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2019高考英语一轮复习新人教版必修3 练习题Unit4Astronomythescienceofthestars含解析

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高中英语审核员

中国现代教育网
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                  中国现代教育网     www.30edu.com  全国最大教师交流平台

                      Festivals around the world
                                    李仕才
【阅读理解插花】
    It is said that if you want to stay young, sit down and have a good think. 

This is the research finding of a team of Japanese doctors, who say that most 

of our brains are not getting enough exercise—and as a result, we are growing 

old unnecessarily soon. 

    Professor Taiju Matsuzawa wanted to find out why otherwise healthy farmers 

in northern Japan appeared to be losing their ability to think and reason at a 

relatively early age, and how the process of aging could be slowed down. With a 

team of colleagues at Tokyo National University, he set about measuring brain 

volumes of a thousand people of different ages and varying occupations. 

Computer technology enabled the researchers to obtain precise measurements of 

the volume of the front and side parts of the brain, which controls functions 

like eating and breathing, does not contract with age, and one can continue 

living without intellectual on economical faculties. Contraction of front and 

side parts—as cells die off—was observed in some subjects in their thirties, 

but it was still not evident in some sixty-and seventy-year-olds. Matsuzawa 

concluded from his tests that there is a simple way to the contraction normally 

connected with age—using the head. 

    The findings show in general terms that contraction of the brain begins 

sooner in people in the country than in the town. Those least at risk, says 

Matsuzawa, are lawyers, followed by university professors and doctors. White 

collar workers doing routine work in government offices are, however, as likely 

to have shrinking (萎缩) brains as the farm workers, bus drivers and shop 

assistants. 

    Matsuzawa’s findings show that thinking can prevent the brain from 

shrinking. Blood must circulate properly in the head to supply the fresh oxygen 

the brain cells need. “The best way to maintain good blood circulation is 
                  中国现代教育网     www.30edu.com  全国最大教师交流平台

through using the brain. ” he says. “Think hard and engage in conversation. 

Don’t rely on pocket calculators. ”

【文章大意】本文讲述了想要保持年轻的秘诀: 越是乐于思考、使用大脑的人, 越不容易

脑衰老, 这是日本一个医学研究团队的研究结果。

1. The team of doctors wanted to find out ________. 

A. the size of certain people’s brains

B. how to make people live longer

C. which people are most intelligent

D. why certain people are aging sooner than others. 

【解析】选     B。细节理解题。根据第二段“Professor Taiju Matsuzawa wanted to find 

out why otherwise healthy farmers in northern Japan appeared to be losing their 

ability to think and reason at a relatively early age, and how the process of 

aging could be slowed down. ”医生们想要研究如何减缓老龄化的过程, 也就是说如何

让人们更长寿。

2. On what are their research findings based? 

A. The study of brain volumes of different people. 

B. The study of brain volumes of old people. 

C. The latest development of computer technology. 

D. A survey of farmers in northern Japan. 

【解析】选     A。细节理解题。根据第二段“he set about measuring brain volumes of a 

thousand people of different ages and varying occupations. ”可知通过测量一千个

不同年龄不同职业的人的脑容量来做实验。

3. The doctors’ tests show that ________. 

A. our brains shrink as we grow older

B. the front section of the brain does not shrink

C. sixty-year-olds have better brains than thirty-year-olds

D. some people’s brains have contracted more than other people’s

【解析】选     D。推理判断题。根据第三段“The findings show in general terms that 

contraction of the brain begins sooner in people in the country than in the 

town. ”研究发现农村的人比城镇的人的大脑更早开始萎缩, 然后后面又列出不同职业的
                  中国现代教育网     www.30edu.com  全国最大教师交流平台

对比, 脑萎缩最慢的是律师, 紧接着是大学教授, 医生, 然后又列出其他职业。这些说明

有些人的脑萎缩就比较多、比较快, 有些人就比较慢、比较少, 因此答案为                              D。

4. According to the passage, which people seem to age more slowly than the 

others? 

A. Lawyers.                    B. Farmers. 

C. Clerks.                     D. Shop assistants. 

【解析】选     A。细节理解题。根据第三段“Those least at risk, says Matsuzawa, are 

lawyers, followed by university professors and doctors. ”可知脑萎缩最慢的是律

师。

Ⅰ 教材与语法填空
根据教材课文内容,在空白处填入               1 个适当的单词或括号内单词的正确形式。
    There are all kinds of festivals throughout the world, which are held to 1.      
(satisfaction) and  please  the ancestors, to  honour  some famous  people or 
important 2.       (event), and to express people’s gratitude to the God for 
bringing  them a  year  of  plenty. For  example, Japanese  observe Obon,  3.       
people go to clean graves and light incense 4.       memory of their ancestors. 
In  India, October 2  is a national  festival to honour  Mohandas Gandhi, who 
helped India  become an 5.         (depend) country. And in  China the Spring 
Festival,  which 6.          (celebrate) in  January or  February, is  the 7.      
(energy) and important because it is a festival that 8.      (look) forward to 
the coming of  spring. Why are all these festivals everywhere?Because  during 
the festivals, people can  get together to eat, drink and  have fun with each 
other, 9.      (forget) all the daily struggles and demands for 10.       while.
答案:1.satisfy 2.events 3.when 4.in 5.independent
6.is celebrated 7.most energetic 8.looks    9.forgetting 10.a


Ⅲ 教材与话题写作
(Ⅰ)用本单元所学知识完成下列句子。
1.春节总是让我们想到家庭团聚。(remind)
                                    
答案:The Spring Festival always reminds us of the family reunion.
2.在春节有各种各样的活动。(there be)
                                    
答案:There are all kinds of activities during the Spring Festival.
3.孩子们特别盼望春节。(look forward to)
                                    
答案:Children especially look forward to the Spring Festival.
4.对成年人来说,这也是一个美好的时光。(It’s a good time...)
                  中国现代教育网     www.30edu.com  全国最大教师交流平台

                                    
答案:It’s also a good time for adults.
5.他们可以相互表达感激、原谅或宽恕之情。(appreciation; apology;forgive)
                                    
答案:They can express appreciation, make an apology or forgive each other.
6.遗憾的是有些人由于各种原因,不能出现在这个重大的节日里。(It is a pity that...;
turn up)
                                    
答案:It is a pity that some people can’t turn up at such a great festival for 
a variety of reasons.

(Ⅱ)将以上句子连成短文,要求衔接连贯、过渡自然。
                                    
                                    
                                    
                                    
                                    

【完形填空插花】
    阅读下面短文,从短文后各题所给的                A、B、C  和 D 四个选项中,选出可能填入空白处
的最佳选项。

    I was a shy kid.Nothing seemed harder than talking to people.I didn't even 
like to answer the phone for fear that I'd have to talk to somebody I didn't 
know.
    __1__ ,at school I had to spend all day in the company of others.My __2__ 

was studying.It was something I could do __3__ and by myself.I spent a lot of 
time studying and was __4__ with good grades.
    Eventually I went to college.I came to realize that some people were rather 
fun to __5__ with.Yet my childhood __6__ carried over and I found myself 
tongue­tied and __7__ whenever I found myself in a conversation.
    One day while on campus,I __8__ an advertisement for a position on the 

local classical music __9__ station.I had grown up listening to classical 
music,and I loved it.
    In order to get the job,applicants needed to be interviewed.I had 
absolutely no background in radio,and the idea of talking to thousands of 

listeners __10__ me.I didn't really want the job.I just wanted to prove that I 
could talk to a(n) __11__.
    Two weeks __12__ ,I was even more terrified to discover that I had 
                  中国现代教育网     www.30edu.com  全国最大教师交流平台

actually landed the job.
    It was a __13__ job,but I grew to enjoy it.I announced music to thousands 
of __14__ in the city,sometimes answering their calls and __15__ to their 
requests.I began to feel comfortable talking to these people,these strangers 

who I couldn't even __16__.
    Although I now spend much time talking with people,I'm still basically a 
__17__ person.My former shyness is a gift,as I can __18__ people who feel 

discomfort when they talk to strangers.I still enjoy moments of being 
__19__.But I'm also glad I decided to make a __20__ in my life that had opened 
many doors and opportunities that I never knew existed.
    1.A.However      B.Therefore
       C.Otherwise    D.Besides
    2.A.advice        B.practice
       C.task        D.escape
    3.A.obviously     B.simply
       C.quietly      D.poorly
    4.A.filled         B.rewarded
       C.decorated    D.faced
    5.A.help out       B.catch up
       C.put up       D.hang out
    6.A.happiness      B.shyness
       C.kindness     D.goodness
    7.A.excited        B.astonished
       C.embarrassed  D.interested
    8.A.noticed        B.posted
       C.realized      D.believed
    9.A.fire           B.gas
       C.TV          D.radio
    10.A.terrified       B.pleased
        C.satisfied     D.amazed
    11.A.child         B.singer
        C.interviewer  D.applicant
    12.A.ago          B.later
        C.before       D.since
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    13.A.well­paid      B.puzzling
        C.comfortable  D.challenging
    14.A.listeners       B.followers
        C.viewers      D.dancers
    15.A.referring       B.responding
        C.offering      D.comparing
    16.A.feel           B.move
        C.hear         D.see
    17.A.busy           B.warm
        C.quiet         D.smart
    18.A.look into       B.relate to
        C.combine with  D.worry with
    19.A.alone          B.alive
        C.active        D.awake
    20.A.plan           B.mistake
        C.change        D.dream
    【解题导语】该文主要讲述了害羞的作者通过应聘电台工作而实现自我突破的故事。
    1.A 根据上下文可知,此处表示逻辑上的转折关系。然而,作者在学校里不得不和
同学们相处。
    2.D 根据上文的“I was a shy kid”可推知,害羞的作者在学校用学习来逃避与人
交流。
    3.C 与语境“by myself”呼应可推知,作者一个人安安静静地做功课。
    4.B 与语境“with good grades”呼应可推知,作者在学习上的付出得到了丰厚的
回报,成绩突出。
    5.D 由“Eventually”的提示可推知,作者最终意识到了和朋友相处是有趣的。
hang out“常去某处”。
    6.B 根据上文的“I was a shy kid”并结合“I found myself tongue­tied”可推
知,作者童年时代的害羞个性还存在。
    7.C 根据“I found myself tongue­tied”可推知,和他人交流时沟通不顺畅是令
人尴尬的。
    8.A 根据语境可知,作者在校园里注意到了一则让他感兴趣的广告。
    9.D 根据下文的“I had absolutely no background in radio”可推知,这是一则
电台的招募广告。
    10.A 根据“I had absolutely no background in radio”并结合下文的“I 
                  中国现代教育网     www.30edu.com  全国最大教师交流平台

didn't really want the job”可推知,作者因自己没有广播方面的背景而打退堂鼓,与
下文的“I was even more terrified to discover that I had actually landed the 
job”呼应。
    11.C 作者害怕与成千上万的听众交流,只想证明自己能够和面试官交谈。
    12.B 根据语境可推知,时间已经过去了两周。
    13.D 根据上文可知,这项工作需要与成千上万的听众交流,这对作者来说有一定的
挑战性,且与语境“but I grew to enjoy it”形成呼应。
    14.A 与上文的“and the idea of talking to thousands of listeners __10__ 
me”呼应可推知,此处表示作者给听众播放音乐。
    15.B 与语境“answering their calls”呼应可推知,作者回应听众的要求。
    16.D 根据上文可知,作者应聘的是电台工作,和听众们基本上是不见面的。
    17.C 根据“still”的提示并结合上文的“I was a shy kid”可推知,作者尽管现
在花费很多时间和人们交流,但是本质上还是一个不多说话的人,与下文的“My former 
shyness is a gift”呼应。
    18.B 结合“My former shyness is a gift”可推知,作者能够理解那些和他相同
的人。relate to“理解,认同”。
    19.A 根据上文的“My former shyness is a gift”可推知,作者仍旧喜欢独处。
    20.C 根据语境可推知,作者通过做电台工作有了重大改变,从而人生有了更多的可
能性。


Ⅲ 下面是李华的一篇作文,文中有五处错误,改正错误并背诵该文。
    The Spring Festival always reminds us  the family reunion, when there are 
all kinds  of activities. As a result, children  especial look forward to it. 
It’s also a good time for adults, that they can express appreciation, make an 
apology and forgive each other. However, it is a pity that some people can’t 
turn up at such a great festival for a variety of reason.
答案:
    The Spring Festival always reminds us ∧  the family reunion, when there are 
                                         of
                                                 especial
all  kinds of activities.As a  result, children especially look forward to it. 
                                    that
It’s also a good time for adults,whenthey can express appreciation, make an 
        and
apology  or  forgive each other. However, it is a pity that some people can’t 
                                                 reason
turn up at such a great festival for a variety of reasons.
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