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新疆巴州且末县中学 人教版必修四U1women of achievementP3 Grammar课件 (共35张PPT)

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    Unit 1  Grammar

Subject–verb Agreement
      主 谓 一 致
The team ____has  some good players. (have)
The team ____are  handsome. (be)
The group ___is  made up of nine students. (be)
The group ____are  dancing happily. (be)
The singer and dancer ___is  on the stage. (be)
A knife and fork ___is  used to have meals. (be)
  Subject–verb Agreement 主谓一致
主谓一致是指谓语在人称和数上必须和
主语的人称和数保持一致。这是英语语
法中必须遵循的基本规则,也是英语和
汉语区别很大的地方。
主谓一致主要有以下几种情况:
 主   一、语法一致
 谓   二、意义一致
 一
 致   三、就近原则
         一、语法一致
主语为单数形式,谓语动词也用单数形式;
主语为复数形式,谓语动词也用复数形式。
例如:
I often help him and he often helps me.
我经常帮助他,他也经常帮助我。
We often help each other.
我们经常互相帮助。
不可数名词作主语,谓语动词用单数;
可数名词的复数形式作主语,
谓语动词用复数。
       二、意义一致
主语形式虽为单数,但意义为复数,谓
语动词用复数;
主语形式为复数,而意义为单数,谓语
动词用单数。如:
The crowd were surrounding the 
government official.
人群包围了这位政府官员。
Maths is hard to learn.
数学难学。
       三、就近原则
就近原则即谓语动词的单复数形式取
决于最靠近它的主语。
There is a pen and two pencils on the 
desk.
桌子上有一支钢笔和两支铅笔。
        注意的规则
1. and连接两个或两个以上单数名词或代
    词作主语时,谓语动词有以下两种情
    况:
(1)and连接两个或两个以上不同的人或
    物作主语时,谓语动词用复数。例如:
    He and I are both students of this school.
    我和他都是这个学校的学生。
    Time and tide wait for no man. 
    岁月不饶人。
(2)如果连接两个或两个以上的并列结构 
    是指同一个人或物,或指同一概念时,
    谓语动词用单数,这时and后面的名词
    前不加冠词。
A.表整体概念的并列结构:
     bread and butter         knife and fork
     iron and steel                  law and order
B.配套事物:
    a watch and chain     
    a needle and thread 
    The knife and fork is on the desk.
2. 主语后面带有with, along with, together 
     with, as well as, besides, like, without,  
     except, including, but 等引导的短语
     时,谓语动词必须与前面的主语在人
     称和数上保持一致。例如:
     The teacher, together with his students, 
     is planting trees in the garden. 
    老师和同学们正在花园里种树。
3. 如果主语是不定式,动词-ing形式或
    主语从句时,谓语动词用单数。
    What he is doing seems very important.
    他正在做什么看起来很重要。
    Serving the people is my great happiness.
   为人民服务是我最大的幸福。
 4. 用连接的并列主语被each, every或no
     修饰时,谓语动词用单数。
     Every boy and every girl in the class is
     diligent.
     班里的每个男孩女孩都很用功。
5. each of + 复数代词, 谓语动词用单数。
    Each of us has something to say.
    我们每个人都有些话要说。
6. 不定代词all, more, some, any, none等
作主语时,谓语动词视情况而定。谓语动
词可用单数,也可用复数;但当它指代不
可数名词时看作单数,谓语动词用单数。
vAll the apples are rotten.  
  所有的苹果都烂了。
vAll the apple is rotten.  
  整个苹果都烂了。
vNone of us are /is perfect.  人无完人。
vNone of the money is left. 
   一点钱也没剩下。
7. 复合不定代词作主语时,谓语动词
    用单数。
    Someone is calling you. 
    有人叫你。
    Nothing is found in the room. 
    在屋里找不到什么东西。
8. 名词如trousers, scissors, clothes, goods, 
glasses 等作主语时,谓语动词必须用复
数;而形复义单的名词如news;以-ics结尾
的学科名称如physics, politics, 国名如the 
United States; 报纸名如the New Times; 
书名如Great Expectations(《远大前程》)
;以及the United Nations作主语时,谓
语动词用单数。
  如:

vThe scissors are sharp.

vNo news is good news.

vGreat Expectations was written by
   Charles Dickens in 1860.
9. 集体名词作主语,谓语动词可用单数,
    也可用复数,主要由句子的意思决定。
    强调整体时用单数,强调整体中的个体
    的用复数。这类名词有people, family, 
    class, population, crowd, team, ground等。
vHis family is going out. 他们全家要外出。
vHis family are all music lovers. 
   他们全家都是音乐爱好者。
10. 有些名词单复数形式相同,作主语时,
      谓语动词由上下文决定。这类名词有
       means, deer, sheep, Chinese, Japanese,
       fish等。如:
      Not every means is useful. 
      并非每种方法都有效。
      Not all means are useful.
      并非所有的方法都有效。
11. 表示一类人的 “the +形容词(分词)”
      作主语时,谓语动词用复数。
  a. The sick in the accident have been 
      taken to the hospital.
  b. The lost have been found.
12. 表示时间、金钱、距离、度量等名词
      作主语时,不管单复数形式,其谓语
      动词用单数。如:
  a. Thirty years is not a long time.
      30年的时间并不长。
  b. Two hours is enough for me to finish 
      the work.
      两个小时对我来说完成这项工作足够了。
13. the rest of, half of, majority of, part 
      of, a lot of, lots of, one of, a number of, 
      a plenty of, percent of 以及分数词等作
      主语时,谓语动词的单复数取决于后
      面名词的数,即就近原则。如:
      A part of the students have arrived.
      部分学生已到了。
      A part of the apple has been eaten by
      the mouse.
      这个苹果的一部分被老鼠吃了。
14. 在表存在的there be 句式中,主语是
      两个或多个并列名词(短语),be的
      形式与最近的一个名词(短语)保持
      一致。
     There is a pen, two pencils and several 
     books on the desk.
   =There are two pencils, a pen and 
     several books on the desk.
   =There are several books, a pen and 
     two pencils on the desk.
15. 由here, there等引导的倒装句中,
      若主语不止一个时,谓语动词与最
      近的主语保持一致。如:
  a. Here comes the bus.
  b. Here is a pen and two books for 
  you.
16. 用连词 or, either…or, neither…nor, 
      not only…but also等连接并列主语时,
     谓语动词应与最近的主语保持一致。
 a. Neither you nor I am wrong.
     Neither I nor you are wrong.
 b. Not only the students but also the 
     teacher enjoys listening to the music.
     Not only the teacher but also the 
     students enjoy listening to the music.
             单选
1. On the wall______ two large portraits.
    A. hangs                      B. hang   
    C. hanged                    D. hanging
2. “News of victories _____ pouring in as 
     our army advances,” the company 
     commander said.
     A. keep                       B. kept  
     C. keeps                      D. have kept
3. There _____ a lot of milk in the bottle.
    A. are                         B. is        
    C. were                       D. has
4. All but one ____ in the accident.
    A. was killed        B. were killed
    C. will be killed        D. are killed 
5. Zhang’s family  ____ rather big, with
    twelve people in all.
    A. is                     B. are        
    C. being               D. was
6. Nobody but Jane ____ the secret.
    A. know                 B. knows   
    C. have known      D. is known
7. When and where to build the new 
  factory _____ yet.
    A. is not decided       B. are not decided
    C. has not decided    D. have not decided
8. A library with five thousand books____ 
  to the nation as a gift.
    A. is offered     B. has offered  
    C. are offered   D. have offered
9. Not only I but also Jane and Mary 
    ____ tired of having one examination
    after another.
    A. is                      B. are 
    C. am                      D. be
10. A woman with some children ____  
      soon.
     A. is coming             B. are coming
     C. has come        D. have come
11. No one except my parents ____ 
      anything about this.
      A. know        B. knows 
      C. is known        D. are known
12. The teacher as well as the students 
      ____ the book already.
      A. has read B. have read
      C. are reading          D. is reading
Choose the correct verb form to complete 
the following sentences.
1. Our family ___is  (is/are) not poor any 
    more. 
2. He has to worry. His family ____are  (is/are)
    waiting for him. 
3. The class ___is  (is/are)  more than forty 
    in number.
4. The class _____have  (have/has) disagreed 
    among themselves about where they 
    should go and have a picnic. 
5. Not only you but also he ____is  (is/are) 
    wrong. 
6. Neither you nor he ___is  (is/are) right.  
7. There ___are (is/are) two shops and a 
    cinema beside the railway station.   
8. Here ___is  (is/are) a map and a handbook
    for you.    
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