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2018-2019学年人教版英语 必修一 Unit 5 Nelson Mandela—a modern hero

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Book 1  Unit 5
Nelson Mandela—a modern hero
内容索引


                          基础语境串记

                          考点互动探究

                          跟踪达标训练
基础语境串记
                          重点单词

Ⅰ.核心必记单词
1. active           adj.积极的;活跃的→ activity       n.活动
2. devote            vt.献身;专心于→ devoted        adj.忠实的;深爱的
3. peaceful                adj.和平的;平静的;安宁的→ peace      n.和平
4. vote        vt.& vi.投票;选举
            n.投票;选票;表决
5. attack            vt.进攻;攻击;抨击
6. equal           adj.相等的;平等的→ equality        n.同等;平等
7. willing              adj.乐意的;自愿的

8. escape             vi.& vt.逃脱;逃走;避开;(气体、液体等)泄漏

9. reward              n.报酬;奖金

                  vt.酬劳;奖赏

  → rewarding          adj.值得的;有报酬的

10. opinion               n.意见;看法;主张
Ⅱ.阅读识记单词
11.generous adj.____________慷慨的;大方的___
12.self n.  自我;自身                    → selfish      adj.自私的→ selfless       adj.无私的;忘我的                      
  → selflessly        adv.无私地;忘我地
13.found vt.___________建立;建设
14.guidance n. 指导;领导                     → guide      v.指导;指示
                     n.导游;指导者
15.legal adj. 法律的;依照法律的                                     → illegal      adj.非法的
16.violence n.  暴力;暴行                     → violent      adj.暴力的
17.educate vt. 教育;训练                     → educated        adj.受过教育的;有教养的
  → education         n.教育
18.relative n._______亲戚;亲属____
19.sentence vt._______判决;宣判____
20.president n.______总统;会长;校长;行长_________________
语境活用 [用所给词的正确形式填空]
1.Our own experience working together on health,development,and 
energy the last twenty years has been one of the most  rewarding                 (reward) 
parts of our lives.(2016·四川)
2.In a further twist,birth rate is highest in poorly   educated               rural areas 
and lowest in highly  educated                 urban areas.(educate)(2017·江苏)
3.Confucius believed knives would remind people of killings and were too    
 violent            (violence) for use at the table.(2016·全国Ⅲ)
4.Behaving in this   selfless            (self) and  devoted             (devote) manner,these little 
creatures have survived on Earth for more than 140 million years.
5.I’ve always looked to my father for   guidance                (guide) in these matters.
6.Women have yet to achieve full    equality        (equal) with men in the 
workplace.
7.She hoped the different ethnic groups in the area could live together in 
  peaceful               (peace) co-existence.
8.It is   illegal           (legal) to sell tobacco to someone under 16.
联想拓展·多积累

 1.“教育”词汇一览
 (1)educate v.教育;训练
 (2)train v.训练
 (3)instruct v.指导
 (4)drill v.训练;操练
 (5)coach v.训练;指导
2.“校长”多重表达
(1)headmaster n.校长
(2)principal n.校长
(3)president n.校长;董事长
3.后缀-ance高频名词大集合
(1)guidance n.指导;领导
(2)performance n.表演;履行
(3)appearance n.外表;出现
(4)assistance n.帮助
(5)significance n.重要;重要性
4.“人物性格特点”的反义形容词对
(1)mean吝啬的→generous 慷慨的
(2)selfish自私的→selfless无私的
(3)inferior自卑的→confident自信的
                            高频短语

1. out        of      work          失业
2. as      a    matter               of     fact/in             fact        事实上
3. blow           up      使充气;爆炸 
4. in      trouble             在危险、受罚、痛苦、忧虑等的处境中
5. turn          to    求助于;致力于
6. lose         heart          丧失勇气或信心
7. come            to     power           当权;上台
8. set       up      设立;建立;搭起
9. be       sentenced                    to    被判处……(徒刑)
10.  in      one      ’    s   opinion              在某人看来
语境活用 [用上述加颜色短语的正确形式填空]
1.“Who,  in     your          opinion             ,is the best football player in the world today?
” asked Tom.
2.Depending on the kind of race you plan to enter,you can    set       up        a 
timetable for the remaining weeks before the race.(2015·全国Ⅱ)
3.He failed many times,but he did not  lose         heart          .
4.When I am in difficulty,I always   turn         to     him for help.
5.It was when we were returning home that I realized what a good feeling it 
was to have helped someone   in     trouble             .(2015·湖南)
6.He opened a small shop of his own after he was  out       of      work         .
联想拓展·多积累

 1.lose习语归纳
 (1)lose heart丧失信心
 (2)lose face丢脸
 (3)lose control失去控制
 (4)lose touch失去联系
 (5)lose oneself失去自我
2.“out of+n.”短语小结
(1)out of work失业
(2)out of mind心不在焉
(3)out of sight看不见
(4)out of order有毛病;出故障
(5)out of breath上气不接下气
                         经典句式

1.不定式作定语
He was the first man to land on the moon in July 1969.
1969年7月,他成为第一个登上月球的人。

2.where引导定语从句
...until today we have reached a stage where we have almost no rights 
at all.
……直到今天我们到了几乎没有任何权利的地步。
3.“only+状语(从句)”置于句首引起的倒装
...only then did we decide to answer violence with violence.
……直到那时,我们才决定用暴力反抗暴力。

4.the first time引导时间状语从句
I felt bad the first time I talked to a group.
第一次给旅行团作讲解时,我感觉很糟。
句式仿写
1.张衡是世界上发明地震仪的第一人。(2016·北京)
Zhang Heng was the first man  to      invent            the seismograph.
2.我们到了这样一个阶段:为了挽救我们自己我们必须开始采取有效措
施来保护环境。(2016·北京)
We  have          reached               a   stage           where           we must start taking effective measures 
to protect the environment so as to save ourselves.
3.只有父母和孩子都改变态度,这种不利局面才能改善。(2016·上海)
Only when both parents and children change their attitudes _________can this
 unfavorable                       situation                 be      improved                 .
4.我还记得上次你来我们学校参观时,你向我展示了关于那个主题的一
些照片。(2016·全国Ⅱ)
I remember you showed me some photos on that theme  the       last        time         you 
visited our school.
考点互动探究
               边讲
               边练    突破核心词汇

1 devote vt.献身于;致力于;专心致志于;把……用于

拓展词:devoted adj.挚爱的;忠实的,忠诚的
devotion n.奉献;关照;忠诚

 devote...to...把……致力于……,专心于……的
 devote oneself to献身于;致力于
 be devoted to致力于;献身于;热爱……
(1)He is a  devoted             (devote) father because he was strict with his daughter 
and encouraged her when she was in trouble.
他是一位慈爱的父亲,因为他对女儿很严格,在她遇到困难时鼓励她。
                                               (2017·天津)
(2)Only when we realize the importance of helping each other can we be 
devoted to   building               (build) a harmonious society.
只有当我们意识到互相帮助的重要性时,我们才能致力于建设一个和谐
社会。
[句式升级]
(3)He devoted himself to community activities and was praised by the 
people around.
① Devoting          himself        to   community           activities         ,he was praised by the 
people around.(用现在分词短语作状语改写)
② Devoted         to   community           activities       ,he was praised by the people around.
(用过去分词短语作状语改写)
2 vote v.投票,选举,表决;提议
          n.选票;投票;表决

(1)vote sb.sth.选出/推举某人担任某职务;表决为某人提供某物
vote for投票赞成
vote against投票反对
vote on就……投票表决
(2)put sth.to the vote把某事交付表决
(1)Su Hua is invited by his uncle to vote   for      his cousin in the “Future 
Singer” competition.
苏华受叔叔的邀请投票支持参加《未来歌手》比赛的表弟。(2016·江苏)
(2)Fearing that most of the citizens voted  against              him,he wore a smile.
由于担心大多数市民投票反对他,他一直面带微笑。
(3)We had no choice but  to     put        it    to      the       vote        .
我们别无选择,只好投票表决。
3 equal adj.相等的;平等的;相当的;能胜任的 
          n.同等的人;相等物
            v.与……相等,等于;比得上

拓展词:equally adv.相等地;同样地 equality n.平等

be equal in在……方面比得上
be equal to sth./doing sth.等于……;与……相等;胜任……
be without equal/have no equal无与伦比
(1)Leaving aside the birth rate issue,India’s economy may take off 
when the country achieves   equality              (equal) of educational opportunity.
撇开出生率问题,印度经济在国家实现教育机会均等的时候可能会腾
飞。
           to     in                           (2017·江苏)
(2)He is equal        Tom        ability.
在能力方面他与汤姆不相上下。                         have no equal/are
(3)Inwithout fact equal,when it comes to the art of war,ants __________________
                          .
事实上,当谈到战争的艺术时,蚂蚁是无与伦比的。(2015·安徽)
[联想发散] 表示“胜任……”的其他短语:
be fit for,be up to,be qualified for,be adequate to
 4 escape v.逃脱;逃避;被遗忘;(气体、液体等)泄漏
               n.逃脱;逃避;漏出

拓展词:escaped adj.逃跑了的
[写出下列句子中加颜色词的汉语意思]
(1)I’m sorry,but your name escapes me.     被遗忘;被忽略            
_______________                               流出;泄漏
(2)How will we know if there’s any gas escaping?             ___________
(3)The cinema allowed people to escape from the depressing realities逃避 of 
their lives.          _____
(4)Three people died in the fire,but John escaped through the bedroom逃脱  
window.                    _____
(1)escape from从……逃脱;逃避……
escape doing/being done逃避(被)做某事
(2)a narrow escape九死一生

[一句多译]
(5)你很幸运逃脱了惩罚。
①You are lucky to  escape             punishment                     .
②You are lucky to  escape             being           punished                 .
[易错点拨] 注意下面两个短语的区别:
escape from prison越狱;escape prison逃过牢狱之灾
5 reward v.酬谢;奖励,奖赏
               n.奖金;回报;报酬

拓展词:rewarding adj.值得的;有益的;有意义的

(1)reward sb.for (doing) sth.因(做)某事而奖赏/酬谢某人
reward sb.with sth.用某物奖赏/回报某人
(2)in reward for为奖赏……;为报答……
as a reward for作为对……的奖赏/回报
(1)The students have been working hard on their lessons and their efforts  
 will        be      rewarded                   with         success              in the end.
学生们一直努力学习功课,他们的付出最终会获得成功的。(2016·北京)
(2)I’d like to do something   in     reward              for        her       kindness                .
我想做点什么来报答她的好意。
(3)Our trip to the Yukon was a very  rewarding                  (reward) experience.
我们的育空之行是一次非常有益的经历。
[词义辨析] reward,award,prize
(1)reward作名词表示“赏金,奖励”或一些非金钱的报酬;作动词时
则表示“奖励,酬谢”,只能以人或人的行为作宾语。
(2)award作名词指“奖品,奖金等”;作动词表示“授予,给予;判
给”,可以跟双宾语,award sb.sth.把某物授予/判给某人。
(3)prize只能作名词,表示“奖赏,奖金,奖品”,尤指在比赛中获得
的荣誉。
 6 turn to 转身;求助于;致力于;翻到;转向;开始从事;查阅

[写出下列句子中加颜色词语的汉语意思]
(1)At last,I will be on my own,but I still want to have my parents to 
turn to whenever I need help.(2016·全国Ⅲ)      _______ 求助于
(2)It is time he turned his mind to more serious problems.        _____转向
(3)Let’s turn to more important matters now.     _______________开始考虑;开始讨论____
(4)Don’t always turn to the dictionary when you come to a new word.
                                                    _____查阅
7 lose heart灰心;泄气;丧失信心

lose one’s heart to爱上;喜欢上
strike...into one’s heart使……刻骨铭心
by heart凭记忆;能背诵
heart and soul全心全意地
eat/tear one’s heart out为某事暗自伤神;忧伤
(1)We should not  lose        heart         in face of difficulties.If we work hard,we 
will find a way out.
我们不应在困难面前丧失信心。只要我们努力,就会找到出路。
                                               (2016·天津)
(2)The children can repeat the poem they’ve just learnt   by      heart          .
这些孩子能背诵他们刚学过的诗歌。
               点拨
               规律    突破经典句型

8 He was the first man to land on the moon in July 1969.
  1969年7月,他成为第一个登上月球的人。

句型:不定式作定语
(1)当被修饰成分前有序数词或形容词的最高级及the                only,the very修
饰时,常用不定式作定语。
(2)to come将来的;to spare剩余的。这两个短语常放在时间名词后面作
后置定语。
(3)一些特定名词,如ability,chance,ambition,right,way,reason
,time,effort后,常跟不定式作定语。
(4)作定语的动词如果是不及物动词,或者不定式所修饰的名词或代词
是不定式动作的地点、工具等,不定式后面须有相应的介词。
(1)Our football team was  the       first         to      reach           the        finals          .
我们的足球队率先进入了决赛(finals)。
(2)I caught the bus with only  a    few        seconds               to      spare          .
我在离开车只剩数秒时赶上了公交车。
(3)At present,I have a comfortable house  to     live        in     .
目前,我有一所舒适的房子住。
[一句多译]
(4)我记下了需要背诵的短语。
①I made notes of the phrases  to      be      memorized                   .
②I made notes of the phrases that needed  to      be      memorized/memorizing                                         .
9 ...only then did we decide to answer violence with violence.
  ……直到那时,我们才决定用暴力反抗暴力。

句型: “only+状语(从句)”置于句首引起的倒装

“only+副词、介词短语、状语从句”放在句首时,句子用部分倒装
形式。
(1)Only when Lily walked into the office  did        she        realize            that she had left 
the contract at home.
直到莉莉走进办公室时,她才意识到她把合同落在家里了。(2015·天津)
(2)Only with all your time and energy  can        you        do       this        job       well        .
只有用上你全部的时间和精力,你才能把这项工作做好。
[易错点拨]
(1)“only+状语从句”放在句首时,倒装的是主句,从句不倒装。
(2)only修饰主语时不倒装。
(3)Only people who know the keyword  can        read          the       message               .
只有知道密码的人才能读懂这则信息。(2016·全国Ⅰ)
10 I felt bad the first time I talked to a group.
   第一次给旅行团作讲解时,我感觉很糟。

 句型:the first time引导时间状语从句
引导时间状语从句的(名词)短语和副词还有:
(1)each/every time每次……的时候
next time下次……时
any time任何时候
last time上次……时
by the time到……为止
(2)the moment,the minute,the second,the instant,
immediately,instantly,directly,hardly...when...,no sooner...than...
一……就……
(1)  The        first         time          I   interviewed                      him        ,he looked a bit nervous.
我第一次采访他时,他看起来有点紧张。
(2)  The       moment               you        get      on      the       airplane              ,start adjusting your biological 
clock to the destination’s time.
你一上飞机就应该把自己的生物钟加以调节,以适应目的地的时间。
                                               (2015·重庆)
[易错点拨]
for the first time是介词短语,在句中只能作状语,不能用来引导时间
状语从句。
(3)Naturally,you were nervous when you went on the platform ______for the
  first         time        .
你第一次站在讲台上时感到紧张这是很自然的。
跟踪达标训练
Ⅰ.单句语法填空
1.It does serious harm to children’s character that too much _________violence
(violent) is shown on TV.
2.Encouraged by my teacher,I am veryhopeful                (hope) about my 
future.Devoted
3.             (devote) to his research,he has no time to spend a weekend 
with his family.        to
4.Pleasewith  don’t hesitate to turn      us for help whenever you have trouble 

          your study.
5.He was crossing the street when a man was driving fast towards him and 
he narrowly escaped  being            killed          (kill).
6.The Voice of China has set up a stage    where         some people can realize 
their dreams.
7.You can’t imagine the trouble I had    persuading               (persuade) him to 
change his mind.
8.I am the first   to     arrive           (arrive),and she is the second.
9.Little joy can equal  that         of a surprising ending when you read stories.
10.The old temple  has        seen       (see) great changes of the village in the past two 
hundred years.
Ⅱ.单句改错(每小题仅有1处错误)

1.Though beaten by the opposite team they didn’t lose their heart.

2.Devoted herself to the deaf children,the young lady has little time to 
 Devoting
care for her own daughter.

3.The children were so excited to be taken aboard∧ the first time.
                                     for
4.It was generous for him to pay for us both that day.
              of
5.She started singing to the baby and was rewarded to a smile.
                                        with
6.The time he has devoted in the past ten years to help the disabled is 
                                        helping
now considered to be of great value.

7.This was a time which there were no radios,no telephones or no TV 
               when
sets.

8.It shocked her to hear that her good friend∧ attacked with cancer.
                                 was
Ⅲ.教材与语法填空
    Elias,a poor black worker in South Africa,said that the time 
1.  when          he first met Nelson Mandela was a very difficult period of his 
life.In 1952,he went to see Mandela,2a.     black lawyer,for 
advice.
Mandela was generous with his time,for which Elias was very 
grateful.
    Elias began school at six,but he had to leave school two years later 
3. because              his family couldn’t afford the school fees and the bus fare.As 
a result,he had very little 4.  education                (educate).After trying hard,he 
got a job in a gold mine.However,5.  to     live     (live) in Johannesburg,one 
had got to have a passbook.Not having one because he was not born 
there,he worried about 6. whether               he would become out of work.
    Then Mandela helped him,telling him how to get the correct 
7.  papers             (paper) to stay in Johannesburg.He became more hopeful 
about his future and later joined the ANC Youth organizedLeague 8.                
(organize) by Mandela.Just as Mandela put it,the blacks werebadly so 9.        
(bad) treated that they had reached a stage where they had almost no 
rights at all.
    In 1963,Elias helped Mandela blow up  some government 
buildings.He knew that only by answering violence with violence could 
they achieve their dream of 10.   making           (make) black and white people 
equal.
Ⅳ.教材与短文改错

                THE REST OF ELIAS’ STORY

    You cannot imagine what the name of Robben Island made us 
                      how
afraid.It was a prison from where no one escaped.There I spent the hardest 
                      which
time of my life.But when I get there Nelson Mandela was also there and he 
                     got
helped me.Mr Mandela began a school for those of us who had few learning.
                                              little
He taught us during the lunch breaks and the evening when we should 
                                      evenings
have been asleep.We read books under our blankets and used anything we 

could find∧ make candles to see the words.I became a good student.I wanted to 
       to
study for my degree and I was not allowed to do that.Later,Mr Mandela 
                 but
allowed the prison guards to join in us.He said they should not be stopped 

from studying for their degrees.They were not clever than me,but they 
                                     cleverer
did pass their exams.So I knew I could get a degree too.That made me feel 

good about me.
        myself
Ⅴ.教材与微写作
写作素材(关于人物介绍)
1.作为律师,我热爱我的工作。
2.我相信法律面前人人平等。
3.在大家处于困境时,我乐意不计报酬为大家提供帮助。
4.事实上,很多人就法律问题向我求助。
提示:加颜色部分用本单元词汇表达,并且请使用when引导的时间状语
从句。
连句成篇(将以上句子连成一篇50词左右的英语短文)
   As a lawyer,I am devoted to my job and I believe all people are 
equal before the law.I’m willing to give a hand without rewards when 
people are in trouble.As a matter of fact,a lot of people turn to me for 
legal advice.


                                                      答案
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