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高考英语专题之主旨大意题和猜测词义题的解题技巧

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       高考英语专题之主旨大意题和猜测词义题的解题技巧

                                 状元必读

  1. 本讲课程涉及的知识点在高考考试大纲中对应的考点为阅读理解;

  2. 本节课重点讲解主旨大意题和猜测词义题的解题技巧;

  3. 该考点主要考查学生综合理解文章的能力,在高考试卷中大体分值为                            8-10 分;

                                 专家点拨

一、知识精讲

(一)主旨大意

    主旨大意是作者在文章中要表达的主要内容,是全文的核心,作者在文章中努力通过
各种细节信息来阐明中心话题。

  1. 主旨大意题时常见设问方式:

    (1)The main idea/key point / the theme of this passage is that _____.

    (2)What is the main idea of this passage?

    (3)What does this passage mainly talk about?

    (4)The passage is mainly about _____. 

    (5)The best title/headline for this passage is _____.

    (6)The topic/subject discussed in this passage is __

    (7)From the passage we can learn/conclude that ____

    (8)Which of the following best describes the passage as a whole?

    (9)The passage wants to tell us _____________.

    (10)From the passage we can learn/conclude that________. 

  2. 如何找准文章的主旨——找准主题句

    找出并理解段落主题句(topic sentence)(呈现作者观点、意见或思想的句子),这
类句子常出现在文章或段落的开始,有时出现在文章的结尾,有时也出现在文章的中间,
或是隐含在段意之中。

    注意:①如果第一段以人物故事开头,第一段则是引子,中心句应在第二段。
                 中国现代教育网      www.30edu.com  全国最大教师交流平台

          ②讲故事类文章的中心一般为文章最后一句。

    (1)主题句位于文章或段落的开头:

    主题句出现在段首,开门见山,提出主题,随之用细节来解释、支撑主题句所表达的
主题思想。这是英语中最常见的写作方法。

【例文   1】 

    People who talk and sing to plants have no mental problems at all, according to an 
agricultural expert. "In fact, singing and talking to plants makes them grow better," says Dr 

Braymar. The reason is quite simple. When we sing or talk to plants, we exhale(呼出) CO2 

which plants need to survive and grow better. Plants absorb CO2 through their pores(小孔) 
during the sunlight hours and produce oxygen which people need to survive. Singing and talking 
have good effects on plants, however, only during the daytime. Singing or talking at bedtime will 
not help plants to grow better or grow faster.

    思路分析:本段的首句是主题句,其后的句子或是解释说明“对植物说话或唱歌有益于
植物”,或是为这一主题思想提供论据。本段的结尾句呼应主题句,在给予主题思想又一论
据的同时,幽默地收尾。

【例文   2】 

    People have different tastes in food. Some feel that they haven't eaten a meal unless they 
have had steak or other red meat. Some prefer chicken or fish and eat one or the other at every 
meal. Others prefer vegetables and fruits or grains and would enjoy a meal of spaghetti, eggplant, 
and fresh fruit. Others could live on what were called fast-foods: a hamburger or hot dog, French 
fries and a soft drink. 

    思路分析:本段的首句是主题句,点明人在食物的口味上是有所不同的。其后的句子
都是在进一步地阐述这个主题。

状元典例

    Good tool design is important in the prevention of overuse injuries. Well-designed tools and 
equipment will require less force to operate them and prevent awkward(别扭的)hand 
positions. They will allow the worker to keep the elbows(肘)next to the body to prevent 
damage to the shoulder and arm.

    Overuse injuries can therefore be prevented or reduced if the employer provides, and 
workers use:

    ……

    Q: What is the best title for the passage?


    A. Good Tool Design for Women             B. Importance of Good Tool Design[来源:学科网 ZXXK]

    C. Tool Design and Prevention of Inj uries      D. Overuse of Tools and Worker Protection
                 中国现代教育网      www.30edu.com  全国最大教师交流平台

    答案:C

    思路分析:本文是一篇说明文,先点明文章的主题,工具的良好设计在防止伤害方面
是非常重要的,然后明确了好的工具设计的几项标准。本题是一道主旨题,由文章的主题
句也就是第一段的第一句话“Good             tool design is important in the prevention of overuse 
injuries.”可以知道答案应是     C。

    (2)主题句位于文章结尾。

    主题句出现在文章结尾是用归纳法撰写的,作者采用先表述细节或交代论据来先摆事
实,后作结论的手法,以总结性的句子收尾,                   这种段落被称作归纳型段落。

【例文   1】

    If you hadn't known them, you would have thought Joe and Jim were quite alike. They were 
both tall and wore long and fair hair. They both walked with a steady stride (坚定的步伐). 
They both spoke in a deep voice that made themselves seem much older than they really were. 
Both of them wore dark clothes as a rule, and they liked light coloured ties. But that was all the 
likeness they had. In other things they were sharply different. Joe was considerate and helpful, 
and everyone liked him. Jim, however, was very selfish and often flared into terrible anger at 
little things that displeased him. Alike as Joe and Jim were on the surface, they were really very 
different in nature.

    思路分析:这段文字对乔与吉姆两个人相像和不同的细节进行叙述,最后一句作了归
纳总结:这两人表面相似,但实质极不相同。

【例文   2】

    Some students prefer a strict teacher who tells them exactly what to do. Others prefer to be 
left to work on their own. Still others like a democratic discussion type of class. No one teaching 
method can be devised to satisfy all students at the same time. 

    思路分析:本段的中心思想在结尾句得到体现,它是此段内容的结论。 

状元典例

    In the United States, old people who no longer have an income or who suffer from a loss of 
physical abilities are often forced to give up living alone. They must leave their homes and 
depend on someone else to give them a place to live and to take care of their physical needs: 
they must either live with relatives or live in homes for the aged. This loss of independence is a 
major problem for the aged.

    Q: Which of the following best expresses the main idea?

    A. Old people in the United States who are poor or sick cannot live alone.

    B. Being unable to live alone is a serious problem for old people in the Un ited States.
                 中国现代教育网      www.30edu.com  全国最大教师交流平台

    C. Old people who are poor or sick should live with their relatives, not in homes for the aged. 

    D. In the United States, old people who are poor or sick are forced to live in homes for the 
aged.

    答案:B

    思路分析:本段文章先讲了在美国一些没有收入或是丧失生活自理能力的老人要被迫
离家与亲戚住或是住到老年公寓,最后总结这种独立生活能力的丧失是老年人的一个主要
问题,故最后一句话是本段的总结,也是它的主要大意,故选                          B。

    (3)主题句首尾呼应

     为突出主题,作者先提出主题,结尾时再次点出主题,这种首尾呼应的写作方法也较
为多见,通常,前后表述主题的句子不是简单的重复,后面的表述往往有进一步的引申或
发展的意味。

【例文】 

    What causes traffic jams? That’s easy: too many cars. No, wrong. Think again. What causes 
much of the jamming on our streets are traffic lights.

    Think of all the hours in your life wasted as your car journey is stopped by lights to let non-
existent traffic through, and then ask yourself this: who is the better judge of when it’s safe to 
go—you, the driver at the time and the place, or lights programmed by an absent regulator(控
制器)?……

    ……

    Not only do traffic lights help to lengthen journeys pointlessly, but also the UK’s large 
number of 24-hour traffic lights amounts to GPH(严重的全球性危险).   About 30 percent of 

our CO2 output is from traffic. Professor David Hegg, the influential transport expert, admits that 

40 percent of that comes from traffic waiting. Every litre of fuel burnt produces 2.4 kg of our CO2 
and other greenhouse gases. Multiply the minutes of forced waiting at controlled lights by the 
hours in the day and night, by the days in the year, by the number of vehicles, and the 
environmental effect becomes clear.

    Q: The purpose of the passage is to _________.

    A. call out to stop the traffic lights                  

    B. complain about the heavy traffic

    C. explain how cars pollute the environment    

    D. call on drivers to give way to other road users

    思路分析:本文讲了人们通常认为交通堵塞是因为车辆太多造成的,而作者认为红绿
                 中国现代教育网      www.30edu.com  全国最大教师交流平台

灯是造成交通堵塞的原因。作者在第一段提出了红绿灯造成了交通堵塞这个观点,然后分
析原因,在最后一段的第一句话中再次点明主题,故选                       A。

状元典例

    (辽宁卷)It     may help you to know that there is no such thing as a perfect speech. At 
some point in every speech, every speaker says something that is not understood exactly as he 
has planned. Fortunately, such moments are usually not obvious to the listeners. Why? Because 
the listeners do not know what the speaker plans to say. They hear only what the speaker does 
say. If you lose your place for a moment, wrongly change the order of a couple of sentences, or 
forget to pause at a certain point, no one will be any the wiser. When such moments occur, don’t 
worry about them. Just continue as if nothing happened.

    ……

    As you work on your speech, don’t worry about being perfect. Once you free your mind of 
this, you will find it much easier to give your speech freely.

    Q: What would be the best title for the passage?


    A. How to Be a Perfect Speaker       B. How to Make a Perfect Speech[来源:学_科_网]

    C. Don’t Expect a Perfect Speech      D. Don’t Expect Mistakes in a Speech

     答案:C

    思路分析:文章第一段第一句话点明了本文的论点——要知道世上并没有绝对的、完
美的演说,但少数几个错误并不会影响演说的效果。在后面的段落中作者陈述了几个论据,
在最后一段,作者又指出不要总是担心自己是否完美,一旦放松思想,就会发现自如的演
讲变得容易多了,故选          C。

    (4)主题句位于段落的中间

    主题句出现在文章的中间,通常前面只提出问题,文章的主题由随之陈述的细节或合
乎逻辑的引申在文中导出,而后又作进一步的解释、说明或发展。

【例文】

    Nothing is as useful as a flashlight on a dark night if a tire goes flat. Few inventions are so 
helpful to a child who is afraid of the dark. In fact, the modern flashlight brings light to many dark 
situations. Finding something in the back of a closet is easy with a flashlight in hand . A camper 
also needs one after the light of the campfire has been out.

    思路分析:文段开头先说明如果在夜晚轮胎坏了的时候没有东西可以像手电筒那么有
用,随后说明手电筒在很多光线暗的情况下可以带来很多光,接着在后文又对这一主题进
行进一步的解释以支撑主题。

状元典例
                 中国现代教育网      www.30edu.com  全国最大教师交流平台

    If you were planning to buy a television set, the following advertisement would certainly 
draw your attention: “Color TV. Only $79. Two days sale. Hurry.” However, when you go to the 
store ready to buy, you may discover that they are sold out. But the shop assistant is quick to tell 
you that he has another model. A much better set which is “just right for you”. It costs $395. 
This sales method is called “bait and switch”. Buyers are baited with a sales advertisement, and 
then they are switched to another more expensive one. 

    The paragraph could be entitled _________.

    A. Buying A TV Set        B. A Selling Method

    C. Buyer Beware           D. TV On Sale 

    答案:B

    思路分析:文段开头先描述了一个情景,然后引出这是一种营销方法,接着再对这种
方法作进一步的解释和说明。

    (5)主题句隐含在段意之中

   全文没有明确的主题句,其中心思想包含在各个句子中,在这种情况下,要把所有已知
的细节综合起来,进行逻辑推理和分析,归纳成一般概念,从而概括归纳出主题句。

【例文】

    Joshua Bingham stud ied 4 years at the University of Paris and decided to leave his 
graduation. He transferred to the University of Berlin and graduated with honors. Harvard Law 
School and, later, Boston College provided him with an excellent legal background. He is 
presently a corporation lawyer in Miami, Florida.

    Q: What is the main idea of the passage? ____

    A. How Joshua Bingham became a lawyer.   

    B. Bingham is a diligent student. 

    C. Joshua Bingham received an excellent education. 

    D. A good lawyer needs good education. 

    答案:C

    思路分析:此文没有主题句。全篇共四句,只陈述了四个细节(detail)性的事实。因
此就答案本身看,个个都对。读者只能将所有的                    details 综合起来,进行逻辑推理,才能构
成一个没有言明的主题思想(unstated                main     idea)。由于文中主要涉及了           Joshua 
Bingham 接受教育的情况,即作者想告诉我们的是:Joshua                   Bingham 接受过良好的教育,
所以答案是C。

状元典例
                 中国现代教育网      www.30edu.com  全国最大教师交流平台

    (北京卷)      Domestic (驯养的)     horses now pull ploughs, race in the Kentucky Derby, 
and carry police. But early horses weren’t tame (驯服的) enough to perform these kinds of 
tasks. Scientists think the first interactions humans had with horses were far different from 
those today.

  Thousands of years ago, people killed the wild horses that lived around them for food. Over 
time, people began to catch the animals and raise them. This was the first step in domestication.

    ……

    The domestication of horses has had great effects on societies. For example, horses were 
important tools in the advancement of modern agriculture. Using them to pull ploughs and carry 
heavy loads allowed people to farm more efficiently. Before they were able to ride horses, 
humans had to cross land on foot. Riding horses allowed people to travel far greater distance in 
much  less time. That encouraged populations living in different areas to interact with one 
another. The new form of rapid transportation helped cultures spread around the world.              

    Q: The passage is mainly about _______.

    A. why humans domesticated horses

 B. how humans and horses needed each other

    C. why horses came in different shapes and sizes

    D. how human societies and horses influenced each other

    答案:D

    思路分析:本文以时间为顺序,记叙了人类对马的驯化以及马对人类的生活所产生的
重要影响。本题考查主旨大意。前四段说明,人类驯养了野马,使得马的种类繁多,这是
人类社会对马的影响;最后一段说明,马作为交通工具加速了人类文化传播的进程。故文
章的主题应是      D 所说的内容。此主题句出现在文章的最后一段。如果文章没有明确的主题
句,文章的中心思想往往包含在各个段落中,考生可采取提纲挈领的方法,通过分析细节
把文章的要点归纳出来,概括出全文的中心思想。

    注意:既不能以偏概全,也不能在概括时过于宽泛,要恰如其分。

(二)猜测词义

    阅读理解的测试中经常有猜测词、短语、习语意义的题目,这些词、短语、习语可能
会是新词,也可能是熟悉的词但在文中有新的意思,这就要求同学们能根据上下文的语境
运用一些技巧来猜测出它们的意思。

  1. 猜测词义题的常见设问方式:

    (1)The word “…” refers to/probably means ___.

    (2)The underlined word “…”could best be replaced by _______.
                 中国现代教育网      www.30edu.com  全国最大教师交流平台


    (3)Which of the following words can take the place of the word “…”?[来源:Zxxk.Com]

    (4)The word “…” most likely means _________.

    (5)What do you think the expression “…” stands for?

 2. 常用的猜词策略:

    (1)利用构词法:转化,          合成,  派生

    熟悉常见后缀的含义及派生、合成、转化法的特点,确定所构词的词性和语义。

【例文】

    "Our parties are aimed for children 2 to 10," Anaclerio said, "and they're very interactive 
and creative in that they built a sense of drama based on a subject."

    思路分析:文中       interactive 是由前缀 inter(相互的)和     active(活动的,活跃的)构
成的,同时根据上下文的意思可以判断,该词的含义应是“互动的”。

状元典例

    With their shining brown eyes, wagging tails, and unconditional love, dogs can provide the 
nonjudgmental listeners needed for a beginning reader to gain confidence.   

    答案:unconditional: 无条件的,绝对的

          nonjudgmental: 没有判断力的

    (2)利用定义或释义:

    定义解释的形式多种多样,有定语从句、同位语、并列句、英语释义法,有时用                                  that 
is (to say), similarly, namely, means,in other words 等引出来,标点符号有:“——”等,
以补充说明。

【例文】

    It will be very hard but also very brittle — that is, it will break easily.  脆的

    The herdsman , who looks after sheep, earns about 650 yuan a year. 牧羊人

    They are vertebrates, that is, animals that have back bones. 脊椎动物

状元典例 

    …Yet, shopkeepers may have to spend extra hours to deal with problems, such as 
    shoplifters, who always take away things from the shop without paying for them. …

    What does the word “shoplifter” mean? 

    A. 商店里的小偷           B.商店里的推销员
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    C. 商店里的老客户         D.商店里的搬运工

    答案:A

    思路分析:根据划线词后面的定语从句看出他是一个不付钱就从商店里拿走东西的人,
可知应该指“小偷”,故选          A。

    (3)利用同义或反义等

    同义词替换的表达方法可以为我们推测词义提供明显的语境线索。一些常见的引出同
义词的标志性词语有         or, like, similar 等。

    反义词利用文章中所出现的、与某生词或词组意思相反的内容,猜测词义,常用的引
出反义词的标志词有         instead, but, not 等。

【例文】

    Mother was tall, fat and middle-aged. My aunt was an old woman, almost as plump as 
mother, and much shorter. 丰满的

    Because this chemical liquid is highly volatile, we must keep it in a bottle which has a tight 
lid. 易挥发的

    The new tax law supersedes, or replaces, the law that was in effect last year.  替换

状元典例    1 

    American businessmen expect employees to be punctual. They do not expect that the 
workers will come late.

    Q: What’s the meaning of the underlined word “punctual” in the passage?

    答案:准时,不迟到

    思路分析:从后一句中          They do not expect that the workers will come late.,看出文中 be 
punctual 的意思,可理解为“not come late”。

状元典例    2 

    Number ,such as 1,2,3,4,10,200,3000 are called whole number, or integers. 

    答案:整数

    思路分析:句中的        integers 为生词,但可通过文中的         whole number 知道 integers 的意
义为“整数”。

    (4)利用因果关系

    常用的关联词有:because,as,since,for,so,thus,as a result, so … that, such … 
that,therefore 等。
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【例文】

    The river is so turbid that it is impossible to see the bottom even when it is shallow. 浑浊
的

    Since I could not afford to purchase the original painting, I bought a replica. An 
inexperienced eye could not tell the difference. 假的

    She wanted the hairdresser to trim her hair a bit because it was too long. 修剪

状元典例    1 

    All his attempts to unlock the door was futile, because she was using the wrong key.

    答案:徒劳的

    思路分析:从后句中知道“用错了钥匙当然无法把门打开”。

状元典例    2 

    She did not hear what you said because she was completely engrossed in her reading.

    答案:全神贯注

    思路分析:从主句中知道“她没有听到你在说什么”,所以应是“全神贯注地在读书”。

    (5)利用对比关系

    表示对比和转折关系的词汇主要有               but, yet, however, while, though,unlike, instead,on 
the other hand, on the contrary, in contrast with 等,标点符号分号(;)有时也可表示对比。
 

【例文】

    Though Tom’s face has been washed quite clean, his neck still remains grubby. 脏的

    John usually wastes a lot of money on such useless things, his wife, however, is very 
abstemious.  节约的

    Some human actions are learned, but quite a few other actions are innate. 天生的

状元典例 

    Although the early morning had been very cool, the noonday sun was tropical. 

    答案:热的

    思路分析:从      although 后面的从句中看出早晨时是          cool,中午就应该是热的。

    (6)利用同位语解释

【例文】
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    We can feel acceleration, an increase in speed. 快速的

    We are on the night shift ——from midnight to 8 a.m.——this week. 夜班

状元典例 

    Alexander Graham Bell was born in 1874 in Edinburgh, Scotland. His father was an expert in 
phonetics,  the study of the sounds of language.

    答案:语音学

    思路分析:逗号后面的          the study of the sounds of language 是 phonetics 的同位语,用来
解释说明    phonetics 的意思。

    (7)利用上下文提供的信息

【例文】

    The weather in Hawaii is always mild. It is pleasant and warm. There is usually a light wind 
to cool the air. 温和的

    Apple trees may grow as tall as twelve metres. They do best in areas that have very cold 
winters. Although no fruit is yielded during the winter, this cold period is good for the tree. 生
长

    This kind of flower thrives in this area because the weather is warm, the soil is excellent 
and there is a lot of rain. 长得好

状元典例

    (江西卷)Instantly,we were busily preparing for the worst. The whole family had 
experienced such a storm before and everyone remembered the damage it had caused to stock 
and crops.There was very little we could do about the crops. But we needed to protect the 
animals in case the river flooded again.My older brother called his sheep-dog and began driving 
our small flock of sheep to higher ground above river.If the river flooded,they should be safe 
there.

    The underlined word "stock" in the paragraph refers to_________.

    A. money owned by the family      B. goods for sale

    C. supplies for family use           D. farm animals  

    答案:D

    思路分析:本文讲述作者一家经历的一场持续了四个小时的风暴。在风暴中一家人齐
心协力保护财产,最后他们家的牲畜,房子没有受到太大的损失。根据后面的句意:我们
不能保护庄稼了,但我们要保护牲畜,以防河水再泛滥,所以这里                            stock 的意思是   farm 
animals。
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    (8)利用经验常识猜测词义

    通过逻辑推理,有时自身的生活经验及普通常识能帮助我们确定词义。

【例文】

    When you throw a stone into still water of a lake, you will watch a ripple spread in rings on 
the surface of water. 波纹

    Most of the roses are beginning to wither because of the cold. 枯萎

    When a doctor performs an operation on a patient, he usually gives an anaesthetic to make 
him unconscious, because he does not want his patient to feel pain or to know what is 
happening to him. 麻药

状元典例

    Norah has a cottage on a cliff above a big bay. In winter it could be very dirty because of 
strong wi nds and sea spray. 

    In this paragraph the underlined word “spray” probably means ______.

    A. wastes produced by some birds and living near the sea.

    B. great waves caused by strong wind

    C. plants floating on the surface of the sea

    D. very small drops of sea water sent through the air by some thing

    答案:D

    思路分析:主人公住在海边,根据常识我们可以知道,可以把房子弄脏的只能是海风
及刮来的水珠,故选         D。


二、难点聚焦

    在解主旨大意题时,要注意:

  1. 认真阅读文章的第一段或每段的第一个句子。

  2. 文章的主题作者往往有意识地反复论述。抓住反复出现的中心词,即高频词,也叫做
主题词。

  3. 文章或段落的主题句常会出现一些标志性的提示词,如:

    On the whole , in short, therefore… 

    I agree with the opinion that…
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    Given all these points above , I would support the idea that… 

    For all the reasons mentioned above ,I would prefer… 

    掌握了找主题句的方法,就可以依据主题句归纳主题。但归纳主题容易出现以下几种
错误:1.   以偏概全:即只抓住了主题的一个侧面就误以为是主题。 

    2. 过于笼统:即归纳的主题太宽泛,与细节脱节或是没有对细节加以充分论证。 

    3. 把观点强加给作者:读者往往根据自己的常识对文章进行判断而忽视了作者的见解。


 [来源:Z。xx。k.Com]

    4. 放大或缩小文章的主题:把文章的主题进行放大或者缩小。


三、状元笔记

    可以这样做阅读理解题:

  1. 先看文后附给的几个考题以及备选答案,以便带着问题阅读。

  2. 第一遍阅读应是快速的,抓住文章话题,找出主旨大意;从所带问题入手,对浅层问
题的答案作出迅速选择。

    注意:1)快速阅读时速度要快,重点放在关键词、主题句上,即使遇到了生词,也不
要停下来。

    2)   快速阅读全文时要注意准确抓住文章的话题,也就是文章的主线,就能较容易地
获取主旨大意、了解细节、猜测词义、明确推断的方向,并能据此层次分明地解读题目。

    3)在快速阅读、跳读时,可用铅笔将关键词、主题句、重点语句划上横线;若是答案
的出处则可用铅笔标上相应的题号。这样,复查时便于检索。

  3. 第二遍为跳读语句,对文章的有关细节事实再进行“扫描”,同时经过分析、综合,对
深层的问题作出判断。

  4. 对于不能立即确定的答案,应仔细分析四个备选项在语意上、语法上的差异,先排除
1~2 个备选项。

  5. 备选项难以区分差异时,应从逻辑上来推理。

                                 状元必练

  1. (  )Too  much TV watching can harm children’s ability to learn and even reduce their 
chances of getting a college degree, new studies suggest in the latest effort to examine the 
effects of television on children. 

    One of the studies looked at nearly 400 northern California third-graders. Those with TVs in 
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their bedrooms scored about eight points lower on math and language arts tests than children 
without bedroom TVs. 

    A second study,looking at nearly 1,000 grownups in New Zealand, found lower education 
levels among 26yearolds who had watched lots of TV during childhood. But the results don’t 
prove that TV is the cause and  don’t rule out that already poorly motivated youngsters (年轻
人)may watch lots of TV. 

    …

    What would be the best title for this text?

    A. Computers or Television

    B. Effects of Television on Children

    C. Studies on TV and College Education

    D. Television and Children’s Learning Habits

    答案:B 

    思路分析:标题归纳题。该文属于主题句在篇首的类型。通读全文可知,文章主要通
过两项研究分析了看电视对儿童所造成的影响。文章第一段的第一句话即是主题句,故选
B。

  2.  July 21st, 2007 was a typical English summer’s day——it rained for 24 hours! As usual, I 
rushed home from work at midday to check on the house. Nothing was amiss. By the time I left 
work at 5 pm, however, the road into our village was flooded. Our house had never been flooded 
but, as I opened the front door, a wave of water greeted me.

    ……

    We moved back home in August. With December coming, there’s still reconstruction work 
to be done, so it’s difficult to prepare for Christmas. But I can’t wait——I’m going to throw a 
party for our friends in the village to say thanks for their support. This year I won’t need any 
gifts——living away from home for months has made me realize how little we actually need or 
miss all our possessions. Although we are replacing things, there is really no rush——we have 
our home back, and that’s the main thing.

    What does the underlined word “amiss” in the first paragraph mean?

    A. Wrong.      B. Missing.        C. Right.      D. Found

    答案:A

    思路分析:从文中“As        usual, I rushed home from work at midday to check on the 
house.”可知作者还是像往常那样赶回家,因此没有什么不正常,故选                         A。
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    What does the author mainly want to express by telling her story?

    A. She valued human feelings more than before.

    B. She realized she almost didn’t need possessions.

    C. She found Christmas gifts no longer badly needed.

    D. She thought her own home was the most important.

    答案:A

    思路分析:本文讲述洪水给生活带来了困难,但在灾难面前,也能获得更多的人生认
识。从最后一段对将要来临的圣诞节的准备“…there                  is really no rush——we have our home 
back, and that’s the main thing.”可知作者通过这次洪水认识到了她比以前更加珍惜人们之间
的情感,故选      A。

  3.  When I first got an email account ten years ago, I received communications only from 
family, friends, and colleagues. Now it seems that every time I check my email, I have an endless 
series of advertisements and other correspondence that do not interest me at all. If we want e-
mail to continue to be useful, we need specific laws that make spamming(发送垃圾邮件) a 
crime. 

    What does the underlined word “correspondence” in the paragraph probably mean? 

    A. Messages.      B. Ideas.     C. Connections.   D. Programs.

    答案:A

    思路分析:词义猜测题。本题是根据前后逻辑推理猜测词义。根据本文中的                                email 一
词以及   endless series of advertisements 可以推断出 correspondence 在此处的意思是:信件,
垃圾邮件,由此可知本题选            A。

  4.  When  things are getting hard , a voice inside my head tells me that I can’t achieve 
something. Then, there are other distractions, such as family or hobbies. The key is to 
concentrate. When I feel tense, it helps a lot to repeat words such as “calm”, “peace” or “focus”, 
either out loud or silently in my mind. It makes me feel more in control and increase my 
confidence. This is a habit that can become second nature quite easily and is a powerful 
psychological.

What does the underlined word “distractions” probably refer to?

    A. Ways that help one to focus.        

    B. Words that help one to feel less tense.

    C. Activities that turn one’s attention away.  

    D. Habits that make it hard for one to relax. 
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    答案:C

    思路分析:从下文“the key is to concentrate.”可以推知      distractions 是指分散作家注意力
的活动。
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