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                               阅读部分
Time:1 hour

                                                                  Number of 
 PART      Main Skill Focus            Input           Response
                                                                   Questions
                               Four short information 
   1       Scanning and gist    texts (approx. 250-350 matching       7
                                   words in total)
                              Single text: article, report, 
                               etc. with sentence level 
           understanding text 
   2                           gaps (text plus 7 option Matching      5
               structure
                              sentences approx. 450-550 
                                   words in total)
                                                        4-option 
          Reading for gist and Single text (approx. 450-
   3                                                    multiple      6
          specific information      550 words)
                                                         choice
                               Single information text 
                                                        4-option 
            vocabulary and      with lexical gaps (text 
   4                                                    multiple      15
               structure       including gapped words 
                                                         choice
                               approx. 200-300 words)
                             Short text (approx. 150-200 
            Understanding 
                               words) identification of  Proof 
   5      sentence structure /                                        12
                               additional unnecessary   reading
          error identification
                                   words in text

                         第一项:句子与文章的匹配

实用技巧:
1、 正确的句子中一般不会用于文章中相同的单词或词组来表达。
2、 寻找与被选句子中某个细节表达相一致的文章。(通常一致是指近义词的使用和同
   义表达的使用)
3、 一般每一篇文章至少被选一次,最多被选两次。
4、 本项中的解题顺序应该是:在阅读完一个被选句子后,用快速阅读的方法,迅速找
   到答案。切忌阅读全文。

                               Exercise One

1. This company has more than one vacancy in its factory.
2. Only graduate engineers will be considered.
3. This job requires qualifications but no previous experience.
4. Knowledge of two European languages is needed for the job.
5. Frequent international travel is part of the job.
6. You will receive an extra payment every year, in addition to your basic salary.
7. You will be employed for only a fixed period.
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A
                  *     *      *    PESEARCH POSTS    *      *      *
A well-known international oil consultancy needs two recent graduates to work as Research 
Assistants. Good Economics degrees are required and computer skills are essential. The work 
is mainly based in London with regular, possibly monthly, research trips to Saudi Arabia. 
Competitive basic salary.
B
                             OIL  ENGINEER
An oil-pipeline specialist is required, based in a North African oil field. At least ten years 
experience in the fuel industries is expected from applicants. This is a permanent post with a 
high starting salary for the right person, plus annual bonus.
C
                  Electrical Instrument Inspectors - Thailand
We have a number of posts vacant for electrical instrument inspectors in our Bangkok plant. 
You  must speak German and  English, and have wide experience of the electrical 
manufacturing industry. Contracts are limited to two years, with car and accommodation 
provided. Salary is dependent on qualifications.
D
                 ★ EUROPEAN AUTOMOTIVE INDUSTPY ★
A large Swedish company has a position in its main factory for an electrical vehicle test and 
development engineer, who should have at least five years’ experience of vehicle production 
and testing. There are good career opportunities for the right person, who must have a good 
Engineering degree. English is the company language.

重要语法:注意在备选句中的限定词。
限定词是指在名词词组中对名词起特指、类指以及表示确定数量和非确定数量等限定
作用的词类。备选句中有限定词的出现,标志着该句中重要信息的显现。重视限定词
的出现,可以迅速定位备选句中重要信息,从而有的放矢地进行查找和筛选。

小知识:招聘广告的通用格式。
使用所需职位或用人单位作为标题;正文部分依次列出:所需职位;条件(详细);
待遇(通常不祥);其他情况

重要词汇和表达:
consultancy; graduate; graduate engineer; applicant; permanent post; inspector; 
accommodation; qualification; manufacturing; starting salary; basic salary; annual bonus

链接:What’s your ideal job?

                               Exercise Two

1. Selecting staff and getting them to work together
2. Suggestions to help you improve your memory.
3. Advice on working with both senior and junior staff.
4. Suggestions for dealing with difficult clients.
5. Developing oral and written presentation skills.
6. Advice on negotiating staff complaints.
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7. Guidance on using television, radio and the press to your advantage.
A
                          THE MIND MAP BOOK 
Tony Buzan
A supremely useful book for businessmen, this guide will help you speed up your ability to 
absorb and remember information. It will also improve your ability to write and speak 
effectively about your professional knowledge. The Mind Map Book is recommended by The 
Times Management Skills Group: “an important tool for middle managers everywhere.”
B
                           TIME MANAGEMENT 
Matthew Scott
Time Management shows you how to establish good time-saving habits by understanding 
yourself and your aims. Already the successful author of the best-selling Business Guide to 
Persuasion and Negotiations, Scott includes ideas on managing the boss, working with 
colleagues and giving orders to staff.
C
                            TOUGH TALKING
The Economist Business Series, No.8
If you are a manager who has to cope with demanding customers, then this book may solve 
your problems. You will also get assistance in handling employee dissatisfaction in helping 
employees to perform to the best of their ability, and in getting the most from the media. This 
is essential reading for ambitious managers!
D
                        CHANGING MANAGEMENT
Desk Companion Business Books
A group of four successful businessmen give practical guidance to managers on using teams 
properly. They suggest various ways to choose and develop them. This book is ideal for those 
new to the concept of teamwork. “The best book on teamwork I’ve ever read” (MD of 
Street Sales Ltd).

小技巧:备选句中使用解释性的语言而相应的文章中出现技术性语言或“术语”。                                    反
之亦然。

小知识:出版物广告的通用格式。

重要词汇和表达:
supremely; recommend; middle manager; time management; time-saving; best-selling; to get 
the most from; ambitious; to be new to; 

链接:What's important when choosing a business book to study from?

                               Exercise Three

1. You need to have worked in an office before attending this course.
2. You would learn something about preventing accidents at work.
3. You would be able to sit an examination in typing.
4. This course is useful if your job involves greeting people and dealing with enquiries.
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5. This course would suit someone with budgetary responsibility.
6. You would get practice in helping people in a group to communicate.
7. You would learn how to change the appearance of a letter or memo.
A
Tuesday 13.00-15.00
This course provides training in arranging meetings, conducting them effectively and making 
travel arrangements. The topics will include drawing up agendas, preparing for meetings, 
introducing speakers or participants, managing discussions successfully, keeping to an agreed 
timetable and writing follow-up reports. Previous experience of typing and general office 
work is essential for this course.
B
Mon, Thur, Fri 10.00-12.00
This course is intended both for beginners and for those who have reached an elementary 
level in typewriting. You will have the opportunity to develop your skills on up-to-date 
electronic equipment, gaining experience of producing all kinds of typed material in a variety 
of modern layouts. Students will be given ample opportunities for “hands on” experience 
of word-processing on the latest personal computers. Typewriting tests can be taken for 
widely recognized qualifications.
C
Monday 9.00-11.00
This course is designed to provide students with experience of operating a set of accounts, 
comparable with those of a small family firm, and of dealing with the more general financial 
aspects of running a small business. Topics will include profit and loss, maintaining records 
efficiently, cash payments, taxation, insurance and computerized accounting. External 
examinations can be arranged.
D
Friday 11.00-13.00
Participants on this course will develop their telephone skills and reception techniques in 
practical situations. Other topics included in the course are dealing with correspondence, the 
latest developments in fax equipment and photocopiers, and the advantages these new 
facilities offer. The course also covers health and safety in safety regulations governing the 
workplace.

重要词汇和表达:
Sit an examination; budgetary responsibility; Timetable; follow-up report; to be intended for; 
up-to-date; layout; “hands on” experience; comparable with; cash payments; taxation; 
computerized accounting; external; correspondence; 

                               Exercise Four

1. Experience in advertising would be helpful in this job.
2. This job would probably suit somebody who has worked in the purchasing department of a 
   large chain of stores.
3. Three years’ experience would not be enough for this job.
4. For this job it would be useful if you have studied how to carry out surveys into consumer 
  attitudes.
5. In this job you would take charge of a product which has been on the market for many 
years.
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6. To get this job it is not necessary to have work experience.
7. Such a high-ranking position does not come up very often.
A
                             Product Manager
This company has at present about 30% of the market and a turnover of more than £500 
million. The person appointed will have responsibility for a long-established product which is 
a household name. Experience in the insurance market is necessary and a background in 
accountancy would be helpful.
B
                          Group Product Manager
This is a rare opportunity to work at a senior level for a market leader in the food industry, 
located in the north of the country. the person appointed will report directly to the marketing 
Director and take full responsibility for a turnover in excess of £80 million and a team of 
three managers. Applicants need to have a minimum of five years’ experience in product 
management. A market research qualification would be an advantage.
C
                           Management Trainees
For this exciting position in the leisure industry we are seeking management trainees to 
develop excellent buying skills. Possibly a new graduate, the successful applicant may have 
experience with a big national retailer, but must certainly possess excellent negotiation and 
communication skills.
D
                            Marketing Executive
This important position has recently been created by one of the country’s leading clothes 
manufacturers. It is an outstanding opportunity for a graduate with two years’ experience in 
design or magazine publishing. The successful candidate will be given responsibility for a 
major, recently launched brand. It would be an advantage to have experience of promotional 
activities. Excellent fringe benefits on offer.

重要词汇和表达:
Purchasing department; Chain; customer attitude; high-ranking; food industry; turnover; 
marketing director; product management; long-established; accountancy; leisure industry; 
retailer; launch; promotional activity; fringe benefit; 

小资料:
                      What does a product manager do?

Product managers are responsible for the marketing and development of products. Product 
managers are both strategic and tactical. 
Strategic because they responsible for positioning a product, assessing the competition and 
thinking about the future. 
Tactical because they are in the field developing appropriate promotional campaigns, talking 
to reps about what customers want and think and doing the day-to-day sales tracking that's 
required for any major product category. 
Product management professionals are excited about their ability to manage and strengthen 
brands. They are at the vortex of company life because their decisions directly affect the 
success of a business. 
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                               Exercise Five

1.This business isn’t as successful as it was.
2.This advertisement states the value of previous sales.
3.The activity of this business is part of an expanding market.
4.This business has the potential to attract customers who are passing by.
5.A part of this business involves carrying out repairs.
6.This sale includes the company’s vehicles.
7.The sale of this business doesn’t include fixed premises.
A
                                  Mario’s
Mario’s specializes in health foods and other products associated with a healthy life-style. It is 
located in ground-floor premises in a busy street in the center of town, and has a reputation 
for first class quality. Health foods is a growth industry and the profits can be enormous.
Cost: £125,000 (includes fridges, freezers and all fittings)             Phone  278 231248
B
                           IMPEX WORLDWIDE
This import-export business specializing in spare parts is completely risk-free and could 
provide an income in excess of £100,000. It can be operated from a small office or even your 
home. No experience or capital is required. We will provide you with clients in over 120 
countries and help you with initial contracts.                                       Phone   0192 233481
C
                               NOTTS BUNS
This bakery currently occupies the second floor of a two-story building in a quiet area. It has 
traditionally been very profitable, with turnover of £258,400 last year. The business employs 
a number of staff and comes complete with all plant machinery and five delivery vans.
Cost: £270,000                                              Phone   012 393216
D
                               JT ROBERTS
This bicycle sales and maintenance business was established in 1973 and has a very profitable 
trading history. It is currently trading at below previous levels but is a great opportunity for 
the right person. Five very experienced staff are currently employed. The premises consist of 
a large showroom and workshop.
Competitively priced.                                         Phone   02388 563365

重要词汇和表达:
Fixed premises; Spare part; specialize in; initial contract; profitable; maintenance; 
competitively priced; 

                                Exercise Six

1.You will be responsible for the operation of a computer system.
2.You must be able to forecast what people will want to wear.
3.You will be able to work with people from many different countries and backgrounds.
4.You will have a qualification which covers two subject areas.
5.It is necessary to have worked in this sector before.
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6.You will need to keep in contact with the headquarters of the organization.
7.The advertisement emphasizes the need to have a suitable approach to important people.

A
                           BUSINESS MANAGER
You will be responsible for our global business within specific countries and will have a good 
understanding of international distribution, possibly based on previous experience, plus the 
ability to work in markets that are highly varied in their culture. You will be fluent in a second 
language, be willing to travel extensively, and preferably have a degree.
B
                       DEPARTMENT STORE BUYER
Based at our head office in London, you will select and order stock from our suppliers in 
Italy. You will need to predict fashion trends, and build a strong relationship with our Italian 
office. You will have gained your buying experience in women’s fashion and will hold a 
degree in design with a business studies component.
C
                    LEGAL SERVICES ADMINISTRATOR
As head of the legal office, your work will include managing the office IT network, typing 
reports, diary maintenance and supervision of another staff member. You will need good 
organizational skills in order to keep ahead of a varied workload. You will be dealing with 
senior executives and government officials, so a mature and efficient manner is essential.
D
                   REGIONAL LEISURE SITES MANAGER
You will be responsible for budgetary planning, contract negotiation, local marketing and 
effective administration. You will communicate frequently with our main office using the 
latest technology. Your experience could be from any business sector but you should enjoy 
outdoor life and will ideally possess an estate management qualification.

语法小知识:THE FUTURE PERFECT
The future perfect is used for an action which at a given future time will be in the past or 
will just have finished.

重要词汇和表达:
Sector; to keep in contact with; approach; international distribution; extensively; preferably; 
predict; fashion; component; diary maintenance; supervision; organizational skill; workload; 

                            第二项:句子的填空

重要语法:篇章构成的技巧(techniques in making texts)

人们讲话或写文章时,常常要把前后讲的或写的内容加以联系。联系的方式有几类,
它们为语言的应用提供粘合(cohesion)。取得粘合最常用的方式是返指(referring                     back)已
经提及的事项。取得粘合的另一方式就是预指(referring forward)将要说及的事项。

篇章构成的技巧非常适用于            BEC 阅读第二项。下面结合考题向大家具体介绍:
                中国现代教育网 www.30edu.com  全国最大教师交流平台

                               Exercise One

                          Preparing for Exhibitions
An exhibition is an excellent way of generating new business for companies both large and 
small, and offers many advantages, such as obtaining sales leads, competitor intelligence, and 
learning more about industry development and trends. An exhibition should be seen as an 
integral element of an overall sales and marketing campaign. Companies that fail to plan their 
participation carefully could find exhibiting costly and unproductive...example.
If a new product launch is planned, for example, a good-sized demonstration area is needed 
with facilities for taking and following up leads.
A stand manager should be appointed from the start.
Forward planning of budgets is essential... (8)...
An exhibition is an ideal and highly effective platform for new product launches... (9)...
Make sure that you plan to use your exhibition as a focus for presenting something new either 
about your products/services or your company and ensure that you publicize any newsworthy 
information to maximize interest.
Trade journals are keen to publicize new products and services, and often compile special 
preview issues prior to an exhibition... (10)...
... (11)... The guides produced by some exhibitions offer detailed information on all 
promotional opportunities around the show.
Valerie Thompson, Marketing director of Reed Exhibitions, says: “We realize how vital it is 
for exhibiting companies to plan way ahead of an exhibition. We do our utmost to encourage 
our exhibitors to maximize on their participation in an event...(12)...”

A、A number of exhibition organizations also provide free guides and services.
B、Lead times for publications can be anything from 6 to 24 weeks before publication and it 
    is essential that details are sent in time.
C、Meetings on pre-show activities should be held to ensure all personnel are clear about 
    recent developments.
D、Research by the Exhibition Marketing Group shows that 61% of visitors are attracted to 
    exhibitions by new products and technology.
E、Make sure that any mail sent out about your company has details of your participation.
F、The  costs of exhibition space, transportation, and other related issues need to be 
    considered well in advance.
G、The success of any show is greatly influenced by the way exhibitors market themselves.
H、A number of fundamental decisions should be taken in advance.

返指方法一:使用名词词组返指前文中的具体名词,避免重复,并从意思上进行具体
解释。如:exercise one 中   8。

返指方法二:在名词(或名词词组)前使用                  the 这一特指限定词,返指前文中提到的名
词或词组。如:exercise one 11。

返指方法三:使用副词来指代前文中提到或讨论到的时间。如:exercise one 10。

重要词汇和表达:
Sale leads; competitor intelligence; costly; unproductive; demonstration area; stand manager; 
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trade journal; compile; preview issue; lead time; market(v.)

                               Exercise Two

                           New Technology Links
During the past 10 years, Jones and May has made a £350m investment in information 
technology.... example.
Every time a customer makes a purchase, the Jones and May till does a lot more than just 
produce their change and a receipt. With the help of an advanced computer system the tills 
feed information to Jones and May central computers, which calculate what stock is 
needed......(8) They are then almost instantly able to organize the following day’s or week’s 
deliveries.
... (9)... For example, food shelves do not sell out early on a Saturday as they used to and a 
wider range of goods are available on a Monday. Using advanced communication between 
stores, Head Office and suppliers, the computers work out what has been sold each day, what 
suppliers need to produce, and what should be delivered to stores the following 
day....(10)...Fewer customers are disappointed and profits improve.
...(11)...When a new season’s range of clothes goes into stores in a variety of colors the 
computer system makes it possible to respond to sales data almost overnight and, for example, 
increase the production of clothes in faster-selling colors and sizes. On the occasions when an 
item is temporarily out of stock, information technology enables sales staff to tell customers 
immediately whether it is available from the distribution center. If it is, an order can be 
placed. ...(12) ...
So the next time you are handed a Jones and May receipt you will know that the system is 
already reacting to your purchase and re-ordering the item you have just bought.

A、This involves serious delays and damages customer confidence.
B、Among the benefits for clothing is the fact that stores receive new deliveries according to 
    their exact requirements.
C、This unusually responsive system provides benefits in terms of both customer service and 
    profits.
D、This information is fed from there directly into the suppliers’ computers.
E、The new system has more than half-ed delivery time for customer orders to between 24 
    and 48 hours.
F、Such a quick and sensitive response ensures that the right amount of fresh food arrives at 
    each store.
G、Their desktop computers can access sales data from the tills allowing them to change 
    orders.
H、This has allowed them to create links with suppliers that are among the most efficient in 
    the world.

重要语法:篇章构成的技巧(techniques in making texts)

返指方法四:用       this;that 和他们的复数形式        these 和 those 清楚地返指前文中提到
的事物和事实;用        such 作为限定词或形容词返指刚刚提及的事物。如:exercise                     two 
8,9,10。
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返指方法五:所谈的行为或情况在前面已经提及时,可用                        so 来替代。如:exercise 
two 12。

重要词汇和表达:
till; receipt; delivery; sell out; to respond to; faster-selling; to react to; 

                               Exercise Three

A successful businessman was once asked the secret of his success. He replied that the most 
important thing was to jump at every opportunity. “But how do you know when an 
opportunity comes along?” came the next question. He replied. “You don’t. You just keep 
jumping.”
This is a lesson for everyone in business trying to find new customers. The important thing is 
to make the most of the slightest opportunity that may come along. Concentrate on 
establishing an extensive network of possible new customers and make an extra effort for that 
initial contact. (example) .......But don’t simply ask the receptionist. If you do you will almost 
certainly be put through to a junior member of staff. What you should do is to ask the 
receptionist to put you through to the Managing Director’s secretary. (8) After a few days call 
again and ask to speak to this top person. Say, “I was speaking to the Managing Director’s 
secretary a couple of days ago about a business proposal, and they suggested that I spoke to 
you.” (9)........
This is when you should use the rule of “ten to”. The person you are going to see is very 
busy and will not want to waste any time. It’s likely that they will think that your visit will 
take from the time you suggest to the next o’clock or they’ll imagine you’ll be staying until 
three. Instead say. “I’m in your area next Tuesday. Could you spare me ten minutes, say at 
nine-fifty or it’s more convenient for you, at ten to five?” (10) ......And that’s it. Your ten-
minute appointment with a new customer.
After achieving your first success of the day, it’s time to plan the rest of your time. (11) 
......Try to get more appointments. If your first appointment is for nine-fifty, for example, 
see if you can arrange another one somewhere else at the end of the day, say at four-fifty, and 
then two more either side of lunch. (12) ........
You can build a whole week’s worth of potential business around this procedure.

A、They allow you to manage your appointments more successfully.
B、Since the door has been opened it should be easy to get an appointment.
C、Don’t just sit back thinking that this will do for now.
D、This  also has the advantage of making you sound busy, and they are almost bound to 
    agree to such a request.
E、When   you get through, say that you have a business proposal which could save the 
    company    money and ask for the name of the top person in the department.
F、This will give you plenty of time mid-afternoon to write brief reports on the visits already 
    completed and to prepare for the next ones.
G、This is the way that you’ll improve not only the sales visits, but also your presentation of 
    business proposals.
H、If you don’t know who to speak to, find out by calling the company.
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重要词汇和表达:
extensive; initial contact; receptionist; for now; 

                               Exercise Four

                              Altered Images
We  have teamed up with The Career and Workwear Show to find the best-dressed 
organization. Two hotel group and a management center have made it to the shortlist.
Uniforms project an instant image about a business, as well as creating a team spirit among 
staff. Choose the wrong work wear and you risk upsetting your customers and employees.
Three entrants have been short-listed in the competition to find the best-dressed business: 
Country Hotel Group, Goring Residential Management College and Major Hotel. (example) 
......
A detailed entry form set out to discover the thought processes the entrants had used before 
they selected their new uniforms.   (8)   In addition to price and style the judges wanted to 
know how the organization introduces the new look and what lessons it had learnt.
The Country Hotel Group was looking for a uniform that was comfortable to wear and 
presented a relaxed country image to guests. The firm admits to placing a great emphasis on 
the clothing and appearance of its staff.    (9)    A brief was issued to a number of companies 
who then had to present their ideas in a fashion show format to 50 employees. After the 
design was chosen, one hotel tried out the uniform for three months.   (10)    
The aim of the new uniform at Goring Residential Management College was to make staff 
instantly recognizable to course participants. The chosen design from Classy Rags established 
a clear corporate image at the college. There were many different outfits but only three fabrics 
had been used throughout the range and therefore the uniform was easily recognizable. One of 
the judges in the competition fashion journalist Sally Bain, was also impressed with the value 
for money aspect of the uniforms.   (11)   
At Major Hotels a new uniform was needed to replace the old one which was considered to be 
‘old-fashioned and unattractive’. The new design was well received by the reception staff 
of the hotel chain. ___(12)___ Their bottle-green uniforms were selected from Rayner 
Corporate Clothing. It was felt that it was a functional choice of color and made a pleasant 
change from the more traditional black.

A、Feedback was then collected from staff at the hotel and minor changes were made before 
    the uniform was introduced across all hotels.
B、The  award will be presented to the competition winners at The Career and Workwear 
    Show which will be held at the Business Design Center in London.
C、They  all believe that its introduction has led to a modern, more professional corporate 
    image and greater confidence among them.
D、In  its entry it said: “Substantial investment has been made in this uniform because 
    uniforms are seen as a very important area.”.
E、In her opinion this had been achieved at half the cost of the other entries, with the average 
    cost per person being £210, and each uniform being expected to last two years.
F、It asked why the uniform was introduced, who it was designed to be worn by, and how the 
    firm went about selecting a supplier.
G、She felt that the head receptionist at the hotel should be asked to put forward the views 
    and preferences of the team.
H、On   reason for this is that all three proved to the judges that they had thoroughly 
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    researched their choice of new uniforms.

重要语法:篇章构成的技巧(techniques in making texts)

返指方法六:使用人称代词和物主代词。
在 A-H  备选句中一旦出现代词,就应该在前文中找到对应。否则该句就不能成为答案。

重要词汇和表达:
team up; shortlist; team spirit; entry form; to set out; thought process; entrant; fashion show 
format; recognizable; corporate image; outfit; fabric; money aspect; feedback; 

                               Exercise Five

                      How to Succeed in the 21st Century
        Andrew Gillespie looks at what firms will have to do to achieve success in
                          a competitive 21st century.
Those organizations which succeed in the 21st century will probably do so by achieving a 
competitive edge over their rivals. There are numerous ways in which a company can do this 
but certain areas of business practice are crucial.
Success lies in understanding the market that the company operates in, which involves 
knowing what customers are likely to want in the future as well as what they want now 
(example) ......I...... Change is necessary for survival and if a company wants to succeed it has 
to know what changes to expect rather than just responding to them when they happen. 
Whenever possible, ‘knowing the customer’ has to be extended to actually working with 
customers when developing new products.    (8)    . In addition to collecting this information 
about customer requirements, companies must also make sure that they act upon it. I recently 
stayed in a hotel which had a book for visitors’ suggestions about service improvement, some 
of the suggestions were five years old-and things had still not been put right!
Another important relationship for most firms is that with suppliers. When choosing a 
supplier, firms should not buy on a price judgment alone.    (9)    Sustained competitive 
advantage involves selecting suppliers by considering a range of factors, such as quality, 
reliability, and timely delivery. A firm should not try to set numerous suppliers against each 
other, making them compete for contracts.    (10)   This long-term view is known as 
‘partnership sourcing’ and is being adopted by most leading companies.
A further issue is that of product reliability. Customers are looking for consistency and are 
discouraged when there are variations in quality between different products or services. (11)    
. Many analysts believe, for example, that the success of the fast food chain McDonald’s is 
not built on burgers but on consistency; customers know what they are going to get when they 
buy a McDonald’s.
Having stated what their firm intends to provide, managers should not just assume that this 
‘service promise’ will be met automatically.    (12)   . Good managers (and therefore those 
that are likely to succeed) will make sure that all employees are involved in this process of 
“continuous improvement”. If a firm wants to be competitive in the future, it must be willing 
and able to change quickly. This isn’t always easy and may require extra resources, but 
whatever firms are doing now it may not be enough in the future. Others will always imitate 
and customers will switch.
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A、Instead it should concentrate on building up closer links with a smaller number of them, 
    so that they become more concerned and involved in the buying firm’s success.
B、Each of these firms must make sure that products are meeting a precise need and that the 
    design can be produced at a competitive price.
C、While the benefits of a cost-saving approach are obvious, it should be realized that they 
    are only short-term.
D、It is their responsibility to ensure that they have put mechanisms in place to check on 
    quality, as well as ways of correcting any variations that do occur.
E、To avoid this kind of dissatisfaction, firms should state what they are going to provide and 
    then ensure that every guarantee or service promise is met.
F、By improving such direct contact, firms are able to gain better feedback about customer 
    likes and dislikes and learn more about customer specifications.
G、Too  often, however, firms think that these production targets can be met by increased 
    spending on information technology.
H、These factors can vary, and customers’ values and attitudes will change over time, so it is 
    important for a company to keep ahead of developments.

小资料:
                        What’s partnership sourcing?

Partnership Sourcing seeks to overcome 'power based purchasing', where companies treat 
suppliers or customers as adversaries, and replaces it with a focus on co-operation. It requires 
a commitment from both customers and suppliers to a long term relationship based on 
mutually agreed objectives, to strive for world-class capability and competitiveness. 
Partnership sourcing helps to bring about a fundamental and continuous improvement in the 
knowledge, understanding and, where appropriate, implementation of partnering through the 
supply networks of all sectors - industrial, service and public.

重要词汇和表达:
Competitive edge; rival; reliability; timely; consistency; variation; customer specification; 

                                Exercise Six

Coffee is worth approximately $50-60bn per annum in terms of world sales. It is a truly 
international commodity, and today more than 50 countries in the world grow coffee beans. 
(example)       . ICO consists of 61 governments, 43 of which are exporters and 18 of which 
are importers. The organization helps coffee producers and promotes coffee consumption 
worldwide.ICO estimates that world production next year will reach 97.5 million bags, 11.3 
million bags higher than the current year. (8)         . As the largest producing country, Brazil is 
particularly important in the coffee world. In 1994 Brazil was responsible for 25% of world 
production, Colombia was next with 13.4%, Indonesia had 7.5%, Mexico 4.7%, Guatemala 
3.8% and Ethiopia and Vietnam were equal with 3.4%.
Coffee is a tough crop, and can be grown in areas where it is difficult or impossible to grow 
other crops. (9)       However, disease is always a problem for coffee production, as we can 
see in some parts of South America at the moment. ICO is active in educating farmers about 
avoiding disease and dealing with problems when they occur.
The distribution chain varies from country to country, explains Pablo Dubois. In most 
countries the smaller farmers sell their crop to a local trader, who then sells it on to exporters. 
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There are, however, other distribution systems. (10)       Some countries, like Vietnam, have 
special government marketing organizations for coffee.
Coffee prices often vary greatly from one year to the next. In 1997, for example there was a 
large rise in the world price, which was immediately felt by the consumer. Rising prices 
always result in a drop in sales, which will have a bad effect on those developing countries 
which are highly dependent on foreign exchange from coffee exports. (11)        
In the opinion of Pablo Dubois, the biggest problem for his organization is to create greater 
consumer awareness of the different varieties of coffee and different ways of preparing it. (12)
       ICO is therefore concentration its promotional activities on Russia and China. It is also 
encouraging environmentally friendly coffee production, and last year’s seminar on coffee 
and the environment created a lot of interest.
The future looks bright for the coffee industry. It is estimated that consumption over the next 
few years will continue to rise steadily. New markets like Eastern Europe and China are 
expected to develop fast.

A、As a result, the membership now represents 94% of all exporters and 60% of all importers.
B、In some of these countries, this can amount to as much as 50% of all export earnings.
C、 In North America, most consumers already have above-average knowledge of the range 
    available.
D、For example, frost and wind are particularly damaging to coffee crops.
E、Larger coffee growers, for example, frequently export directly.
F、The main reason for this is higher Brazilian output as production recovers from weather 
    damage to crops.
G、It is cultivated in mountain regions which can only be reached by animal transport, and in 
    other difficult areas where modern agricultural equipment cannot be used.
H、This makes the coffee industry fairly universal, according to Pablo Dubois, Head of the 
    international Coffee Organization (ICO), based in London.

                             第三项:阅读理解

实用技巧:
1. 采用快速阅读的方法。首先观察问题,然后迅速找到问题所在的文章。(一般问题
   中使用与文章相关部分相同的子句)
2. 本项不会提问类似与四、六级考试细节问题,也就是说考生不可能一眼找到答案。
   所有问题均为理解和推理判断题。
3. 基于以上两点,若发现选项中有文章中直接提到的表述,该选项为干扰项。
4. 正确选项中的表述与相应文章中的表述必为同义表述,因此考生应带着这一目的努
   力发现同义成分。
5. 本项的问题按照行文顺序提出,力求每段中都有问题。

Three steps you may follow in Reading Part Three:

Read through the question.
Locate the relevant part in the text.
Pursue your own interpretation of the part and check it against the options.
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                               Exercise One
                       Creative Teams and Management

When Colgate launched its then revolutionary Colgate Gum Protection toothpaste in 1990, 
company executives were confident they had a hit on their hands. The toothpaste incorporated 
a groundbreaking antibacterial technology they thought was the biggest innovation since 
fluoride. But in the months after the toothpaste’s six-country rollout, the product’s market 
share reached a meager 1% - one fifth of the company’s projections.

What went wrong? A new round of market research found that the original launch strategy 
muted the “breakthrough” message, the ads positioned the new toothpaste as a line extension 
instead of a revolutionary advance, and the public just didn’t buy the product’s broad claims. 
Up to this point, Colgate’s president, bill Shanahan, had attended only quarterly review 
meetings, now he rolled up his sleeves to rescue the product, establishing a worldwide 
marketing team and meeting regularly with global business vice president Kathleen Thornhill 
and CEO Reuben Mark to follow the team’s progress.

Shanahan and others at the very top sifted through the research and took part in the 
advertising development meetings, working elbow to elbow with the marketing team renamed 
collage total, and promoted with a retooled ad campaign that stressed the toothpaste’s 12-hour 
protection, the product was a hit in most of the 103 counties outside the United States.

Shanahan continued to lavish personal attention on the product, putting Colgate Total under 
the direct supervision of Jack Haber, then worldwide director of consumer oral care products, 
and committing $35 million and a team of 200 employees to the project. With that kind of 
senior-level backing, Harber pulled out the stops, spending $20 million to promote Colgate 
Total to U.S. dentists alone. Within two months of its domestic launch in 1997, the product 
captured 10.5% of the U.S. toothpaste market and within six months muscled perennial 
champ, Procter & Gamble’s Crest, out of first place. Colgate Total has remained number one 
ever since.

What transforms a good product idea like Colgate Total into a blockbuster? We spent ten 
years studying more than 700 new product development teams and interviewed over 400 
project leaders, team members, senior executive, and CEOs intimately involved in product 
development and launch. Of the hundreds of teams we studied, just 7% of them – 49 in all – 
created products that scored a perfect ten on our measure of blockbuster success. To achieve 
that score, products had to reach or exceed company goals, customer expectations, profit and 
sales targets, garner company and industry awards, and attract national attention.

Products don’t become blockbusters without the intense, personal involvement of senior 
management – usually a CEO or division head. In every case studied, top management played 
an intimate, active, often daily role. This approach has been out of favor for decades, creative 
teams, the thinking goes, should be empowered by management and then left alone. Too 
much attention stifles innovation. To that we say “Balcony.” Our work shows that, in the best 
case, management involvement should start on day one. Ideally, senior managers work closely 
with product team to establish must-have features and then help clear a path for the team. Top 
managers control resources, rules and cut through red tape. And, crucially, senior managers 
serve as cheerleaders and visionaries, broadcasting a message of organizational commitment 
that attracts buy-in at all levels of the company. 
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13. What happened to Colgate’s new toothpaste?
a. The results ran contrary to the company’s expectation.
b. It achieved a great success.
c. It took a great portion of market share.
d. The new technology was not popular among customers.

14. The writer implied that the original launch strategy
a. didn’t set the target.
b. failed to appeal to customers.
c. had the wrong focus.
d. aimed at a common goal.

15. According to the articles, Colgate Total’s success was due to
a. good marketing strategies.
b. Cooperation of team members.
c. Participation of senior managers in meetings.
d. Total involvement of top managers.

16. In Paragraph Five, the writer uses the figures to indicate
a. quite a few companies meet the standards.
b. Most companies realize the key to success.
c. Not many companies have outperformed the criteria.
d. A few companies have done better than others.

17. According to the writer, the approach that has been popular for a long time is 
a. the management should show their consistent concern about innovation.
b. teams should subject to the power of the management.
c. top management needn’t take part in the research and marketing activities.
d. team members have the absolute right to do what they want to do.

18. In what way can senior managers help the production team?
a. they direct and guide the team through the production process.
b. They set up regulations to be followed by the team.
c. They urge the whole company to be engaged in the project.
d. They have the right to reallocate funds and personnel of the company.

Words and Expressions:

Have a hit on one’s hands;
Groundbreaking;
Fluride;
Rollout;
Meager;
Projection;
Line extension;
Retooled;
Lavish;
Perennial;
Blockbuster;
Red tape;
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Visionary;

Have you ever noticed the following sentences in your reading? If not, read them 
through and pay attention to the bold parts.

13.
But in the months after the toothpaste’s six-country rollout, the product’s market share 
reached a meager 1% - one fifth of the company’s projections.

14. 
the original launch strategy muted the “breakthrough” message, the ads positioned the new 
toothpaste as a line extension instead of a revolutionary advance

15.
Up to this point, Colgate’s president, bill Shanahan, had attended only quarterly review 
meetings, now he rolled up his sleeves to rescue the product, establishing a worldwide 
marketing team and meeting regularly with global business vice president Kathleen 
Thornhill and CEO Reuben Mark to follow the team’s progress.

16.
To achieve that score, products had to reach or exceed company goals, customer expectations, 
profit and sales targets, garner company and industry awards, and attract national attention.

17.
This approach has been out of favor for decades, creative teams, the thinking goes, should be 
empowered by management and then left alone.

18.
And, crucially, senior managers serve as cheerleaders and visionaries, broadcasting a message 
of organizational commitment that attracts buy-in at all levels of the company. 

                               Exercise Two

                        Debunking Negotiation Myths

Before developing a more effective negotiation strategy, we need to dispel several faulty 
assumptions and myths about negotiation. These myths hamper people’s ability to learn 
effective negotiation skills and in some cases, reinforce poor negotiation skills.

A pervasive belief is that good negotiation skills are something that people are born with, not 
something that can be readily learned. This is false because most excellent negotiators are 
self-made. In fact there are very few naturally gifted negotiators. We tend to hear their stories, 
but we must remember that their stories are selective, meaning that it is always possible for 
someone to have a lucky day or a fortunate experience. This myth is often perpetuated by the 
tendency of people to judge negotiation skills by their car-dealership experiences. Whereas 
purchasing a car is certainly an important and common type of negotiation, it is not the best 
context by which to judge your negotiation skills. The most important negotiations are those 
that we engage in very day with our colleagues, supervisors, co-workers and business 
associates. These relationships provide a much better index of one’s effectiveness in 
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negotiation. In short, effective negotiation requires practice and feedback. The problem is that 
most of us do not get an opportunity to develop effective negotiation skills in a disciplined 
fashion, rather, most of us learn by doing. As the second myth reveals, experience is helpful, 
but not sufficient. 

We have all met that person at the cocktail party or on the airplane who boasts about his or 
her great negotiation feats and how he or she learned on the job. It is only partly true that 
experience can improve negotiation skills; in fact, native experience is largely ineffective in 
improving negotiation skills. There are three strikes against natural experience as an effective 
teacher. First if a person does not know how well he or she has performed in the negotiation, 
it is nearly impossible to improve performance. For example, can you imagine trying to learn 
mathematics without ever doing homework or taking tests? The second problem is that our 
memories tend to be selective, meaning that people tend to remember their successes and 
forget their failures or shortcomings. This is, of course, comforting to our ego, but it does not 
improve our ability to negotiate. Finally experience improves our confidence, but not 
necessarily our accuracy. People with more experience grow more and more confident, but 
the accuracy of their judgment and the effectiveness of their behavior do not increase in a 
commensurate fashion. Overconfidence can be dangerous because it may lead people to take 
unwise risks.

The third pervasive myth is that effective negotiation necessitates taking risks and gambles. In 
negotiation, this may mean saying things like “this is my final offer” or “Take it or leave it: or 
using threats and bluffs. This is what we call a “tough” style of negotiation, though 
negotiators are rarely effective; however, we tend to be impressed by the tough negotiator.

An interesting exercise is to ask mangers and anyone else who negotiates and to describe their 
approach to negotiating. Many seasoned negotiators believe that their negotiation style 
involves a lot of “gut feeling,” intuition, and “in-the-moment” responses. We believe that this 
type of intuition does not serve people well. Effective negotiation involves deliberate thought 
and preparation and is quite systematic.

13. According to the article, a person is likely to 
a. succeed in negotiation if he is lucky that day.
b. Do well if he has studied how to negotiate.
c. Have at least one successful negotiation.
d. Be a better negotiator if he has inborn talents.

14. What can best reveal one’s negotiation skills?
a. interpersonal relationships.
b. Promotion of an expensive good.
c. Good connections with business partners.
d. Daily interaction with all kinds of people.

15. According to the writer, the best way to improve negotiation skills is
a. systematic training.
b. Abundant experience.
c. More practicing.
d. Frequent rehearsing.

16. What does the writer think of experience?
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a. more experienced people may make unreasonable decisions.
b. Without feedback, it is very difficult to learn from experience.
c. Failures in fact help improve performance.
d. Experience blurs people’s accuracy.

17. The writer suggests that
a. effective negotiations do not necessarily involve risks.
b. Threats are sometimes impressive and effective.
c. People seem to prefer tough styles of negotiation.
d. Risks are caused by negotiator’s overconfidence.

18. According to the writer, excellent negotiators are those who
a. rely on intuition.
b. Plan their negotiation carefully.
c. Have good negotiation style.
d. Set a clear purpose. 

Words and Expressions:

Dispel;
Hamper;
Perpetuate;
Context;
Disciplined;
Feat
Strike;
Ego;
Commensurate;
Seasoned;
Gut feeling;
Intuition;

Have you ever noticed the following sentences in your reading? If not, read them 
through and pay attention to the bold parts.

13.
we must remember that their stories are selective, meaning that it is always possible for 
someone to have a lucky day or a fortunate experience.

14.
The most important negotiations are those that we engage in very day with our colleagues, 
supervisors, co-workers and business associates.

15.
In short, effective negotiation requires practice and feedback. The problem is that most of us 
do not get an opportunity to develop effective negotiation skills in a disciplined fashion, 
rather, most of us learn by doing.

16.
First if a person does not know how well he or she has performed in the negotiation, it is 
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nearly impossible to improve performance.

17.
The third pervasive myth is that effective negotiation necessitates taking risks and gambles.

18.
We  believe that this type of intuition does not serve people well. Effective negotiation 
involves deliberate thought and preparation and is quite systematic.

                               Exercise Three

                         How to Read Annual Reports

First, turn back to the report of the certified public accountant. This third-party auditor will 
tell you right off the bat if Galaxy’s report conforms with “generally accepted accounting 
principles”. Then go to the footnotes. Check to see whether earnings are up or down. The 
footnotes often tell the whole story.

Then turn to the letter from the chairman. Usually addressed “to our shareholders,” it’s up 
front – and should be in more ways than one. The chairman’s tone reflects the personality, the 
well-being of the company. In this letter, the chairman should tell you how the company fared 
this year. But more important, the letter should tell you why. Keep an eye out for sentences 
that start with “except for…” and “despite the …” they are clues to problems. On the positive 
side, a chairman’s letter should give you insights into the company’s future and its stance on 
economic or political that may affect it.

Now being digging into the numbers!

One source is the balance sheet. It is a snapshot of how the company stands at a single point 
in time. On the top are assets – everything the company owns. Things that can quickly be 
turned into cash are current assets. On the bottom are liabilities – everything the company 
owes. Current liabilities are the debts due in one year, which are paid out of current assets. 
The difference between current assets and current liabilities is working capital, a key figure to 
watch from one annual report to another. If working capital shrinks, it could mean trouble. 
One possibility: the company may not be able to keep dividends growing rapidly. Owners’ 
equity is the difference between total assets and liabilities. It is the presumed dollar value of 
what the owners or shareholders own. You want it to grow.

The second basic source of numbers is the income statement. It shows how much money 
Galaxy make or lost over the year. Most people look at one figure first. It’s in the income 
statement at the bottom: earnings per share. Watch out. It can fool you. Galaxy’s management 
could boost earnings by selling off a plant. Or by cutting the budget for research and 
advertising. The number you should look at first in the income statement is net sales. Ask 
yourself: are sales going up at a faster rate than the last time around? When sales increases 
start to slow, the company may be in trouble. Have sales gone down because the company is 
selling off a losing business? If so, profits may be soaring.

Another important thing to study is the company’s debt. Turn to the balance, and divide long-
term liabilities by owner’s equity. That’s the debt-to-equity ratio. A high ratio means the 
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company borrows a lot of money to spark its growth. That’s okay – if sales grow too, and if 
there’s enough cash on hand to meet the payments. A company doing well on borrowed 
money can earn big profits for its shareholders. But if sales fall, watch out. The whole 
enterprise may slowly sink. Some companies can handle high ratios; others can’t.

Finally, you have to compare. Is the company’s debt-to-equity ratio better or worse than it 
used to be? Better or wore than the industry norms? In company-watching, comparisons are 
all. They tell you if management is staying on top of things.

13. According to the writer, the most important element of the chairman’s letter is
a. the expressions used.
b. the explanation given by the chairman.
c. the performance of the company during the year.
d. the company’s future described by the chairman.

14. According to the article, the drop of working capital shows that
a. both current assets and current liabilities fall.
b. current assets decline while current liabilities rise.
c. both current assets and current liabilities remain the same as the previous year.
d. current assents increase but current liabilities decrease.

15. What do shareholders expect to increase?
a. total assets.
b. working capital.
c. total liabilities.
d. owner’s equity.

16. According to the article, the main reason to look at net sales first is that
a. they tell how much profit the company has earned.
b. they have nothing to do with advertising.
c. they are not affected by selling off a plant.
d. they are not so easily manipulated by the management as earnings per share.

17. According to the writer, a great deal of borrowing
a. boosts sales.
b. promotes growth.
c. generates profits.
d. entails risk.

18. According to the article, what makes it clear that the company is well-managed?
a. the chairman’s letter.
b. auditor’s report.
c. comparison made by the reader.
d. footnotes.

Words and Expressions:

Right of the bat;
Fare;
Stance;
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Balance sheet;
Current asset; 
Liability;
Due;
Working capital;
Equity;
Presume;
Earnings per share;
Net sales;
Debt-to-equity ratio;
Have you ever noticed the following sentences in your reading? If not, read them 
through and pay attention to the bold parts.

13. In this letter, the chairman should tell you how the company fared this year.
14. The difference between current assets and current liabilities is working capital, a key 
figure to watch from one annual report to another. If working capital shrinks, it could mean 
trouble.
15. Owners’ equity is the difference between total assets and liabilities. It is the presumed 
dollar value of what the owners or shareholders own. You want it to grow.

16. Watch out. It can fool you. Galaxy’s management could boost earnings by selling off a 
plant. Or by cutting the budget for research and advertising. The number you should look at 
first in the income statement is net sales. Ask yourself: are sales going up at a faster rate than 
the last time around?

17. A company doing well on borrowed money can earn big profits for its shareholders. But if 
sales fall, watch out. The whole enterprise may slowly sink. Some companies can handle high 
ratios; others can’t.

18. In company-watching, comparisons are all. They tell you if management is staying on top 
of things.

                               Exercise Four

                          Focus on Your Customer

If you think of the most successful companies around the world – GM, Wal-Mart, IBM, etc. – 
they all have one thing in common: loyal customers. It can cost ten to twenty times as much to 
acquire a customer as to retain one, so it’s easy to understand why customer relationship 
management is such a hot concept. But, while everyone understands CRM is a good thing, 
putting a CRM strategy together isn’t easy. The place to start? A customer-driven business 
model.

A customer-driven business model is the most prudent method of ensuring customer loyalty 
because it fosters a better relationship with new and existing customers. Others such as market, 
price, cost or e-commerce-driven business models may generate profits, but fall short of 
sustaining a loyal customer base. At the heart of customer-driven business model is a clear 
understanding of the customer-not just customer trends (although this is useful information, 
too), but the buying habits and history of every one of your customers. This 360-degree view 
provides analytics from multiple channels (direct, web, fax, E-mail, call center, 
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sales/marketing) and consolidates into a common repository. Monitoring buying habits and 
tracking market dynamics lets you more effectively market new and existing products and 
services.

If you think this is a daunting task, you aren’t alone. Because most enterprises don’t have a 
consolidated view of their customers, obtaining customer profit and cost information is often 
Herculean effort.

Implementing a CRM solution is usually a huge project with a high probability of failure. 
Some analysts suggest most businesses underestimate the cost of a CRM implementation by 
40-75 percent. In fact, a successful CRM will interface with ERP systems to provide 
integration with all customer interactions such as order processing, billing. Also, CRM 
strategies must include commitment and sponsorship from senior management, as it should be 
deemed a strategic investment that is implemented incrementally and evolutionary.

Understanding critical success factors, such as those listed in the “Key to CRM Success” 
sidebar, mitigates the risks. First, start with a cultural change that focuses on a customer-
centric business strategy. Make sure your organization is well aware of the high cost of 
customer attrition and is focused on improving retention, increasing loyalty. Understanding 
and broadcasting the cost of acquiring new customers versus fostering existing relationships.

Second, focus on an enterprise view of the customer that encompasses all customer data, such 
as communication history, purchasing behaviors, channel preferences, demographics, etc. 
understand your customers’ preferred channels and determine if there’s some way to optimize 
them.

Adopt a flexible architecture that will expand with your business-this is true with any IT 
project. Never deploy a strategic, costly solution using the big-bang approach. Always take an 
incremental, evolutionary, or iterative approach. The impact to your organization can be 
significant, thus, proceed slowly and ensure the returns on investment measures are in place.

13. The first paragraph indicates that loyal customers
a. help reduce costs of the company.
b. are quite common around the world.
c. produce huge profits.
d. are costly to develop.

14. According to the writer, a customer-driven business model ensure customer loyalty by
a. attaching great attention to customer’s buying inclination.
b. keeping track of what customers have purchased.
c. having a panorama understanding of customers.
d. launching new products and services quickly.

15. According to the article, to get customer information is considered to be 
a. an effective marketing method.
b. easier if the company adopts a customer-driven business model.
c. an impossible task to accomplish by many companies.
d. difficult for a company with an integrated view of customers.

16. According to the writer, a CRM implementation fails because
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a. the project is too large.
b. it involves strategic investment.
c. the implementation is too integrated.
d. there is inadequate funds.

17. What is the key factor of reducing the risk of a CRM solution?
a. complete customer files.
b. retention of customers.
c. good relationship with customers.
d. broad preferred channels.

18. What can lead to a successful CRM strategy?
a. invest enough money in the project at the start.
b. develop the project gradually or repeatedly.
c. be aware of its significant impact on the company.
d. determine and keep the scale to the end.

Words and Expressions:

Acquire;
Retain;
Customer relationship management;
Prudent;
Fall short of;
Sustain;
Customer trend;
Analytics;
Consolidate;
Repository;
Buying habits;
Market dynamics;
Daunting;
Herculean effort;
Interface;
Integration;
Incrementally; 
Mitigate;
Attrition;
Retention;
Encompass;
Demographics;
Optimize;
Iterative;

Have you ever noticed the following sentences in your reading? If not, read them 
through and pay attention to the bold parts.

13. 
It can cost ten to twenty times as much to acquire a customer as to retain one.
14-15. 
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At the heart of customer-driven business model is a clear understanding of the customer-
not just customer trends (although this is useful information, too), but the buying habits and 
history of every one of your customers. This 360-degree view provides analytics from 
multiple channels (direct, web, fax, E-mail, call center, sales/marketing) and consolidates into 
a common repository.
16. 
Some analysts suggest most businesses underestimate the cost of a CRM implementation by 
40-75 percent.
17. 
Make sure your organization is well aware of the high cost of customer attrition and is 
focused on improving retention, increasing loyalty.
18. 
Never deploy a strategic, costly solution using the big-bang approach. Always take an 
incremental, evolutionary, or iterative approach. The impact to your organization can be 
significant, thus, proceed slowly and ensure the returns on investment measures are in place.

                               Exercise Five

                             Service Production

Service are not purchased from a supplier and stored on a shelf until ordered by the customer. 
Instead, they are manufactured or produced after they are requested by the customer. This in 
itself sets service retailing apart from goods retailing and places the retailer in the channel as 
the manufacturer as well as the retailer of the service being sold.

The placement of the retailer as the product of the service carries with it all the problems 
associated with the manufacture of goods-research and development, scheduling, raw 
materials acquisition, quality control and service consistency throughout various branch store 
operations.

The improvement or upgrading of services must be done by the retailer. Constant monitoring 
of completion and decisions on improving aspects of the service, as well as research into the 
satisfaction customers are experiencing with their purchases, are part of service management.

Scheduling of services retailing presents a dual problem. If the service is performed on a good 
owned by the customer (china repair, silver polishing, etc.), the production process can be 
scheduled in an orderly flow of first in, first out. The craft worker focuses on one item and, 
when finished with it, moves to the next. The scheduling process is more complicated where 
the service involves the individual (legal services, beauty care, driving lessons, and the like). 
With theses types of service, production and consumption take place at the same time. A 
scheduling of customers is required to maximize the production capabilities of the service 
offering. The driving instructor who has no student must sit idle. Greater attention may then 
be required in scheduling services, especially those involving the customer.

In the retailing of men’s suits, the quality control activity is left to the manufacturer, while in 
the retailing of services, the involvement with quality control standards rests with the retailer. 
Customers purchasing a shirt at the main store expect the same quality when they purchase an 
identical shirt at a branch store. This consistency in quality is assumed with goods retailing. 
The consistency of quality in service retailing is much more in doubt. The driving instructor at 
one store may be very different from an instructor at another store with the same retail chain. 
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The involvement of the craft worker in the production process for custom draperies may also 
differ within the same retail store. To ensure the consistency of a service, the store must 
establish procedures and policies which can be implemented throughout each branch store 
within that chain. Central training may be the best way to accomplish this consistency. It is of 
course possible that a customer may develop a preference or loyalty to one specific 
craftsperson, but the development of loyalty to the store with consistency of the production 
process is a more healthy loyalty to cultivate. In this area, the store may try to develop a 
strong brand-name recognition for its service.

A faulty product may be covered under the manufacturers’ liability, yet the retailer, when 
becoming the manufacturer must be aware of the sole liability associated with the service. 
Other than the liability of faulty raw material, there’s no other recourse for the retailer to turn 
to. Store-liability coverage should be considered, and most likely increased, especially for 
those services performed on the individual (beauty services, dental treatments).

13. What is writer’s opinion about service retailing?
a. services are ordered by the customer.
b. service retailing is separated from goods retailing.
c. the retailer produces and sells services.
d. the retailer manufactures products as well.

14. According to the writer, the retailer engaged in service retailing
a. just sees to it that the service is accomplished.
b. should also investigate customer satisfaction.
c. meets more difficulties than the manufacturer of goods.
d. can turn to experts to better his service.

15. According to the writer, the problem of scheduling services
a. involve services performed on a product and on a customer.
b. lies in the sequence of being served.
c. concerns the maximization of production capacities.
d. derives from the complex scheduling process.

16. What does the writer say about the consistency of quality in service?
a. it is impossible.
b. it is likely.
c. it is certain.
d. it is not sure.

17. According to the article, to ensure the same service quality provided in any one of the 
chain stores the store must
a. develop healthy customer loyalty.
b. assemble the staff and train them together.
c. draft regulations appropriate to each store.
d. make sure the procedures are carried out.

18. According to the writer, the liability associated with the service means that
a. the retailer has to hear the blame by himself.
b. the manufacturer should compensate for the flawed product.
c. the retailer has different responsibilities than the manufacturer of goods.
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d. store liability covers the service involving the individual.

Words and Expressions:

Scheduling;
Consumption;
Drapery
Cultivate;
Liability;
Recourse;

Have you ever noticed the following sentences in your reading? If not, read them 
through and pay attention to the bold parts.

13.
This in itself sets service retailing apart from goods retailing and places the retailer in the 
channel as the manufacturer as well as the retailer of the service being sold.

14.
Constant monitoring of completion and decisions on improving aspects of the service, as well 
as research into the satisfaction customers are experiencing with their purchases, are part of 
service management.

15.
Scheduling of services retailing presents a dual problem. If the service is performed on a good 
owned by the customer (china repair, silver polishing, etc.), the production process can be 
scheduled in an orderly flow of first in, first out. The craft worker focuses on one item and, 
when finished with it, moves to the next. The scheduling process is more complicated where 
the service involves the individual (legal services, beauty care, driving lessons, and the like).

17.
Central training may be the best way to accomplish this consistency.

18.
Other than the liability of faulty raw material, there’s no other recourse for the retailer to 
turn to.

                             第四项: 完型填空

实用技巧:
1. 平时努力提高自己的词汇量。
2. 特别重视所选词汇有没有特定的(例如专用于商务场合)意思。
3. 若选项为动词,还可从语法的角度来判断答案。通常研究动词的及物性和固定词组。
   可以观察缺口后紧接出现的介词。(有时名词和形容词也可使用这种方法)
4. 在没有出现固定用法的情况下,一般可排除在词义上极为接近的两个选项。反之选
   择互为反义词的两个选项中的一个。(以上两种方法有一定风险,尤其是后者,慎
   用之!!)
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                               Exercise One

            FAILURE TO TAKE HEALTH AND SAFETY SERIOUSLY
 In Britain, two people are killed and more than 6,000 seriously hurt at work every day. In an 
 attempt to ...example...the number of work-related deaths and personal ...(21)..., new 
 regulations, implementing a European Union directive, were introduced at the beginning of 
 the year. A recent survey shows clearly that although failure to use correct health and safety 
 ...(22)... can result in prison sentences and fines of up to £20,000 for directors, many 
 organizations, ...(23)... smaller companies, still ...(24)... little attention to health and safety 
 matters. The new regulations try to ...(25)... with this problem as well as imposing new 
 responsibilities in various areas ...(26)... from the use of VDU screens to manual handling 
 procedures. They demand that all employers, ...(27)... of the size of their business or ... (28) 
 ... should conduct assessments of workplace risks, and ...(29).. their health and safety 
 arrangements.
 Employers must describe in detail how resources and responsibilities should be ... (30) ...and 
 evaluate training needs. They must assess the exact nature and extent of risks, the ...(31)... of 
 precautions, and whether or not their legal obligations are being ... (32)...
 Following this assessment, companies may need to ... (33) ... staff in new operating 
 procedures and to appoint a competent person, either from within the company or a ... (34) ... 
 who will ... (35) ... that the company fulfills its obligations, and report annually on its health 
 and safety record.
Example
 A  avoid      B  shorten      C  contract      D  reduce

21. A. pains        B. injuries         C. damages          D. breakages
22. A. operations   B. functions        C. procedures       D. actions
23. A. particularly  B. exceptionally   C. peculiarly       D. exclusively
24. A. have         B. pay              C. spend            D. make
25. A. handle       B. treat            C. deal             D. manage
26. A. ranging      B. differing        C. changing         D. selecting
27. A. careless     B. unaware          C. unconcerned      D. regardless
28. A. workforce    B. employment       C. labor            D. workers
29. A. view         B. check            C. control          D. watch
30. A. allocated    B. offered          C. given            D. placed
31. A. completeness  B. fullness        C. adequacy         D. correction
32. A. met          B. done             C. completed        D. kept
33. A. exercise     B. develop          C. direct           D. train
34. A. controller   B. consultant       C. supervisor       D. guide
35. A. ensure       B. decide           C. state            D. maintain

Words and Expressions:
Directive;
Fine;
Impose;
VDU;
Manual handling;
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Precaution;
Competent;
Obligation;
Annually;

                               Exercise Two

                               Staff Appraisal
 Management and staff have agreed to put in ... (example) ... a company-wide system for staff 
 appraisal. Each member of staff will meet at least once a year with their manager to discuss 
 and assess the employee’s performance and to complete an appraisal form. 
 Staff appraisal interviews are a valuable means of ... (21) ... between managers and 
 subordinates: they ensure that an organization develops its human ... (22) .. and that 
 employees get maximum job ... (23) ...
 The Appraisal Interview
 The main ... (25) ... of the interview is to ... (26) ... employees be as effective as possible in 
 their present jobs. It ... (27) ... the manager and subordinate the opportunity to review past 
 and present job performance together, and to ... (28) ... for the future.
 First Stage-Preparation for the interview.
 Before the appraisal interview the manager and subordinate should ... (29) ... the specific 
 areas for discussion and agree on a time-period which the appraisal should ... (30) ... 
 (normally 12 months)
 Second Stage-Preparation for the interview
 If necessary the employee and manager should ... (31) ... to last year’s appraisal and decide 
 whether key aims and targets have been achieved. They should ... (32) ... on aims for the 
 future appraisal period and how performance should be judged.
 Third Stage-Assessment of performance.
 The appraisal document should be completed by the manager after the interview. I should 
 then be discussed with the employee before the ... (33) ... signing.It should include:
 a) Areas of the employee’s work where there have been failures.
 b) Areas where there have been prominent successes.
 c) An assessment of the employee’s ... (34) ...to organize and plan his or her time, and to 
 make the most efficient... (35) ...of resources.
 Example
 A  situation      B  place      C  time      D  arrangement

21. A. speech       B. talk      C. function         D. communication
22. A. resources    B. services  C. facilities       D. supplies
23. A. enjoyment    B. pride     C. happiness        D. satisfaction
24. A. design       B. process   C. organization     D. method
25. A. way          B. purpose   C. reason           D. definition
26. A. assist       B. aid       C. help             D. support
27. A. gives        B. produces  C. presents         D. supplies
28. A. outline      B. plan      C. determine        D. propose
29. A. distinguish   B. notice   C. point                    D. identify
30. A. cover        B. focus     C. contain          D. fulfill
31. A. see          B. consult   C. consider         D. refer
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 32. A. confirm      B. agree     C. discuss          D. arrange
 33. A. past         B. end       C. final            D. closing
 34. A. talent       B. practice  C. technique        D. ability
 35. A. use          B. value     C. worth            D. service

 Words and expressions:
 Staff appraisal;
 Performance;
 Subordinate;
 Specific;


                                Exercise Three

                            Why the World is sold on Gold
Gold is a measure of (example) which is recognized all over the world. For centuries it was the 
foundation of the international monetary system and, (21) today, it remains one of the most 
important components of a country’s foreign currency reserves.
What  (22) gold attractive is that is has a value of its own for both industrial and ornamental 
purposes, (23) paper bank notes, which are worthless (24) themselves. As a result, gold is bought as 
an (25) in times of financial uncertainty.
Until the 1930s, several European currencies were based on the Gold Standard, which meant that the 
value of a (26) of currency was fixed in (27) of a stated quantity of gold. People could freely (28) 
any bank notes they had for gold. In 1931, worldwide financial problems (29) the Gold Standard to 
be dropped. Then, in 1935, the USA, France and the UK (30) the price of gold at $35 an ounce, 
which remained the price until 1971, because the demand for gold (31) so fast, however, the price of 
gold for ornamental and industrial purposes was (32) to rise. Today one ounce of gold costs $390 
in London.
  Gold for jewelry is mixed (33) a metal alloy and the purity of the gold is measured in carats. Most 
  gold sold to the public has 40% gold and is (34) Nine-carat gold. Gold investors can buy pure gold 
  from dealers in the (35) of gold bars or gold coins.

  example
  A  money      B  fortune      C  wealth      D  richness


 21. A. yet          B. just      C. now                     D. even
 22. A. makes        B. turns     C. gives                   D. forms
 23. A. against      B. unlike    C. contrary                D. opposite
 24. A. on           B. for       C. to                      D. in
 25. A. expense      B. allowance  C. investment             D. part
 26. A. numberB. amount    C. few                    D. deal
 27. A. conditions   B. reference  C. terms                  D. ways
 28. A. convert      B. exchange  C. alter                   D. refund
 29. A. created      B. resulted  C. made                    D. caused
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30. A. fixed        B. attached  C. laid                    D. stood
31. A. grew         B. raised    C. heightened              D. gained
32. A. granted      B. allowed   C. accepted                D. passed
33. A. down         B. by        C. up                      D. with
34. A. called       B. thought   C. known                   D. believed
35. A. sort         B. fashion   C. form                    D. type

Words and expressions:
International monetary system;
Foreign currency reserve;
Ornamental;
Bank note;
Alloy;
Carat;
                               Exercise Four

                             Interview Success
Success often (example) on your performance at an interview. For those who are well 
prepared, it can be positive (21)         but for others it can be a terrifying time. Love them or 
hate them, though, your (22)          prospects are largely dependent on your interview (23)          
It’s not unusual for a company to have fifty or sixty applicants for a job, so if you are asked to 
(24)        an interview, you are a serious contender being seriously considered for the post. 
Usually companies give you at least a day’s (25)         of an interview, so use that time to 
prepare yourself well. Read through the job (26)          and any other information sent to you, 
and (27) ____ answers to as many questions as you can think of.
At the interview, try to present a “pleasant” version of yourself. You need to (28)          the 
employer that you can do the job, but you mustn’t (29)         over-confident. Being pleasant, 
however, doesn’t mean that you should agree with everything that the interviewer says. Most 
companies want to (30)         someone with his or her own opinions.
It’s also important to make (31)       that you really listen to what is being asked. In your 
preparation you will have rehearsed answers to a number of imaginary questions, but you 
must tailor your response to (32)         the question.
It’s worthwhile spending a few moments after the interview analyzing your (33)        . You 
can do this best before you know the (34)         What aspects of the interview went well? What 
do you need to (35)        ? What would you do differently next time?

 Example:
 A  relies      B  depends      C  trusts      D  counts

21. A. practice     B. experience       C. knowledge        D. happening
22. A. job          B. occupation       C. position         D. profession
23. A. craft        B. proficiency      C. qualifications   D. skills
24. A. visit        B. stay             C. come             D. attend
25. A. caution      B. news             C. notice           D. advice
26. A. description  B. account          C. record           D. explanation
27. A. make         B. prepare          C. bring            D. arrange
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28. A. prove        B. confirm          C. convince         D. guarantee
29. A. show         B. reveal           C. display          D. appear
30. A. clear        B. appoint          C. commission       D. elect
31. A. clear        B. definite         C. sure             D. positive
32. A. suit         B. agree            C. correspond       D. belong
33. A. performance  B. production       C. management       D. transaction
34. A. achievement  B. result           C. effect           D. judgment
35. A. advance      B. encourage        C. improve          D. progress

Words and expressions:
Terrifying;
Contender;
Rehearse;
Tailor;

                               Exercise Five

                           BARNABYS‘ SUCCESS
Since Burnaby’s Leather Goods was (example) in 1994, the company has reported one 
success story after another. The company, which has become known for its too (21)        
leather goods, (22)         its new collection last month at the Mayfair Hotel in London. It was 
(23)      by more than 300 people. For the first time the collection included smaller (24)         
such as purses, wallets and gift sets.
The (25)        of Burnaby’s success is the strength of the sales team, and it is (26)        that by 
the end of this year there could be well over three thousand salespeople world-wide selling 
Burnaby’s products. To (27)         the top sellers, Burnaby’s is offering them an all-expenses-
paid trip to Las Vegas in America in July. Managing director Peter Jones says that the five-
day holidays will (28)       all flights as well as meals and hotel accommodation. Trips to the 
top shows and the Grand Canyon will also be (29)       
Mr. Jones says that the (30)         has had an enthusiastic (31)         from the sales force, and 
will (32)       a continued increase in sales. The restructuring of the company’s price range, 
which has (33)       in 70% of their goods now being priced under £30, will also (34)  
___sales. The new price range is (35)        at customers with a few spare pounds in their 
pockets making an impulse purchase.

Example:
A  made      B  built      C  shaped      D  formed


21. A. performance  B. quality          C. product          D. quantity
22. A. launched     B. began            C. headed           D. led
23. A. met          B. accompanied      C. attended         D. joined
24. A. parts        B. components       C. units            D. items
25. A. mystery      B. secret           C. puzzle           D. code
26. A. estimated    B. guessed          C. counted          D. supposed
27. A. compensate   B. refund           C. commission       D. reward
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28. A. contain      B. combine          C. include          D. engage
29. A. produced     B. organized        C. formed           D. designed
30. A. gift         B. offer            C. present          D. favor
31. A. return       B. answer           C. reply            D. response
32. A. ensure       B. manage           C. provide          D. make
33. A. caused       B. resulted         C. finished         D. completed
34. A. improve      B. expand           C. heighten         D. lift
35. A. aimed        B. pointed          C. sent             D. given

Words and expressions:
Gift set;
Top show;
Enthusiastic;
Restructuring;
Impulse;
                                Exercise Six

        Employment Opportunities for Graduates with the Provincial Bank
The provincial Bank is one of the biggest (example) institutions in the U.K. With its 1,900 
branches and 58,000 employees, it has (21)       a household name. Almost 4,000 of these 
employees (22)         managerial or executive positions. The bank has an outstanding (23)        
of profitability, which has been achieved by introducing innovations at the same time as 
maintaining leadership of the (24)____ 
The bank’s comprehensive training program concentrates on (25)        the most important 
skills that graduates need in order to (26)       early management responsibility. Trainees take 
responsibility for their own continuous self development through visiting other branches and 
departments, and by (27)        courses in management skills. They also receive training in 
order to increase their knowledge of the bank’s (28)         The bank supports (29)        of staff 
who wish to take professional examinations, and its Graduate Training Scheme is (30)    to the 
nationally recognized Diploma in Management.
Obviously the quality of its managers is of (31)          importance to the bank’s performance. It 
welcomes good graduates in any subject area, (32)          they can demonstrate the ability to 
influence events, and have the potential to (33)          both as leaders and as part of a team. 
Most graduate trainees join the Retail Banking division initially. Those starting on this 
program will soon have the (34)         to work in other parts of the bank and can (35)        a 
varied and flexible working life.

 Example:
 A  budgetary      B  financial      C fiscal      D  economic

21. A. opened       B. entered          C. turned           D. become
22. A. hold         B. do               C. keep             D. own
23. A. career       B. catalogue        C. record           D. experience
24. A. area         B. trade            C. competition      D. market
25. A. making       B. reaching         C. developing       D. heightening
26. A. present      B. treat            C. deal             D. handle
27. A. observing    B. attending        C. involving        D. staying
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28. A. services     B. goods            C. creations        D. abilities
29. A. colleagues   B. members          C. people           D. persons
30. A. qualified    B. combined         C. fastened         D. linked
31. A. main         B. vital            C. necessary        D. superior
32. A. therefore    B. thus             C. provided         D. only
33. A. succeed      B. realize          C. gain             D. overcome
34. A. choice       B. chance           C. likelihood       D. probability
35. A. forecast     B. believe          C. suppose          D. expect

Words and expressions:
Managerial;
Profitability;
Innovation;
                        第五项:改错——单词的多余

实用技巧:
1.     现总结各种多余情况如下:
关系代词    which 或 that 的多余。
冠词在词组中的多余。(需要考生有一定的词汇量,建议看一下冠词的语法项目)
代词的多余。(通常代词的前面已经有具体名词造成该代词重复使用)
误用被动语态造成        been 的多余。
由于语意的重复造成连词的多余。(例如:前面句中出现了                         although;even though,而
后出现   but;however 的多余)
介词多余。(要特别警惕在及物动词后出现了介词这一情况)
动词在介词后的多余。(特别是在介词后面出现了动词的原形)

2.     不要花费时间阅读文章。
3.     通常有   2 或 3 个正确选项,必须警惕只有一个正确选项的情况。
4.     通常每句开头的词语不可能多余。

                               Exercise One

                              Company Report

    FTL Oil is a strongly focused and successful international manufacturer of
36. the specialist oil and chemical products throughout the world. The
37. Organization which operates mainly through two business groups—
38. Chemicals and Fuels. the company’s well-known products are marketed
39. around the world to both of industrial and domestic consumers. In
40. addition, the company has been a number of key investments in Pakistan. 
    FTL Oil has operations in over 40 countries and employs 25,000 people worldwide.

                                 Exercise Two

Dear Mr Tan,
   As one of our valued customers I would like to bring to your attention a change in our 
invoicing procedures. In the past, we have
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36. allowed our customers a period of 50 days for to settle their accounts.
37. However, we have been advised by our accountants that to reduce
38. this period in order to improve our cash flow and be able
39. to provide you a better service to customers like yourself. I would like to
40. inform to you, therefore, that we will require bills to be pain in full 30 days after receipt of 
   goods.
   Yours sincerely,
            D Mackintosh
    Head of Customer Services

                               Exercise Three

                             Management Team

   A good management team combines people with different skills
36. who can each make a contribution to discussion and planning.
37. Team members will play different roles, some of becoming leaders,
38. others playing in the part of organizers or creators. To make a team
39. work well, it is too important to recognize these roles and encourage
40. members to do what they are best at. An individual who does not feel important will not 
work at his or her best.

                               Exercise Four

September 18-20:
Russian Capital Markers and investor Conference (Moscow)
    A three-day conference has been arranged by Dow Jones Telerate and
36. the Wall Street Journal Europe. It will be look at the latest developments
37. in the capital markets of the Russian Federation and prospects for
38. investment in key sectors and regions. Presentations that will be
39. given by government ministers, including the Deputy Prime Minister
40. of the Russian Federation, as well as too representatives from the Central Bank, and 
Russian investment bankers.

                               Exercise Five

               Market research will help you identify and measure the
36. demand for your product or service. It will tell you who
37. your potential customers are, what they want it and how much
38. they are prepared for to pay. But to survive in today’s
39. tough world, you will also need to know all about your main
40. competitors. Our experts can provide to you with the latest information about all aspects 
of your market.
                                Exercise Six

36. The competition, which there is held every two years, is organized by the international
37. Training Organization, All U.K. competitors qualify for the team by getting through
38. a tough national competition. Their backgrounds are vary from arts to sciences,
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39. and students to the self-employed. Since they do not know which skill area they
40. will be tested in, they must to train for everything before the start of the competition.

                               Exercise Seven

                       TRANSATLANTIC VIDEO LINK

0   Information technology and modern telecommunications really do bridge of the 
00  distance between centers of commerce and the British countryside, according 
41. to inventors Phil and Pam Richardson. They faced with a 5,000 mile round trip
42. from their home in Wales to America for to seal a contract with the US Surgical 
43. Corporation, being one of the country’s top medical appliance companies.
44. The logistics of the trip were very much difficult. They needed to talk to several 
45. top executives with an impossibly busy schedules, who were based in three
46. different cities. Then they heard about a new state-of-the-art Telematic Center,
47. just 10 miles from their home. So instead of crossing to the Atlantic Ocean, they
48. traveled just 20 miles and spent a modest sum on an hour-long transatlantic
49. video conference. It saved days of traveling and enormous expense. The end
50. result was also more better as they were able to get all of the executives
   together in their lunch hours to sort out the problem.

                               Exercise Eight

                          Vestment Analysts wanted

 A Fund Management and subsidiary of a prestigious Investment Bank
 00. seeks bright young Investment Analysts to augment its rapidly expanding research 
 41. department, Our client is a top US institution with significant funds under
 42. management from world-wide. Increasingly it is seeking to manage the European
 43. component of its portfolio from London. This has been led to an impressive rise in
 44. its profile in European markets. The Bank is looking for talented and ambitious 
 45. its profile in European markets. The Bank is looking for talented and ambitious
 46. who performs rigorous and detailed investigation into companies and securities
 47. before making recommendations to those Fund Managers. Ideally, you will have 
 48. excellent academic credentials and a solid professional with grounding in 
 49. analytical techniques. Particularly useful would be training in an accountancy,
  50. an MBA or a legal qualification Excellent communication in sills are required. For an 
initial, confidential conversation contact the Bank’s Personnel Manager directly

                               Exercise Nine

                          QUESTIONNAIRE-A REMINDER

  Dear Colleague,
  0 You,  recently received a  short questionnaire from us  about the  way 
  brands change
  00  over  the time  and  why.  As  we  sent  out  a  limited  number  of 
  questionnaires to
  41 respondents for whom we thought might be able to help us, your answers 
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   are
   42 very important as for the accuracy of our research. Therefore, if you 
   have not
   43 already completed in the questionnaire, we would be most  grateful if 
   you would
    44 do  this as  soon as  possible. It case  you have  been mislaid  the 
      original questionnaire.
    45 please find enclosed another copy and a pre-paid envelope in which to 
   return back
    46 your completed questionnaire. Your responses, of course, will remain 
      a confidential.
    47 we are very much look forward to your early reply and  to being able 
      to send you a 
    48 copy of the  study's findings (if you have indicated an  interest in 
   receiving them).
    49 Should this letter have crossed in the post with  your reply, please 
   accept our
    50 thanks for your  own valuable assistance. Once again, we assure  you 
        that the results of  the survey will be  make available as soon  as 
        possible.

                                  Exercise Ten

                       Make sure your notices are noticed

0   The simplest means that of imparting information is the adoption of a
00   message which is then posted on a notice-board. However,
41   this does not necessarily ensure the message will get through it. Neither
42   is its posting the end of the matter. To be effective, notices must
43   first be noticed. Used properly, notice-boards which can be a valuable
44   source of information and can promote communication. However, so to
45   do this they need to be positioned carefully, not where people  pass, as
46   that is what they will do – pass by – but where the target audience is
47   likely for to stand. This means a busy corridor is a less effective place
48   for a notice-board than rather next to the drinks machine or next to the
49   lift doors – or even though in the lift. Many hotels advertise their
50   facilities in the lift, knowing – as there are no any distractions – that for a few seconds the 
     notice will have the complete attention of the passenger.

 对于阅读部分的整体建议:阅读时间一定要控制在                     60 分钟之内。可以根据自己的情况
 选择六项题目的先后顺序和所需时间。恩波的建议是:采用正常的先后顺序。除第二
 项外,其余项均控制在八分钟内完成。其中第五项应在六分钟内完成。
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                               阅读部分答案
第一项:
exercise one: cdacabc
exercise two: dabcacc
exercise three: adbdcab
exercise four: dcbbacb
exercise five: dcaadcb
exercise six: cbabbdc
第二项:
exercise one: fdbag
exercise two: dcfbe
exercise three: ebdcf
exercise four: fdaec
exercise five: fcaed
exercise six: fgebc
第三项:
exercise one: acdccd
exercise two: cdabab
exercise three: bbdddc
exercise four: acbdbb
exercise five: cbadba
第四项:
exercise one: baabcadabacddca
exercise two: dadbbcabdadbcda
exercise three: dabdcacbdaaadac
exercise four: baddcabcdbcaabc
exercise five: bacdbadcbbddbaa
exercise six: dacccdbabdbcabd
第五项:
exercise one: the; which; correct; of; been; 
exercise two: for; that; correct; you; to;
exercise three: a; of; in; too; correct;
exercise four: be; correct; that; the; too;
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exercise five: correct; it; for; correct; to;
exercise six: there; correct; are; correct; to;
exercise seven: with; for; being; much; an; correct; to; correct; end; more;
exercise eight: correct; from; been; correct; correct; who; will; with; an; in 
exercise nine: for; as; in; been; back; a; are; an; correct; own
exercise ten: it; correct; which; so; correct; that; for; rather; though; any;
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