. "But will you take care your dog?"        8. __________

 "Oh, no," Mrs Cleaner turned to her dog and said sternly(苛刻       9. __________

 地) "Don't do that, Bobby. These grapes haven't washed yet! "       10. _________


1. names→named。过去分词短语作定语,表示被动行为。

2. go→went。联系整个语篇,应用一般过去时讲述过去发生的事情。
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3. while→when。这是     be doing.when...句型,表示“正在……这时发生一件意外的事情”。

4. √。此行无错。

5. 去掉   of。根据“行句结合”的原则,I think        后接宾语从句,而         think of 后接短语。

6. happily→happy。seem, look, appear, feel 等连系动词后接形容词作表语,构成系表结构。

7. a→the。这里特指      Mrs Cleaner 所带的小狗。

8. care 后加  of。take care 意为“当心”,后接不定式,而           take care of 后接名词、代词等,意为
  “关心;照料”等。

9. no→yes。根据语境,这里          Mrs Cleaner 同意对方的请求。

10. washed 前加   been。Mrs Cleaner  的话富有幽默感,“葡萄还没有被洗呢,你可吃起来!”
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