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2018-2019 高考英语短文改错专题练习之从句考查

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                    高考短文改错专题练习之从句考查

                                     教学内容


                          从句的考查

热点诠释

   高考英语短文改错题中对从句的考查所占比值不大,但复现率达                             100%,其重要性可见一
斑。从句的考查包括定语从句、名词性从句和状语从句,主要属于句子逻辑层次,难度大,要
求高,难怪考生失分多。但归结起来,命题热点集中如下:


                          关系词           先行词所指            关系词在从句中的作
                                                                 用

          关系代词             That            人/物            主语、宾语、表语

                           Which           物/事            主语、宾语、表语

                           Who              人                主语、宾语

                          Whom              人                   宾语

                          Whose            人/物                  定语

                            As           人/物/事情           主语、宾语、表语

          关系副词             When            时间                 时间状语

                           Where           地点                 地点状语

                           Why             原因                 原因状语
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热点一:对定语从句的考查

1.考查关系代词        that, which 和 as 的用法区别

⑴下列情况下只能使用关系代词               that:

  先行词既为人又为物时;

  先行词是     all, little 或被 all, little, very, only 等修饰时;

  先行词被序数词或形容词最高级修饰时;

  当主句是以      who, which 或 what 开头的特殊疑问句时;

  先行词在从句作表语或方式状语时。

  They talked about the teachers and schools that they had visited.

  他们谈论了他们采访过的老师和学校。

  I’ve read all the books that can be borrowed here.

  我已经阅读完所有这里能借的书籍。

  She is the most careful girl that I’ve ever known.

  她是我所知道的最细心的女孩。

  Who is the man that is waiting at the bus stop?

  正在汽车站等待的那个人是谁?

  He is no longer the man that he used to be.

  他不再是过去的那个人了。

⑵下列情况下只能使用关系代词               which:

  引导非限制性定语从句并作主语、宾语时;
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  用于“介词+关系代词”结构时。

  The house, which we bought last month, is very nice.

  这幢房子很漂亮,是我们上个月买的。

  Things then greatly changed, which surprised us. 

  那时事情巨变,使我们惊讶。

  Do you remember the day on which you joined our club? 

  还记得你加入我们俱乐部的那一天吗?

⑶下列情况下只能使用关系代词               as:

  用于   such…as, the same…as  限制性定语从句中;

  引导非限制性定语从句,表示“正如……”概念,位于主句前、中、后。

  This is the same sum as was spent in that year on private motoring.

  这与那年用于私人汽车所花的费用相同。  

  As we know, smoking is harmful to one's health. 

  如我们所知,吸烟有害健康。

  He was strongly against the plan,as could be expected.

  正如所料,他强烈反对这项计划。

 【典例   1】Henry Royce did not like his car, that ran badly and often broke down.

  解析:that→which。that     不能引导非限制性定语从句,这一考点在考试中出现几率很大。


【典例    2】There are more and more people enjoy living in the city. 

  解析:enjoy    前加  who 或者   enjoy→enjoying。原句出现两个谓语动词,属于句法错误,
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因此把后一个改为定语从句或动词-ing              形式作定语。

   2.考查定语从句关系代词和关系副词的区分

   定语从句的先行词是表示时间、地点、原因的名词时,关系词并不一定用                                 when,    where, 
why。关键在于弄清楚这些名词在定语从句中充当主语/宾语还是状语。如:

    ⑴我将永远不会忘记和你一起度过的日子。

    误:I shall never forget the days when I spent with you. 

   正:I shall never forget the days which/that I spent with you.

   析:关系副词       when 在定语从句中作状语,不能作动词                spend 的宾语。

   ⑵这是我的老师曾经居住过的房间。

   误:This is the room where my teacher once lived in.

    正:This is the room which/that my teacher once lived in.

   正:This is the room where my teacher once lived.

   析:关系副词       where 在从句中作状语,意思是           in the room,它不能作介词         in 的宾语,所
以应把   where 改为关系代词       which 或 that 来做 in 的宾语,或把介词        in 去掉。

   ⑶这就是能够解释事故发生的理由吗?

   误:Is this the reason why explained how the accident happened?

   正:Is this the reason that/which explained how the accident happened?

   析:先行词是       reason 时,定语从句的引导词用关系代词还是关系副词                     why 取决于该先行
词在从句中充当主语/宾语还是原因状语。这里先行词                       the reason 在从句中作主语。

   【典例    3】Is this the reason why he gave for being late yesterday?

   解析:why→which      或者去掉    why。从句谓语是及物动词           gave,后边缺少宾语而表不是原
因状语。
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   3.考查定语从句主谓一致

   关系代词作主语,谓语动词应与先行词保持人称和数的一致。如:

   Those who want to see the film put up their hands.

   想看电影的人,请举手。

   This is the only one of the buildings that was built last year.

   这是唯一去年盖起来的建筑。

   【典例    4】She is one of the few students who has passed the maths test. 

   解析:has→have。这里定语从句的先行词是                 the few students 而不是  one,所以从句谓语
用复数形式。

   热点二:对状语从句的考查

   1.考查状语从句易混连接词的区别

    【典例   5】I was about to go to bed while there was a knock at the door.

    解析:while→when。这是       be  about to do…when…句型,表示一件事情正在进行这时发
生了另一件意外事情。

   when, while, as 的用法区别如下:

   ⑴when   的用法:

   ①表示时间,“当……时候”,从句既可用延续性动词,又可以用瞬间动词。如:

   It happened when I was living in the country.

   这事发生在我住在农村的时候。

   When he got to school, he found his school bad misssing.

   他到学校时发现他的书包不见了。
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   ②when    作并列连词,表示一个动作在发生时,另一个动作接着发生,多用于                              be doing/be 
going to do /be aboutto do…when…句型中。如: 

   I was walking along the stream when I met my teacher of English.

   当我沿着小溪散步时遇到了英语老师。

   ③用于    hardly…when…句型表示“一……就”。如:

   Hardly had I got there when the telephone rang.

   我刚一到那里电话就响了。

   ⑵while 的用法:

   ①while  表示时间,从句需用延续性动词,不用瞬间动词,强调“在……期间”。如:

   The telephone rang while I was in the garden.

   我在花园里的时候电话铃响了。

   Work while you work, play while you play.

   工作时就工作,玩耍时就玩耍。

   ②while  作并列连词,表示两种情况对比。如:

   Some men are rich while others are poor.

   有人富,(而)有人穷。

   He was not able to hatch chickens while the hen could.

   母鸡能孵出小鸡来,而他却不能。

   ⑶as  的用法:

   as  表示时间,与      when  相似,但侧重强调主、从句动作同点或同段进行。如:

   He dropped the glass as he stood up.
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   他站起来是把杯子弄掉了。

   As time went on, her hair became gray.

   随着时间流逝,她的头发变白了。

   2.考查易混句型中连词的区别

    【典例   6】It was three days when the missing boy was found in a cave. 

   解析:when→before。结合语境,“It            be…when…”句型中,when        前边是时间点,因此应
考虑运用“It was+时间段+when…”句型。该句意为:过了三天失踪的孩子才被找到。

   “It be…从句”句型用法比较:

   ⑴It be…that…句型

   这是强调句型,其最大的特点是去掉“It                 is…that…”后,原句意义和结构仍然保持完整。被
强调部分可以是主语、宾语、表语、状语等。如:

   It was with great joy that he received the news.

   他是很高兴地得知这则消息。

   It was on Monday night that all this happened.

   所有这一切发生在周一晚上。

   ⑵It be…before…句型

   before 引导的时间状语从句,意为“过……(时间)才”。其特点是                        before 前边是时间段,
主句用一般过去时或一般将来时。如:

    It was two hours before we reached the little town.

    过了两小时我们才到那个小镇。

   It won’t be long before the final results are made known.
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   用不了多久最终的结果就公布与众了。

   ⑶It be…when…句型

   when  引导时间状语从句,when          前边用时间点。如:

   It was 4:33 am when Shenzhou VI landed safely in Inner Mongolia.

   早上   4:33 神舟六号安全地降落在内蒙古。

   ⑷It is…since…句型

   since 引导时间状语从句,since         前是时间段,后边的从句常用一般过去时。如:

   It is exactly five years since her father passed away.

   她父亲去世已经正好五年了。

   It is three weeks since she lived here. 

   她不在这里居住有三周了。

   3.主句是祈使句或一般将来时,状语从句常用一般现在时代替

  【典例   7】I won’t forgive you unless you will apologize to me.

   解析:去掉      will。主句是一般将来时或祈使句,unless, if, when, as soon as, before         等引导
的状语从句常用一般现在时代替。再如:

   Once you show any fear, he will attack you.

   一旦你表现出害怕,他就会攻击你。

   It will be five months before he returns from England.

   再过五个月他要从英国回来。

   You won’t lose your weight unless you eat less and exercise more.

   你不会减肥的除非你少吃多锻炼。
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   热点三:对名词性从句的考查

   1.考查名词性从句的用法,尤其是                that, what, whether 的用法

      that 是连词,只起连接作用,不作句子成分。注意                   that 引导宾语从句时可以省略,其它
          情况一般都不能省略。

      what 是连接代词,既起连接作用,又充当句子的主语、宾语、表语等。

      whether 是连词,表示不确定的信息,意为“是否”。whether                 只起连接作用,不作句子成
          分。

   The trouble is that we are short of money.

   麻烦是我们缺钱。

   Mr. Smith came out to see what was happening.

   史密斯先生出来看看发生了什么事。

   The question is whether you can do the work well.

   问题是你能否做好这项工作。

  【典例   8】Maria has to baby-sit. That’s because she can’t come out with us.

   解析:because→why。根据前后句意思,这里应用                   That’s why…表示“那正是……的原因”
。

  【典例   9】The fact she works hard is well known to us all.

   解析:fact   后加   that。这里  fact 后面的同位语从句缺少连接词,但不缺少句子成分,因此
用 that。

   2.考查名词性从句的时态

    ⑴当主句的动词为现在和将来时态时,名词性从句中的动作根据所发生的时间来定,可以
有各种时态;当主句的动词为过去时态时,从句中的动作一般都要使用相应的过去时,除非表
示客观真理。如:
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    Hello, I didn’t know you were in London. How long have you been here?

    喂,我不知道你在伦敦。来多久了?

    He told us he would go to Japan the next month.

    他告诉我们他下个月要到日本去。

    The teacher told us that light travels at a very high speed.

    老师告诉我们光的传播速度很快。

    ⑵在动词     suggest, order, demand, request, desire, insist, require, decide, determine, 
advise, recommend 后需用    should 型的虚拟语气。如:

    He suggested that we (should) hold another meeting to discuss the problem.

    他建议我们再召开个会议讨论这个问题。

    I insist that he(should) be sent to the nearest hospital as soon as possible.

    我坚持认为他应该被尽快送往最近的医院。

    ⑶在   suggestion, proposal, idea, plan, order, advice 等名词后面的表语从句、同位语从句
中要用虚拟语气,即(should)+动词原形。如:

    My idea is that we (should) get more people to attend the conference. 

    我的意见是我们应该让更多的人参加这个会议。

    I make a proposal that we (should) hold a meeting next week.

    我提议我们下周举行个会议。

    ⑷I wish…后边的宾语从句常用虚拟语气。如:

    I wish it were spring all the year round.

    我希望一年到头都是春天。
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     I wish I had known the answer.

     我希望已知道答案。

     I wish I could fly like a bird. 

     我希望我能像鸟一样飞翔。

     ⑸其它一些常用句型也使用虚拟语气。如:

     I would rather you paid the money yourself.

     我倒宁愿你自己付这笔钱。

     It is time that you went to school.

     你该去上学了。

     It is desired that we should get everything ready tonight.

     希望我们今晚把一切准备就绪。

     It is strange that you should know about the whole thing. 

     真奇怪,你知道整个事情。

     It looks as if she were sick.

     看起来好像她生病了。

   【典例   10】The headmaster made a suggestion that the sports meet was put off until next 
 Sunday.

    解析:was→be。make        a suggestion 表示“提出建议”,用法同         suggest 一样,后接的从句
 用虚拟语气,即谓语用“(should)+动词原形”。

【好题调研】

1. If we’ll go camping tomorrow depends on the weather.
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2. Father made a promise if I passed the examination he would buy me a new dictionary.

3. Please tell me when you would like to have your coffee—black or white?

4. Last night we went to Ann’s party, that we enjoyed very much.

5. None of us knew what had happened though they told us about it.

6. The man you just talked to him was a friend of mine.

7. This is known to all that WTO stands for World Trade Organization.

8. Having been told many times, but he still couldn’t understand it.

9. It was not until his mother came in when the boy began to prepare his lessons.

10. It’s not yet clear whom of those will be chosen to do the job.

答案与解析:

1.       If→Whether。主语从句连接词误用。if            和 whether 都表示“是否”,但下列情况只能用
  whether:引导主语从句、表语从句、同位语从句时;与不定式连用时;位于介词之后等。

2.  if 前加 that。连词使用错误。that        引导同位语从句时,不能省略;同时,从句含有一个                       if 引
  导的宾语从句。

3.  when→how。宾语从句连接词使用错误。根据句意,“你想怎样喝你的咖啡,浓咖啡还是牛
  奶咖啡?”可知是询问引用牛奶的方式,而不是时间。

4. that→which。that  不能引导非限制性定语从句,这一考点在考试中出现几率很大,本句就属
  于这一错误。

5. though→unless。状语从句连接词使用错误,根据句意“如果你不告诉我们,将没有人知道发
  生了什么事?”,unless       表示“除非……,如果……不”。

6. 去掉   him。省略关系词引起的定语从句使用错误。本句中定语从句                          you just talked to 前边省
  略了关系代词       that/which,所以后面的     him 是多余的,应该省去。

7. This→It。主语从句替代词使用的错误。that WTO stands for World Trade Organization.是句
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  子的真正主语,放在句子的后面,因此,用                    It 做形式主语来代替。

8. 去掉   but。连词使用错误。判断本句是一个简单句,前面                     Having been told many times 作状
  语,因此后边必须是完整的句子,而                 but 连接并列句,是多余的,应去掉。

9. when→that。本句是一个强调句。强调句句型结构是“It’s+被强调部分+that+其它”,因此这里
  用  that。另外,本句是含有         not   ……until 的强调句,用于此句型时,not            要提前,构成“It’s 
  not until…that…”形式。

10. whom→which。连接词使用错误。句意是“还不清楚,他们中的哪一个将被推选来做这个工
  作”,可知,which      表示特定范围中“哪一个”。

【强化闯关】

1. Hardly had he arrived in Hong Kong than she rang me up.

2. We know little about the young lady except that you told me.

3. I have read the novel twice which you are talking about it.

4. You should make it a rule to leave things you can find them again.

5. Recently I bought an ancient Chinese vase, its price was very reasonable.

6. The reason is because he is unable to operate the machine.

7. She has two shirts. Both of which were bought last month.

8. That was really a splendid evening. It’s years when I enjoyed myself so much.

9. After months of research there was little hope which the lost car might be found.

10. Although he is considered a great writer, but his works are not widely read.

11. It has already been pointed out, grammar is not a set of dead rules.

12. Try as he does, but he never seems able to do the work beautifully.

13. English and French are taught here. You can choose whatever you like.
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14. John may phone tonight. I don’t want to go out in case of he phones.

15. He is such a good teacher that we all love and respect.

答案与解析:

1. than→when。固定搭配错误。“Hardly…            when..”和“No  sooner…than…”为固定搭配,表示
  “刚一……就”,注意表示此用法时              when 和  than 前要用过去完成时,后要用一般过去时;此
  外,hardly  和  no sooner 位于句首时,句子要用部分倒装,如本句,把                    had 提到主语前。

2. that→what。连词使用错误。用在介词             except 后引导从句,并且在从句中充当              told 的直接宾
  语的,就是      what,that 可以引导宾语从句,但是只起一个连接作用,不在从句中充当任何成
  分。

3. 去掉   it。定语从句表达错误。从句出现             it 和代替先行词     the novel 的 which,成分重叠,所以
  应该省去。做定语从句时一定要注意,这种成分重叠现象。

4. things 后加 where。地点状语误用。句中是一个表示地点的状语从句,误用作一个定语从句。


5.  its→whose。定语从句判断错误。本句是一个含有定语从句的主从复合句,先行词在从句中
  充当定语,无论先行词是人还是物,从句都用                     whose,或   of which。例如:The book whose 
  cover (the cover of which/of which the cover) is white belongs to me.

6. because→that。连词使用错误。the          reason 后的表语从句用        that,其后的定语从句一般用
  why,句型结构是“The reason why...is that...”表示“……的原因是……”。

7. which→them。连词使用错误。She has two shirts        后用句号,表示前后为两个句子,不能用
  Both of which 连接定语从句这一结构,所以用             them 表示前后是独立的。

8.  when→since。连接副词的使用错误。这是               It is…since….句型,句意为“自从我痛快的玩过
  之后已是数天。”。

9. which→that。定语从句连接词使用错误。当先行词前有                    only, any, few, little, no, all, none of, 
  the very 等词修饰时,引导词只能用           that。
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10.  去掉   but。连词使用错误。当表示“虽然,但是”这一概念时,although                            和  but 不能连用,二
  者只能选用其一。

11.   It→As。定语从句关系代词使用错误。我们知道定语从句位于句首时,引导词要用                                          as,这
  里  As 的先行词是整个主句,同时                As 充当从句的主语。

12.  去掉   but。连词使用错误。句中有              as 引导的引导状语从句,若再用                but,则造成句法混乱。
  另外   as 引导让步状语从句时,从句要用部分倒装。注意做表语的名词提前时,a/an                                       常被省
  去。如:Child as he is, he knows a lot.

13.  whatever→whichever。连词使用错误。根据句意,前句给了一个选择的范围,后句表达可
  以选择任何一个,所以             whatever  改为   whichever。

14.  去掉   of。连词词组使用错误。in             case  of“万一”,其后要用名词,如果接从句的话则要用                        in 
  case。

15. that→as  或者   respect 后加   him。we all love and respect  缺少宾语,用定语从句表达的话,
  要用   as,构成     such…as…句型。such/so…that…句型的特点是                  that 后边的从句不缺少成分,
  因此还可以在        respect 后加   him。

        My father was the biology professor. When I was young he was used to

                     a                                  was去掉

     take me to the biology lab, there I saw pigs, cats and other animals. My 

                          wh ere

     father also influenced me through nature walks. He often took me on a 

                                                          for

     walk in the backyard. We will catch frogs, snakes and firefly. 

                                                fireflies

     He seemed∧ know everything about wildlife. Eighteen 

              to

     years later, think about my father and his influence on my life, I feel very

              thinking

     luckily. I am grateful that I got the chance to learn from her. He helps me
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    lucky                                        him    helped

   develop my interest in all that was alive and sometimes dead around me. 


 Great changes have taken place in the countryside in our country.

   As a child, I lived in a poor family. The second hand clothes, rain-leaking roof of old house 
became part of my memory. 61.          , the worst impression is that I 62.          (feel) 
hungry all the time. Sometimes hunger hit me so severely 63.         I regarded dried 
sweet potato slices as delicious snack. At that time, my dream was getting enough to fill my 
empty stomach .

   In the early years of the 1980s, as the reform and opening-up policy 64.         (carry) 
out, our dream came true. And then, 65.           dream became clearer and clearer in my

mind. I must try my best to escape out of my poor and backward hometown. I worked 66.  
__         (hard) at my study than most of my classmates, and , after luckily 67.         
(succeed) in the national college entrance examination, I realized my dream again: after 
graduation, I became a citizen working in a city. 68.         the first college graduate out of 
a remote village, my success set 69.       example for my folks. They came to realize that 
schooling is a good way to change one’s fate(命运). In the following years, there were fewer 
drop-outs and more college graduates in my village, 70.         I am proud of even today. 

61. However   62.was feeling    63.that    64.was carried    65. another

66.harder      67. succeeding    68.As     69. an          70.  which


假设你是新华中学高三学生李华,进入高三后你的朋友William感到压力很大,学习效果甚微,请你给他写一
封电子邮件,帮助他放松身心,提高学习效率。

内容要点:

1. 快乐学习,保持愉快的心情;

2. 积极参加体育活动,听听歌曲音乐;

3. 多与同学交流,互相鼓励。
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注意: 

   1. 开头和结尾已经为你写好,词数100词左右。

   2.可适当增加细节,以使行文连贯。

Dear William,

   Recently, I have heard that you feel stressed as a student of Senior Three. Here is some advice on how to study 
effectively.

   First of all, learn in a relaxing way. This will remove our pressure, making study an easy job. Another way to 
keep up our spirits is to take part in sports. Not only does exercise build up the body, but also it provides us time to 
relax and fresh our mind, making us memorize things faster and longer. Music, too, is another effective means of 
refreshing and helping us concentrate better.

    Last but not least, we should exchange ideas with our classmates. Through the communication we can find 
support, which will encourge us to overcome difficulties in our study.
    Hope these can benefit you. 

   Best wishes! 

                                                                    Yours, 

                                                                   Li Hua
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