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高考英语专题之状语从句

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                       高考英语专题之状语从句

                                 状元必读

  1. 本讲课程涉及的知识点在高考考试大纲中对应的考点为语言知识;

  2. 本讲课程重点梳理高考中重点考查的状语从句;

  3. 该考点常出现在单项选择和完形填空题中;阅读理解中也会有相应的理解考查;在书
面表达中考查同学们正确运用状语从句来表达意思。

                                 专家点拨

一、知识精讲

(一)状语从句的用法:

    由从句担任的状语,在句子中可修饰谓语(或其它动词)、形容词、副词或整个句子,
它可以用来表示时间、地点、原因、目的、结果、条件、方式、比较、让步等。状语从句
是较大的语法项目,也是近几年高考题中常见的一个重要考点。

(二)状语从句的重要考点:

  1. when, while, as 引导的时间状语从句的区别;

  2. 词组  the minute, the moment, the first time, each time, any time 等用作连词引导时间状
语从句;

  3. before 和 since 引导时间状语从句的用法以及常见的几个句型;

  4. till 和 until 的用法;

  5. although, though, as 以及 even if, even though 引导让步状语从句的用法;

  6. 结果状语从句中“so-that”与“such-that”的区别;

  7. 条件状语从句中       unless, providing/provided, suppose/supposing 等引导词的用法;

  8. “疑问词+ever”和“no matter+疑问词”引导从句的用法。

(三)九大状语从句的讲解

  1. 时间状语从句 

    表示时间的状语从句的常用引导词:when, as, while, as soon as, before, after, since , till, 
until  

    特殊引导词:
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    the minute, the moment, the second, every time, the day,the instant, immediately , 
directly, no sooner … than, hardly … when, scarcely … when  

【例句】

    When I came into the office, the teachers were having a meeting.

    He started as soon as he received the news.

    Once you see him, you will never forget him.

    No sooner had I gone to bed than I went to sleep.

状元典例    1

    (安徽卷)Just use this room for the time being, and we’ll offer you a larger one______ it 
becomes available.

    A. as soon as    B. unless    C. as far as    D. until

    答案:A

    思路分析:句意:先暂用这间房间,一有空余的我们就会给你提供一间稍大些的。考
查时间状语从句,as soon as       一……就,符合题意。

状元典例    2

    (重庆卷)Peter     was so excited _______he received an invitation from his friend to visit 
Chongqing.

    A. where        B. that        C. why         D. when

    答案:D

    思路分析:考查连词的用法。句意:当彼得收到来自于他朋友邀请他去参观重庆的邀
请函时,他非常兴奋。故选            D,该句为时间状语从句,由句意可防止误选                   B。

  2. 原因状语从句

    原因状语从句是表示原因或理由的,引导这类从句的最常用的连词:because, since, as, 
now that(既然)等。 

【例句】

    He was disappointed because he didn't get the position.

    As it is raining, I will not go out.

    Now that you mention it, I do remember.

状元典例    1
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    Why not stay at home ______ the road is so slippery after the heavy snow?

    A. since that      B. after that      C. then that      D. now that

    答案:D

    思路分析:句意:既然大雪过后路那么滑,为什么不呆在家里呢?now                             that  相当于
since, 意为:既然。

状元典例    2

    (北京卷)—Did you return Fred’s call? —I didn’t need to ____ I’ll see him tomorrow.

    A. though      B. unless      C. when      D. because 

    答案:D

    思路分析:句意:——你给           Fred 回电话了吗?——我没必要回,因为明天我要去见他。
because 因为,符合题意。

  3. 地点状语从句

    常用引导词:where       ,wherever 等

【例句】

    Wherever you go, you should work hard.  

    Make a mark where you have a question.

状元典例

    (江苏卷)______ unemployment and crime are high, it can be assumed that the latter is 
due to the former.

    A. Before         B. Where         C. Unless         D. Until

    答案:B

    思路分析:句意:哪儿的失业率高,哪儿的犯罪率就高,可以认定后者是由前者导致
的。where   引导地点状语从句。

  4. 目的状语从句 

    引导目的状语从句的最常用词(组)为:so that, in order that, in case, for fear that     等

【例句】

    She has bought the book in order that / so that she could follow the TV lessons.


    He left early in case he should miss the train.[来源:学.科.网 Z.X.X.K]
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状元典例    1

    (上海春招卷)Please remind me of the meeting again tomorrow ______ I forget 

    A. though      B. so that       C. in case       D. until 

    答案:C

    思路分析:句意:明天请再次提醒我开会,以免我忘了。in                         case 以免,万一,符合题
意。

状元典例    2

    (上海卷)The police officers in our city work hard ______ the rest of us can live a safe life.

    A. in case         B. as if         C. in order that         D. only if

    答案:C

    思路分析:考查目的状语从句,句意:我们城市的警察努力地工作以确保我们都能安
定地生活。in order that  相当于    so that,表目的,“为了”。


  5. 结果状语从句      [来源:学+科+网]

结果状语从句是表示事态结果的从句,通常主句是原因,从句是结果,常用引导词:so… 
that, such … that  

【例句】

    He was so excited that he could not say a word. 

    She is such a good teacher that everyone admires her.

    =She is so good a teacher that everyone admires her.

状元典例

    (上海卷)Pop     music is such an important part of society ______ it has even influenced 
our language. 

    A. as    B. that    C. which    D. where

    答案:B

    思路分析:句意:流行音乐是社会中如此重要的一部分,以至于它已经影响了我们的
语言。此题考查       such…that 结构,引导结果状语从句,故选             B。

  6. 条件状语从句 

    条件状语从句分真实性(有可能实现的事情)与非真实性(条件与事实相反或在说话
者看来不大可能实现的事情,也就是虚拟)条件句,引导条件状语从句的词(组)主要有:if, 
                 中国现代教育网      www.30edu.com  全国最大教师交流平台

unless, as/so long as, only if, in case that, on condition that 等

【例句】

    If he is not in the office, he must be out for lunch.

    You may borrow the book so long as you keep it clean.

    I’ll not attend the party unless I am invited.

    注意:条件状语从句中的           if 不能用  whether 替换。

状元典例    1

    (浙江卷)The      medicine works more effectively _____ you drink some hot water after 
taking it.

    A. as     B. until     C. although     D. if

    答案:D

    思路分析:考查连词的用法。该题的意思是:如果你在吃药后喝一些开水的话,这种
药的效果将更明显。if        引导条件状语从句。

状元典例    2

    (全国   II)All the dishes in this menu, ______ otherwise stated, will serve two to three 
people. 

    A. as       B. if       C. though       D. unless 

    答案:D

    思路分析:考查状语从句的引导词(unless)。句意:这份菜单上的所有菜肴,除非另
加说明,能供两到三个人食用。

  7. 让步状语从句

让步状语从句的常用引导词:though, although, even if, even though, while(一般用在句首),
no matter…, -ever 等

【例句】

    What a tight volleyball game! We lost it though we tried our best.

    Whatever(= No matter what)you say, I’ll never change my mind.

    Even though it is raining, we’ll go there.

状元典例    1

    (湖南卷)______ the police thought he was the most likely one, since they had no exact 
                 中国现代教育网      www.30edu.com  全国最大教师交流平台

proof about it, they could not arrest him.

    A. Although     B. As long as     C. If only     D. As soon as

    答案:A

    思路分析:考查从属连词的用法。根据句意,引导让步状语从句。故选                              A。

状元典例    2

    (湖南卷)_____ the Internet is of great help, I don’t think it’s a good idea to spend too 
much time on it.

    A. If        B. While       C. Because       D. As 

    答案:B 

    思路分析:句意:虽然网络给了我们很多帮助,但我还是认为花太多时间在它上面是
不好的。while    表转折时,通常放在句首。

  8. 方式状语从句

    方式状语从句常由        as, as if(though), the way, rather than 等引导。

【例句】

    I’ll do as I am told to.

    It looks as if it is going to rain.

状元典例

    (湖南卷)Jack     wasn’t saying anything, but the teacher smiled at him _______ he had 
done something very clever.  

    A. as if        B. in case        C. while        D. though

    答案:A 

    思路分析:“似乎,好像”

  9. 比较状语从句

    比较状语从句常用        than, so(as)… as, the more … the more 等引导。

【例句】

    I have made a lot more mistakes than you have.

    He smokes cigarettes as expensive as he can afford.

    The busier he is, the happier he feels.
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二、难点聚焦

    以下八类状语从句特别值得关注:

  1. in case 引导的状语从句

    根据语境的不同,in        case 既可表示“如果”“万一”,引导条件状语从句;也可表示“以防
(万一)”,引导目的状语从句。

状元典例

    (1)(全国卷)I always take something to read when I go to the doctor’s ______ I have 
to wait.

      A. in case    B. so that    C. in order    D. as if

    (2)________ there is a fire, what will we do first?

    A. Although       B. Unless        C. In case       D. While

    思路分析:两道题都选          in case,均表示“万一”,第一题应为目的状语从句;第二题为
条件状语从句。

  2. before 引导的状语从句

    尤其要注意“it+be+一段时间+before…”这一句型。

状元典例

    (1)(安徽卷)The field research will take Joan and Paul about five months; it will be a 
long time ______ we meet them again. 

     A. after       B. before       C. since       D. when

    (2)(江西卷)He was told that it would be at least three more months ______ he could 
recover and return to work. 

    A. when    B. before    C. since    D. that

    思路分析:两道题均选          before。第(1)题涉及的句式为:it            will be a  long time 
before…,意思是“要过很久才会……”;第(2)题涉及的句式为:it                        was   some   time 
before…,意思是“在……之前过了一段时间”,通常可转译为“要过一段时间才会……”。

  3. while 引导的状语从句

    要注意   while 表示“尽管”“虽然”时的用法(此时它引导的不是时间状语从句,而是让步
状语从句)。

状元典例
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    (1)(山东卷)______ I really don’t like art, I find his work impressive.[来源:学。科。网]

    A. when    B. since    C. as    D. while

    思路分析:答案选        D。while 在此表示“尽管”“虽然”,又如:While the work was difficult, 
it was interesting. 尽管工作有难度,但很有趣。/         While I understand what you say, I can’t 
agree with you. 虽然我理解你的意思,但我还是不同意。

    另外,while   表示对比的用法也值得注意(此时它表示“而”)。

    (2)(天津卷)The cost of living in Glasgow is among t he lowest in Britain, ______ the 
quality of life is probably one of the highest. 

    A. since     B. when     C. as     D. while

    思路分析:选      D。句意:Glasgow    地区的生活成本是全英国最低的,但它却是生活质量
最高的地区之一,while       在此表示对比。

  4. when 引导的状语从句

    when 最常用的用法是“当……的时候”,            但请同学们注意它还表示“既然”。

状元典例

    (1)Why do you want a new job ____ you’ve got such a good one already? 

    A. that      B. where      C. which       D. when

    思路分析:答案为        D。句意:既然你拥有一份很不错的工作,你干嘛还要找一份新工
作呢?when    在此表示:既然。

    when 也可以表示“这时(突然)”的用法。

    (2)(湖南卷)I had just stepped out of the bathroom and was busily drying myself with 
a towel ______ I heard the steps. 

    A. while      B. when      C. since        D. after

    思路分析:答案为        B。句意:我刚从浴室走出来用毛巾擦干身上(的水),就在这时
我听见了脚步声。when         在此表示“就在这时”。

  5. unless 引导的状语从句

    unless 的意思是“如果不……”“除非”,对于涉及             unless 的考题,只要能读懂句意,弄清
语境,一般不会错选。

状元典例

    (湖南卷)Most birds find it safe to sleep in the trees, but ______ they have eggs or young 
chicks, they don’t use a nest.
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    A. why     B. how     C. unless     D. where

    思路分析:本题答案为          C,unless 在此表示“除非”。

  6. until 引导的状语从句

    until 的意思是“直到……时”“在……之前”,not…until…“直到……才”。

状元典例

    (广东卷)“You     can’t have this football back ___ you promise not to kick it at my cat 
again,” the old man said firmly. 

    A. because      B. since      C. when      D. until

    思路分析:答案为        D。句意:直到你答应不再把足球踢到我的小猫身上,我才会把球
还给你。not …until  意为:直到……才。

  7. once 引导的状语从句

    once 的意思是“一旦”

状元典例

    (福建卷)You will be successful in the interview ______ you have confidence. 

    A. before      B. once      C. until      D. though

    思路分析:答案为        B。once 表示“一旦”,句意:一旦你有了自信心,你的面试就能成
功。

  8. where 引导的状语从句

    where 用于引导地点状语从句         ,其意为“在……的地方”,高考中经常考查这个用法。

状元典例

    (天津卷)If you are traveling ______ the customs are really foreign to your own, please 
do as the Romans do. 

    A. in which      B. what      C. when      D. where

    思路分析:答案为        D。句意:如果你去风俗习惯和你本土的非常不同的地方旅游,一
定要入乡随俗。where       在此表示“在……的地方”,引导地点状语从句。本句容易误选                       A,in 
which 只有在定语从句中才相当于            where。


三、状元笔记

    使用状语从句时要注意的几个问题
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  1. 在时间和条件(有时也在方式、让步等)状语从句中,主句是一般将来时,从句通常
用一般现在时表示将来。

    We’ll go outing if it doesn’t rain tomorrow.

    I’ll write to you as soon as I get to Shanghai.

  2.   有些时间、地点、条件、方式或让步状语从句,如果从句的主语与主句的主语一致
(或虽不一致,是        it),从句的谓语又包含动词           be ,就可省略从句中的“主语           + be”部分。

    When(he was)still a boy of ten, he had to work day and night.

    If(you are)asked you may come in.

    If(it is)necessary I’ll explain to you again.

  3. 注意区分不同的从句:引导的是什么从句,不仅要根据连词,还要根据句子结构和句
意来判别。以      where 为例,它能引导多种从句。

    You are to find it where you left it.(地点状语从句)

    Tell me the address where he lives.(定语从句,句中有先行词)

    I don’t know where he came from.(宾语从句)

    Where he has gone is not known yet.(主语从句)

    This place is where they once hid.(表语从句)

                                 状元必练

  1. ( )—Where’s that report?

    —I brought it to you ______ you were in Mr. Black’s office yesterday. 

    A. if      B. when      C. because       D. before

    答案:B

    思路分析:将四个选项逐一填入空格处,只有填                    when 时,意思最通顺。句意:当你
昨天在布莱克先生办公室时我就带给你了。

  2. ( )You may use the room as you like ___ you clean it up afterwards.

    A. so far as     B. so long as      C. in case      D. even if

    答案:B

    思路分析:考查状语从句的用法。该句话的意思                    是:只要你之后把房子打扫干净,你
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就可以按照你喜欢的方式使用这间房子。as long as =so long as            只要。

  3. ( )You can’t borrow books from the school library ______ you get your student card. 

    A. before         B. if          C. while         D. as 

    答案:A

    思路分析:考查连词。句意:在你出示你的学生证前,你不可以从学校图书馆借书。
before“在……之前”。

  4. ( )I won’t call you, ______ something unexpected happens. 

    A. unless B. whether C. because D. while 

    答案:A

    思路分析:句意:除非有意外的事情发生,否则我不会给你打电话的。unless                             意为:
除非,引导条件状语从句。

  5. ( )It is difficult for us to learn a lesson in life ______ we’ve actually had that lesson. 

    A. until      B. after      C. since     D. when

    答案:A

    思路分析:句意:在亲身经历之前,我们很难去体味生活中的教训。until                           意为:直
到……为止,依句意应选           A。

  6. (  )______ environmental damage is done, it takes many years for the ecosystem(生态
系统)to recover. 

    A. Even if       B. If only        C. While        D. Once

    答案:D

    思路分析:句意:一旦环境被破坏了,需要很多年才能把生态系统修复完好。once                                意
为:一旦。

  7. (  )—Mom, what did your doctor say?

    —He advised me to live ______ the air is fresher. 

    A. in where B. in which C. the place where D. where

    答案:D

    思路分析:答语的句意:他建议我居住在一个空气比较新鲜的地方。where                             引导地点
状语从句。本题容易误选           C,应将   C 答案改为    in the place where; 而 B 选项 in which 只有在
引导定语从句时才相当于           where.
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  8. ( )Tim is in good shape physically          he doesn't get much exercise.

    A. if      B. even though      C. unless        D. as long as

    答案:B

    思路分析:句意:即使没有进行太多的锻炼,Tim                   的体型也非常好。even though       意为:
即使,引导让步状语从句。
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