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专题二    完形填空
第一节        技法点拨
内容索引


                            题型分析

                            策略指导
题型分析
               近五年江苏卷完形填空考情统计

                               选项设置
年份       体裁
                  词汇复现       语境词义      逻辑关系    固定搭配
2018    记叙文          1          17        1       1
2017    记叙文          3          14        2       1

2016  夹叙类议文          4          14        0       2

2015    记叙文          1          17        2       0
2014    记叙文          2          14        1       3
    分析近五年的江苏卷高考试题,我们不难发现,完形填空的文章体
裁主要是记叙文,有时是夹叙夹议文。内容主要是传播知识,传递正能
量,可读性较强。题型分为句内、句组和语篇等三个层次,以句内层次
和句组层次题为主,语篇层次题为辅。设空以语境题和词汇题为主,较
难的语篇层次题仅有3道左右。这就要求考生在做完形填空题时,心中始
终有这三个层次,认真甄别每道题是属于哪种层次,然后再确定用何种
方法来解题,从而做到万无一失。
策略指导
一、解题步骤
1.通读全文,把握主旨。在速读全文的过程中要重视首句、首段的信息,
注意找出文章的关键词、中心词,画出某些代表人物和情节的词句,理
清“情节线”和“情感线”,形成对整篇文章概貌的理解。
2.上下求索,先易后难。完形填空设题通常分为句内、句组和语篇三个
层次,做题时先易后难,遇到没有把握的题目时,可暂时跳过空格,顺
着原来的思路继续推进,等到大部分空格选出答案后,借助已补全的信
息,回头扫除“最牛钉子户”。
3.复读全文,微调答案。做完题后,把填好答案的短文通读一遍,看看
有没有明显的语法错误和逻辑冲突,必要时加以改正。
二、解题策略
完形填空题的解答实际上就是通过已知信息破解未知信息。这需要考生
从完形填空文章所包含的庞杂的已知信息体系中分析、查找、排查无关
的已知信息,定位和查找出与每处具体的填空相关联的已知信息,再根
据这些信息最终得出正确答案。下面我们将介绍句内、句组和语篇三种
层次题的常用解题技巧,看看是如何利用已知信息来确定未知信息的。
(一)句内层次题
1.利用习惯搭配和固定结构解题
完形填空中经常会考查一些习惯搭配和固定结构,这时考生就需要运
用习惯搭配和固定结构来解题。
例题   (2018·全国Ⅰ)...we had to write a paper on how we plan to
 51 what we would learn in class to our future professions...
51.A.add                      B.expose
C.apply                       D.compare
分析   本题可以利用固定搭配解题。apply...to...把……运用到……。故
选C。
                                                      分析
2.利用生活常识和文化背景知识解题
完形填空文章中往往渗透着诸如文化科学、历史地理、风俗民情等方
面的知识。考生在做题时,若能积极地调动自己的生活常识和文化背
景知识,巧妙地对其加以运用,特别是注意中西文化的差异,将会大
大简化复杂的分析与判断过程,节省宝贵的时间,顺利地沿着作者的
思路阅读下去。
例题    (2016·全国Ⅰ)51.Approaching the vehicle,they saw that a
woman was trying to get out of the broken window.They told her to stay
52 until the emergency personnel arrived,53.but she thought the car
was going to 54.explode.
52.A.quiet                    B.still
C.away                        D.calm
分析   本题可以利用生活常识和文化背景知识解题。根据生活常识可
知,由于当时处境危险,所以在救护人员来之前要保持静止不动(stay
still),以免伤势加重。故选B。

                                                      分析
3.利用对应成分分析法解题
完形填空文章的上下文之间以及句子内部之间往往存在着一定的逻辑
关系,它使句子的各个成分之间形成一定的对应关系。考生可以根据
这种逻辑关系找出与未知填空相对应的已知成分,将它作为线索,通
过它推断出未知填空的答案。
例题   (2017·全国Ⅱ)Before the school year 47.ended,I gave the kids a
special 48.gift,T-shirts with the words “Verbs Are Your 49.Friends”
on them.I had advised the kids that while verbs(动词) may seem dull,
most of the 50 things they do throughout their lives will be verbs.
50.A.simple                   B.unique
C.fun                         D.clever


                                                      分析
4.利用逻辑关系解题
此方法是通过分析未知填空前后文已知信息之间的逻辑关系来确定
答案,主要应用于完形填空的两类题型:一是考查连接词和起连接
词作用的短语;二是考查上下文的逻辑关系。
例题   (2018·全国Ⅱ)The  instructors called for an ambulance. 55 ,
after a brief stay in hospital,Ben was well enough to be allowed to
56.leave and later the family met up for dinner.
55.A.Fortunately              B.Frankly
C.Sadly                       D.Suddenly

分析   本题可以利用逻辑关系解题。根据该空后面的句子“after                     a
brief stay in hospital,Ben was well enough to be allowed to and
later the family met up for dinner.”可知,他伤得并不严重,所以是幸
运的。故选A。

                                                      分析
5.利用语境暗示分析法解题
上下文语境具体体现为:全文的中心主线和主题、作者的态度倾向和
评价、上下文语篇衔接、句际和段际关系。在句内层次中,我们通常
可以通过上下文语境,即根据已知信息,推断出正确答案。
例题    (2018·江苏)Failing to find any other way out,they decided to make
a  39 journey,as they caught sight of an old hikers’(徒步旅行者) guide.
A.business                     B.walking
C.bus                          D.rail
分析    本题可以利用语境暗示分析法解题。根据后句“as                    they caught
sight of an old hikers’(徒步旅行者) guide.”可知,他们决定徒步旅行。
故选B。


                                                        分析
(二)句组层次题
1.利用语义复现解题
复现是一种语义衔接手段,它通过原词、同义词或近义词、反义词、
上义词、下义词、同源词或同根词等重复出现来表达某一概念,使整
篇文章上下连贯、有机地衔接在一起。因此,考生可根据文章的具体
情况,理解文章的结构和语境,利用文章中的语义复现现象来选择正
确的答案。
例1  (2016·江苏)While we were 36.eating,Kurt asked me,“John,
what is your 37 for personal growth?”...but then he 42.finally
smiled and said,“You don’t have a personal plan for growth,do
you?”
37.A.suggestion               B.demand
C.plan                        D.request

分析   本题可以利用语义复现解题。本题为原词复现。由42题之后的
“You don’t have a personal plan for growth,do you?”可知选plan,
表示“个人成长计划”。故选C。

                                                      分析
例2  (2016·全国Ⅱ)I turned around and saw a 56. pleasant woman with
a big smile on her face waving to wish me a safe trip.I was 57.speechless!
Why had I thought she was cold? Rani was,well,so 58 .
58.A.calm                     B.nice
C.proud                       D.clever

分析    本题可以利用语义复现解题。本题为反义词复现,上文中的
cold(冷酷的)和选项中的nice(友好的,和蔼的)互为反义词。最后两句
句意为:我之前怎么会认为她冷冰冰的呢?哦,瑞妮是这么友好。故
选B。
                                                      分析
2.利用作者态度或感情色彩关联解题
在高考完形填空文章中,我们一定要在快速阅读文章的过程中,仔细
找出能够反映作者态度和感情色彩的重要词汇,它们往往是名词、形
容词、副词或动词等。这些词汇通常是我们做题时重要的参照线索,
可以帮助我们快速确定某些题目的正确答案。
例题    (2016·全国Ⅱ)But   her cold voice really 48.annoyed me.I
sometimes wished to 49 another agent.
49.A.promote                  B.train
C.find                        D.know

分析   本题可以利用作者态度或感情色彩关联解题。根据前文中的形
容词cold可知,作者对瑞妮冷冰冰的语气很是懊恼,有时希望能“找
到”另外一个代理人。故选C。


                                                      分析
3.利用逻辑关系解题
在句组层次题中,利用逻辑关系解题同样是一种重要的方法。
例题1   (2017·江苏)He might not have done this particularly well,
 46 the teacher told Gabriel that he had a good 47.ear and suggested
that Gabriel go into the music store-room to see if any of the
instruments there 48.appealed to him.
46.A.because      B.but       C.though           D.so
分析   本题可以利用逻辑关系解题。上文讲他想掩饰自己弹琴时表现
出的快乐,不让老师发现,但他可能掩饰得不是特别好,因为音乐老
师告诉Gabriel他有良好的辨音能力并且建议他去学校存放乐器的房间
选乐器,故选because引导原因状语从句。
                                                      分析
例题2   All around the world,we can see the 50.consequences of this
throwaway lifestyle.Mountains of rubbish just keep getting bigger.To
51.decrease the amount of rubbish and to protect the 52.environment,
more governments are requiring people to recycle materials. 53 ,this
is not enough to solve(解决) our problem.
53.A.However                  B.Otherwise
C.Therefore                   D.Meanwhile


                                                      分析
4.利用语境暗示分析法解题
在句组层次题中,有些题目我们往往也需要通过上下文语境,即根据
已知信息,推断出正确答案。
例题1   (2016·全国Ⅲ)When  I was 13 my only purpose was to become
the star on our football team.That meant 41.beating out Miller King,
who was the best 42 at our school.
42.A.coach  B.student   C.teacher    D.player
分析   本题可以利用语境暗示分析法解题。根据上文中的“my                      only
purpose was to become the star on our football team”可知,此空应与
“球员,选手”(player)有关。故选D。
                                                      分析
例题2   (2016·全国Ⅰ)Larry works with Transport Drivers,Inc.One
morning in 2009 , Larry was 41.traveling along 165 north after
delivering to one of his 42 .
42.A.passengers               B.colleagues
C.employers                   D.customers

分析   本题可以利用语境暗示分析法解题。根据上文中的“works                  with
Transport Drivers,Inc.”可知,拉里在运输公司工作,所以此空应该
是说给他的其中一位客户(customer)送货。故选D。


                                                      分析
(三)语篇层次题
1.利用语义复现解题
在语篇层次题中,我们同样可以利用语义复现解题。
例题   Two years later,Dad started his own 31 ,which wasn’t
doing so well...
   After my graduation,Dad’s business was getting back on track.
31.A.family                   B.business
C.task                        D.journey


                                                      分析
2.利用总分结构对照分析法解题
完形填空往往采用总分对照结构,这种结构可以为我们提供重要的解
题线索。
例题   In our modern world,when something wears out,we throw it
away and buy a new one.The 36.problem is that countries around the
world have growing mountains of 37.rubbish because people are
throwing out more rubbish than ever before.
   How did we 38 a throwaway society?First of all,it is now easier to
39.replace an object than to spend time and money to repair it.40.Thanks
to modern manufacturing(制造业) and technology,companies are able to
produce products quickly and inexpensively.Products are plentiful and
41.cheap.
   Another cause is our 42.love of disposable(一次性的) products.As
43.busy people,we are always looking for 44.ways to save time and make
our lives easier.Companies 45.produce thousands of different kinds of
disposable products:paper plates,plastic cups,and cameras,to name
a few.
   Our  appetite for new products also 46.contributes to the
problem.We are 47.addicted to buying new things.Advertisements
persuade us that 48.newer is better and that we will be happier with the
latest products.The result is that we 49.throw away useful possessions to
make room for new ones.
38.A.face                     B.become
C.observe                     D.change


                                                      分析
3.利用逻辑关系解题
在语篇层次题中,利用逻辑关系也是一种重要的解题方法。
例题   Dario and his mother loved their new apartment.The living room
was large enough for their piano.That night,the two of them 36.sat
side by side at the piano.They played jazz music to celebrate their new
home.The loud 37.music filled the room and made them feel very happy.
   The next morning, 38 ,their happiness disappeared.Someone
had left a 39.note under their door during the night.One of their
neighbors had written to complain(抱怨) about the sound of the
piano.Dario’s mother asked the building superintendent(管理员) if he
knew anything about it.But he said that they were all 40.nice people and
he couldn’t imagine any of them had done that.Later that morning,
Dario suggested that they write a letter to their 41.neighbors and
apologize for their playing.
38.A.therefore                B.however
C.otherwise                   D.instead
分析   本题可以利用逻辑关系解题。


通过上述对本题前后文已知信息的分析,发现上下文之间是明显的转
折关系,因此可以确定答案为选项B。
                                                      分析
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