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                   素养提升模拟练 十三
                             历史与地理


  2017   年全国卷Ⅲ阅读理解         C 篇介绍了灰狼在美国黄石公园和美洲大陆数量

减少,   这给当地环境带来一系列的影响。旨在增强考生维护生态平衡,                          促进人

与自然的和谐发展的意识。


                                                      (2017·全国卷Ⅲ)

  After years of heated debate,  gray wolves were reintroduced to Yellowstone 

National Park. Fourteen wolves were caught in Canada and transported to the park. 

By last year,  the Yellowstone wolf population had grown to more than 170 wolves. 

    Gray wolves once were seen here and there in the Yellowstone area and much of 

the continental United States,  but they were gradually displaced by human 

development. By the 1920s,  wolves had practically disappeared from the 

Yellowstone area. They went farther north into the deep forests of Canada,  where 

there were fewer humans around. 

    The disappearance of the wolves had many unexpected results. Deer and elk 

populations — major food sources (来源) for the wolf—grew rapidly. These animals 

consumed large amounts of vegetation (植被),  which reduced plant diversity in the 
                  中国现代教育网  www.30edu.com  全国最大教师交流平台

park. In the absence of wolves,  coyote populations also grew quickly. The coyotes 

killed a large percentage of the park’s red foxes,  and completely drove away the 

park’s beavers. 

    As early as 1966,  biologists asked the government to consider reintroducing 

wolves to Yellowstone Park. They hoped that wolves would be able to control the elk 

and coyote problems. Many farmers opposed the plan because they feared that 

wolves would kill their farm animals or pets. 

    The government spent nearly 30 years coming up with a plan to reintroduce the 

wolves. The U. S. Fish and Wildlife Service carefully monitors and manages the wolf 

packs in Yellowstone. Today,  the debate continues over how well the gray wolf is 

fitting in at Yellowstone. Elk,  deer,  and coyote populations are down,  while 

beavers and red foxes have made a comeback. The Yellowstone wolf project has 

been a valuable experiment to help biologists decide whether to reintroduce wolves to 

other parts of the country as well. 

【文章大意】本文是一篇说明文,              介绍了由于灰狼在美国黄石公园和美洲大陆

数量的减少,      给当地环境带来的一系列的影响,             以及人们针对此问题所做出的

努力。

1. What is the text mainly about? 

A. Wildlife research in the United States. 

B. Plant diversity in the Yellowstone area. 

C. The conflict between farmers and gray wolves. 

D. The reintroduction of wolves to Yellowstone Park. 
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【解析】选      D。主旨大意题。通读全文可知,             文章的主要内容是关于由于灰狼

在美国黄石公园和美洲大陆数量的减少,                 给当地环境带来的一系列的影响,              人


们为此想通过种种努力增加灰狼的数量以改善环境,                      故答案为    D。[来源:学*科*网 Z*X*X*K]

2. What does the underlined word “displaced” in Paragraph 2 mean? 

A. Tested.        B. Separated. 

C. Forced out.    D. Tracked down. 

【解析】选      C。词义猜测题。前句说明在黄石公园和美洲大部分地区曾有许多

的灰狼,    连词  but 转折了句子意义,      由此可推断出此句意为人类的发展逐渐地使

灰狼“离开,    排出,   挤出”,  故选择   C 项。A   项意为“测试”; B    项意为“分离,     隔开”; 

C 项意为“强迫离开”; D      项意为“跟踪,     追踪”。

3. What did the disappearance of gray wolves bring about? 

A. Damage to local ecology. 

B. A decline in the park’s income. 

C. Preservation of vegetation. 

D. An increase in the variety of animals. 

【解析】选      A。推理判断题。由第三段内容可知,               灰狼的消失带来很多意想不

到的后果:     鹿和驼鹿数量急剧增长,          它们消耗大量的植被,         这使黄石公园地区的

植物多样性减少;       灰狼消失使数量急剧增长的郊狼弄死公园地区大量的赤狐, 

并且驱走这里的海狸。所有这一切都对当地的生态造成极大的危害,                            故答案为

A。

4. What is the author’s attitude towards the Yellowstone wolf project? 

A. Doubtful.         B. Positive. 
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C. Disapproving.     D. Uncaring. 

【解析】选      B。观点态度题。由末段的尾句             The Yellowstone wolf project has 

been a valuable experiment to help biologists decide whether to reintroduce wolves to 

other parts of the country as well. 可知, 作者认为这是一个“有价值的、重要的实

验(a valuable experiment)”, 可以帮助生物学家决定是否将灰狼重新引进到美国

其他地区,     故可推断出作者对此持肯定的、积极的态度。A                   项意为“怀疑的”; 

B 项意为“肯定的,      积极的”; C   项意为“反对的,      不赞成的”; D   项意为“漠不关心

的”。


1. 通读文章,    根据框架写出关键词


答案:①topic     ②disappearance  ③results  ④attitudes  ⑤changes

2. 难句剖析
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The Yellowstone wolf project has been a valuable experiment to help biologists 

decide whether to reintroduce wolves to other parts of the country as well. 

分析:   此句是一个简单句,        主句是   The Yellowstone wolf project has been a 

valuable experiment, 不定式 to help biologists decide whether to reintroduce wolves 

to other parts of the country as well 作定语修饰名词 experiment, whether to 

reintroduce wolves to other parts of the country as well 作动词 decide 的宾语。

翻译: _________________________________________________________

答案:黄石公园灰狼回归计划对帮助生物学家决定是否也将灰狼重新引进到美

国其他地区是一个有价值的、重要的实验。


Ⅰ. 阅读理解

  When slaves were first brought over from West Africa to the southern parts of 

America,  they brought along with them aspects of their own culture—religion,  

dance,  language,  music and cuisine.  A mix of the two cultures eventually 

appeared.  The religious d ance of the ring shout turned into modern dances like the 

Charleston,  and tribal chants slowly transformed into sorrowful hymns(圣歌) sung 

by slaves that described their hardships. 

  These soulful accounts by slaves of the severe climate and conditions began to 

be called “the blues”,  which continued in popularity among African Americans 

after the Civil War.  This music increased in popularity into the early 1900s when 

many black musicians became an important part of the music industry. 
                  中国现代教育网  www.30edu.com  全国最大教师交流平台

  The slaves that had been brought over were from all different regions of West 

Africa,  but they worked together until they gradually formed a common culture.  

This strengthened the identity of their music that,  in the 1950s,  eventually led to 

the beginning of rock and roll.  The Beatles,  the most influential band of the 1960s,  

are often determined as the accelerator that resulted in the ideology(意识形态) 

surrounding music that is still around today.  The freedom and individuality 

associated with that time period brought forth a whole culture surrounding music.  It 

was not just music any more,  but a lifestyle. 

  O   ver the decades,  music has developed into such a vital part of society and 

pop culture.  Musicians are glorified,  with tons of adoring and screaming fans.  

The modern technology of present day has allowed for a greater gap between the 

creator of the music and the fans,  as well as a widespread commercialization of 

music.  However,  criticisms of modern pop music often arise due to its mass 

production,  and now there is a lack of the same soul and quality of naturalness and 

simplicity in music that was rising in the early 20th century. 

【文章大意】黑人奴隶从非洲西部被贩卖到美国南部,                        他们带去了宗教文化、

舞蹈、语言、音乐和烹调。两种文化的混合随即产生了。本文主要讲述的是黑

人带来的音乐方面的变化。

1. What contributed to the birth of the Charleston? 

A. Various African religions. 

B. People’s love of tribal dances. 

C. A mix of two different cultures. 
                  中国现代教育网  www.30edu.com  全国最大教师交流平台


D. The popularity of sorrowful hymns. [来源:Z+xx+k.Com]

【解析】选      C。细节理解题。根据第一段“A mix of the two cultures eventually 

appeared.  The religious dance of the ring shout turned into modern dances like the 

Charleston”可知 Charleston 的产生是两种文化的混合。

2. According to the passage,  what can we learn about the blues? 

A. It became popular in the late 20th century. 

B. It may include the description of slaves’ hard lives. 

C. It mainly told the stories of the American Civil War. 

D. It reflected the hard lives of many black musicians. 

【解析】选      B。推理判断题。根据第一段“tribal chants slowly transformed into 

sorrowful hymns sung by slaves that described their hardships. ”可知 blues 反映了

黑人的艰难生活。


3. What does the underlined word “This” in the third paragraph refer to? [来源:Z|xx|k.Com]

A. Slaves’ collective work. 

B. One region of West Africa. 

C. The new common culture. 

D. The music by the Beatles. 

【解析】选      C。词义理解题。根据第三段“The slaves that had been brought over 

were from all different regions of West Africa,  but they worked together until they 

gradually formed a common culture. ”可知 This 在此处指上文提到的   common 

culture。

4. It can be learned that the music in the early 20th century ________.  
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A. possessed soul and sincerity

B. became more commercialized

C. was blamed for its mass production

D. widened the gap between musicians and fans

【解析】选      A。推理判断题。根据最后一段判断出                20 世纪早期的音乐拥有真

挚的情感。


Ⅱ. 阅读填句[来源:学科网 ZXXK]

  根据短文内容,         从短文后的选项中选出能填入空白处的最佳选项。选项中

有两项为多余选项。

Rain forests

  Thick   forests found in wet areas of the world are called rain forests.  Most  

people are familiar with hot,  tropical rain forests filled with trees that stay green all 

the year round.   1  Temperate(温带的) rain forests grow in cooler parts of the 

world.  Monsoon(季风) rain forests have a dry season and trees that lose their 

leaves each year.  This article will focus on tropical rain forests because they are 

important to the health of the entire planet.  

  Tropical rain forests grow around the equator in the hot,  wet region called the 

tropics.   2  At the top of the forest is a thick layer called the canopy(树冠层).  

It is formed by the spreading branches and thick leaves of tall trees.   3  The 

canopy can be between 100 and 170 feet above the ground.  
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  The section below the canopy is called the understory.  It contains small trees 

and plants.  Many of these are young trees.  These small trees generally don’t 

receive enough sunlight to grow into adult trees. 

  On the forest floor,  bacteria,  fungi(真菌),  and insects help to break down 

dead plants and animals.  This process creates a thin,  rich top layer of soil that 

provides nutrients to the roots of the plants and trees.   4  

  Tropical rain forests grow in many poor countries.  Some poor countries sell 

the wood and other resources of rain forests to make much-needed money.  This 

often means that entire sections of the forest are destroyed.   5  Some of these 

plants and animals may become extinct if their rain forest habitat is destroyed.  

A. But there are other kinds of rain forests,  too. 

B. This leads to a problem called global warming. 

C. Tropical rain forests can be divided into several sections. 

D. They are found in Southeast Asia and Southern Australia. 

E. The loss of rain forests endangers many plants and animals. 


F. The canopy stops much of the sunlight from reaching the area below. [来源:学科网 ZXXK]

G. Because this layer of soil is thin,  most of the trees have shallow root systems. 

答案: 1~5. ACFGE
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