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人教版新课标 高考英语第一轮复习教案 ---- 语法复习—名词

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高中英语审核员

中国现代教育网
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                  中国现代教育网     www.30edu.com  全国最大教师交流平台

一、教学内容:
     语法:名词

二.  教学过程:
     名词的数量及用法可谓纷繁复杂,高考题中每年都有对名词的考查。近几年考卷对
 该部分的单纯考查在逐渐减少,但有向完形填空和短文改错等题型迁移的特征。我们主要
 应当从以下几方面复习名词: 
  1、名词的“数” 
  2、名词的“格”(所有格) 
  3、名词作定语的形式 
  4、在一定语境中名词的词意辨析 
  5、链接语法:主谓一致 

(一)名词是表示人,事物,地点或抽象概念的名称的词。 
     名词包括:普通名词          book, pen, man,专有名词    Mary, Beijing ,不可数名词,可数
 名词。物质名词        water, sand ,抽象 名词   happiness, success, 集合名词  family, team 
Ⅰ.  名词的数 
     在熟悉名词单数变复数规则的基础上,突出以下几点: 
  1、注意以下名词数的概念 
     以 s 结尾,仍为单数的名词(多为学科名词),如                    physics, linguistics, mathematics, 
 politics, statistics, news , the United States 
     抽象名词:表示具体或特定的事物时,前面应有不定冠词,如                          a pleasure/pity/surprise
 /success/failure/shame /an honor/ a bright future/ a strong character/ a great help/a waste of time 
     总称名词:表示一类事物的总称,不能加                 s,如:machinery,    furniture, equipment, 
 technology, luggage, baggage, homework, evidence 
     单数和复数形式表达不同的意思,如:chicken                鸡肉    / chickens 小鸡;  fish 鱼肉   / 
 fishes( fish )各种鱼; paper 纸 / papers 试卷; water 水 / waters 水域,room 空间/ rooms 房间 
     只有复数形式的名词,如            glasses(眼镜),trousers,  clothes,scissors 等,注意加单
 位名词的用法:a pair of glasses; two pairs of trousers 
     形式上虽是单数,但表示的是复数含义,如                  people , cattle, staff, public, the +adj., the + 
 分词(表示一类人) 
     以复数形式出现,表达复数含义,如                belongings, surroundings, earnings, savings, shoes, 
 socks, goods, thanks, congratulations, funds, pains, arms, troops 
  2、集合名词的数 
     注意主谓一致:看成一个整体时,谓语用单数,若侧重各个成员时,则用复数 
     eg: a) The average family is a great deal smaller than it used to be. 
     b) My family are going with me. 
  3、单复数同形的名词 
     如:fish, deer, sheep, youth, Chinese, Japanese, means, species, crossroads, series, works 
     eg: How many deer are there in Dafe ng now? 
  4、由连字符构成的复合名词的“数“: 
     a)合成名词的复数形式通常只将其中的主体名词变成复数: 
     lookers-on 参观者  sons-in-law 女婿 editors-in-chief 主编 shoe-makers 鞋匠 


     b)如果没有主体名词,在最后一个词上加复数词尾:                       [来源:学科网]
                  中国现代教育网     www.30edu.com  全国最大教师交流平台

     go-betweens 中间人   grown-ups 成人  follow-ups 续集 good-for-nothings 饭桶 
     c) man, woman, gentleman 等作定语时定语和被修饰词都变成复数: 
     men workers  women teachers  gentlemen officials 
  5、不规则名词的“数“:常用改变元音字母或词尾加                      en 的方法构成 
     如:woman -women, child-children, ox -oxen, tooth -teeth, goose -geese, 
     foot -feet, mouse -mice, phenomenon-phenomena, analysis-analyses 
  6、专有名词的“数” 
     史密斯一家人       the  Smiths 两个玛丽  two Marys 
  7、固定结构中名词的“数” 
     1) take pains 费劲做……
     2) make arrangements 安排
     3) make preparations 准备 


     4) keep on good terms with 和某人相处融洽[来源:Zxxk.Com]
     5) be in high / low spirits 精神高昂的/精神低靡的
     6) extend thanks to 表达谢意 
     7) by means of 通过……方式 
     8) give regards of 向某人问好 
    9) give respects to 尊敬 

Ⅱ.  名词所有格 
    英语中有些名词可以加’s          来表示所有关系,带这种词尾的名词形式称为该名词的所有
 格,如:a teacher’s book。名词所有格的规则如下: 
    1)单数名词词尾加’s,复数名词词尾没有                s 的,也要加’s,如      the boy’s bag 男孩的书
 包,men’s room  男厕所。 
    2)若名词已有复数词尾-s          ,只加’,如:the workers’ struggle 工人的斗争。 
    3)复合名词和短语的所有           格在最后的词后面加’s,          如    her brother-in-law’s bike, 
 someone else’s keys ,a day or two’s rest 
    4)凡不能加’s     的名词,都可以用名词+of          +名词的结构来表示所有关系,如:the               title 
 of the song 歌的名字。 
    5)分别格 
    如果两个名词并列,并且分别有’s,则表示分别有;只有一个’s,则表示共有。 
    John’s and Mary’s rooms(两间)  John and Mary’s room(一间) 
    6)省略格: 
    在表示店铺或教堂,诊所的名字或某人的家时,名词所有格的后面常省略它所修饰的


 名词,   [来源:学科网]
    在诊所    at the doctor’s 在我姐家 at my sister’s 
    7)双重格: 


    of +名词’s  结构,如     a friend of my father’s , works of Lu Xun’s [来源:学。科。网]
    比较:This is a picture of my friend’s. 这是我朋友收藏的一幅画。
    This is a picture of m y friend. 这是我朋友的一张照片。

Ⅲ.  名词的修饰语 

  1. 直接用名词来修饰名词          [来源:学#科#网 Z#X#X#K]
    金戒指    gold ring; 物理实验室    physics lab; 
                  中国现代教育网     www.30edu.com  全国最大教师交流平台

    咖啡杯    coffee cup; 油壶 oil pot; 
    苹果籽    apple seeds; 
  2. 关于表示数量(许多,一些,些许)的修饰语: 
    a good many ,a number of , numbers of , a great deal of , a large amount of , a large quantity 
 of, large quantities of , a lot of, lots of , more than one , many a, a few, a little 

随堂例题剖析: 
   1. He proved himself a true gentleman and the beauty of his __ was seen at its best when he    
 worked with others. 
    A. temper       B. appearance  C. talent       D. character 
  2. Bill was doing a lot of physical exercise to build up his__________. 
    A. ability      B. force       C. strength     D. mind 
  3. The head office of the bank is in Beijing, but it has _______ all over the country. 
    A. companies B. branches   C. organizations D. businesses 
  4. My ________of this weekend’s activity is going out with some good friends. 
    A. idea         B. opinion     C. mind         D. thought 
   5. Niagara Falls is a great tourist _____ drawing mill ions of visitors from all parts of the world 
 e very year. 
    A. interest     B. view        C. scen e       D. attraction 
   6. How did you like the ____ of the interpreter at the Chinese FM press conference of 6-party 
 talks on TV? 
    A. performance  B. achievement   C. material   D. words 
  7. — I’ll come and see you next Sunday. 
    — Is that a _________? Don’t disappoint me, I hope. 
    A. promise      B. decision    C. request      D. possibility 
   8. Before the final examination, many students have shown ________ of tension. Some have 
 trouble in sleep while others have lost their appetite 
    A. anxiety      B. marks       C. signs        D. remarks 
  9. —How is Tom getting along with his new job? 
    —Perhaps he is very busy. __________ has come from him all the week. 
    A. A word       B. No a word   C. No word      D. No words 
  10. She is always ready to help people in trouble because she thinks it is a_____. 
    A. business     B. reward      C. pleasure     D. favor 

【模拟试题】(答题时间:20                分钟)
  1. As a result of the heavy snow, the highway has been closed up until further__________. 
    A. news         B. information  C. notice      D. message 
   2. In a time of social reform, people’s state of mind tends to keep __________ with the rapid 
 changes of society. 
    A. step         B. pace        C. progress     D. touch 
  3. We’ll all have to bear it in ___ that self-confidence is the key point for a person’s success. 
    A. head         B. mind        C. heart        D. brain 
  4. You should take the medicine after you read the __________. 
    A. introduction   B. words     C. instructions   D. suggestions 
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5. John tried hard to find a job in the sales department, but he had no ________. 
  A. chance       B. time        C. money        D. luck 
6. She took _______ to study the problem. 
  A. much pain    B. a lot of pain   C. pain     D. great pains 
7. The assignment for Thursday is to write _________ composition  about your hometown. 
  A. a five-hundred-words        B. a five-hundred-word 
  C. a five-hundreds-word        D. a five-hundred-words’ 
8. It’s _________for a child to read. 
  A. a too difficult book        B. rather a difficult book 
  C. quite a difficult book      D. too difficult a book 
9. It’s _________ as the one we did last month. 
  A. as dangerous a job          B. as a dangerous job 
  C. so dangerous a job          D. such dangerous job 
10. I called at ___________ three times the day before yesterday. 
  A. my teacher                  B. my teachers 
  C. my teacher’s                D. the teacher of mine 
                      中国现代教育网         www.30edu.com    全国最大教师交流平台

【试题答案】
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