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高中英语人教版 选修六Unit2 Grammar

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 人教课标
高二  选修  6
  Unit 2

       虚拟语气(二)
   本节课我们巩固复习虚拟语气,
主要复习if条件从句和wish宾语从句中
表示过去情况的虚拟语气的用法,以
及虚拟语气在其他从句中的运用。
【观察体会】
请看下图及对话,体会表示过去的虚
拟语气的用法。
A: Why didn’t Peter take his umbrella 
   to work today?
B: He didn’t know it was going to rain. 
   If he had known it was going to rain, 
   he would have taken his umbrella to 
   work.
A: I wonder why John ran by without 
   saying hello.
B: He must have been in a hurry.
A: You’re probably right. If he hadn’t 
   been in a hurry, he wouldn’t have 
   run by without saying hello.
I didn’t know how to get around 
the city when I moved here. I was 
so confused.
A: You know, I wish I had known how to 
  get around the city when I moved here. 
B: Oh, really? Why?
A: If I had known how to get around the 
  city when I moved here, I wouldn’t 
  have been so confused.
B: I know what you mean.
       【归纳总结】
               表示过去
if   条件从句的     had + 过去分词
条件   谓语
从句   主句的谓语     should / would / 
               could / might + 
               have +过去分词
wish宾语从句中      had + 过去分词
的谓语
 下面我们再来看看其他形式的虚拟
语气的用法。
        虚拟语气特殊句型
         现在: 过去时(were)
1. wish  过去: 过去完成时
的宾语      将来: would/could/might + 
 从句          v.  should
1. I wish I were a bird. (现在)
2. I wish I hadn’t made such a mistake. 
  (过去)
3. We wish our parents wouldn’t punish 
  us. (将来)
I wish I were as tall as you.
我希望和你一样高。
He wished he hadn’t said that. 
他希望他没讲那样的话。
I wish it would rain tomorrow. 
我希望明天下雨就好了。
2) wish to do 表达法
  wish sb. / sth. to do
  I wish to see the manager.                   
 = I want to see the manager. 
  I wish the manager to be informed 
  at once.                                                        
 = I want the manager to be informed 
  at once.
                  现在: 过去时
 2. would rather that 过去: 过去完成时
                  将来:  过去时
e.g. I would rather you paid me now.
   I would rather you had gone, too. 
   Don’t come. I would rather you
   came tomorrow.
                   现在:过去时
3. as if /though + clause  
                   过去:过去完成时

  在as if / as though后的从句中,常用一
  般过去时或“would / could / should / 
  might + 动词原形”来表示与现在或将
  来的事实相反或不太可能实现的事情。
e.g. She loves the baby as if it were
   her own son.
   I remember the whole thing as if  
   it had happened yesterday.

   They talked as if they had been
   friends for years. 
   He looks as if he were drunk.
                        过去时
4. It’s (about/high) time + that
                        should + v.

         It’s high time that you went.

你该走了。
         It’s high time that you should
         go.
         It’s time that we went to bed.
我们该去
睡觉了。
         It’s time that we should go to 
         bed. 
5. without和but for 构成虚拟。
 but for要不是
 Without sunlight, people’s life would be
 different from today.
 But for your help, I wouldn’t have finished 
 the work.
 Without your help, I would have failed.
 But for water, it would be impossible to live 
 in the desert.
6. If only … 要是就好了
e.g. If only I knew his name!
  If only we had followed your advice!
  If only I could see him again!
要是我们的父母能和我们住在一起就好了! 
If only our parents could live with us!
要是我没错过火车就好了!
If only I hadn’t missed the train!
7. 在主语、表语、同位语从句中,虚拟
语气用“should + 动词原形”或动词原形
来表示。这样的句型有:It is strange / 
natural / important / no wonder / 
impossible / necessary / a pity / ... that ...;
My advice / suggestion / requirement / ... 
is that ... 等。
It is important that we (should) 
master a foreign language.
It is strange that she refuse to come 
to the party.
It’s necessary that we should study
hard.
8. 某些简单句的固定句型:
  Heaven help him!
  God bless you!
  May you succeed!
  Long live the People’s Republic of 
  China!
9. need “不必做”和“本不该做”
 didn’t need to do 表示: 过去不必做
 某事, 事实上也没做。
 needn’t have done 表示: 过去不必做
 某事, 但事实上做了。
e.g. 约翰开车去车站接玛丽, 所以她
不必步行回家了。
John went to the station with the car 
to meet Mary, so she didn’t need to
walk back home. 
约翰开车去车站接玛丽, 所以她本不
必步行回家了。      (Mary步行回家, 没
有遇上John的车。) 
John went to the station with the car 
to meet Mary, so she needn’t have 
walked back home. 
典型例题
There was plenty of time. She ____. 
A. mustn’t have hurried                      
B. couldn’t have hurried
C. must not hurry
D. needn’t have hurried
答案  D。needn’t have done. 意为
“本不必”, 即已经做了某事, 而实
际上不必要。
mustn’t have done用法不正确, 对过
去发生的事情进行否定性推断应为
couldn’t have done, “不可能已经”。
must not do不可以 (用于一般现在时)
         【高考链接】
 从A、B、C、D四个选项中,选出可以
 填入空白处的最佳选项。
1. We _____ John’s name on the race list 
  yesterday but for his recent injury.         
A. will put              B. will have put   
C. would put     D. would have put 
2. Maybe if I _____ science, and not 
  literature then, I would be able to give 
  you more help. 
A. studied     B. would study   
C. had studied   D. was studying
3. George is going to talk about the 
 geography of his country, but I’d 
 rather he _____ more on its culture.                                          
A. focus       B. focused         
C. would focus     D. had focused
4. Eliza remembers everything exactly as 
  if it _____ yesterday. 
A. was happening        B. happens   
C. has happened            D. happened
5. — Don’t you think it necessary that he 
    _____ to Miami but to New York?
  — I agree, but the problem is _____ he 
    has refused to. 
A. will not be sent; that       
B. not be sent; that
C. should not be sent; what 
D. should not send; what
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