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2018-2019学年高中英语外研版 必修三 Module 4 Sandstorms in Asia -Grammar

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Module 4 Sandstorms in Asia 
   Period Three Grammar
     To do that sort of thing is foolish.   主语

     I want to see you this evening.  宾语
动词不定式
     All you have to do is to finish it quickly. 表语

     We found a house to live in.  定语

     She came here to study English.   状语

     I warned the patient not to drink cold 
     water after the operation.  宾补
不定式的用法

不定式的句法功能
1. 作主语: 往往放在谓语动词之后, 用it作形式主语 
     e.g.:
     To see is to believe. 
     It is right to give up smoking. 
作主语

  1.当今掌握一门外语真的很重要。
    To master a foreign language is really important 
    nowadays.

  2. 放弃吸烟是对的。
    To give up smoking is right.
 _____ with him is a great pleasure. 
 A. To talk                B.  Talk 
 C. Talked                 D. To talking 

本题考察动词不定式做主语的情况, 动词不定式做主
语, 谓语动词用单数形式, 其他三项都不能用来做主语
。本句的意思是: 跟他聊天是件很快乐的事。
2. 作宾语: 作宾语时如果还带有宾语补 足语, 往往把
  不定式放在补足语之后,而用it 作形式宾语。
     e.g.:
     He wanted to go. 
     I find it interesting to study English. 
作宾语


 1. Fred 没有钱,所以他决定找一份工作。
  Fred didn’t have any money, so he decided to look for a 
  job.

 2. 他答应不告述任何人这事。
  He promised not to tell anyone about it.
I didn’t  ________ it until you had explained how. 
A. manage to do            
B. managed to do 
C. manage to have done    
D. manage doing 

本句的意思是:直到你解释了如何去做我才能做到成
功。manage 后面用to do 形式作宾语。
3. 做宾语补足语
e.g.:
He asked me to do the work with him. 
在feel, hear, listen to, look at, notice, observe, see, 
watch, have, let, make等词后的补足语中, 不定式不带 
   to。 
作宾补


  1. 她叫我呆在这儿。

  She asked me to stay here.

  2.请允许我介绍Mr. White给你们。

   Please allow me to introduce Mr. White to you.
The government calls on us _______ our production. 
A. Increased              B. increasing  
C. Increase                D. to increase 

本句意思是: 政府号召我们增加生产。本题考察动词不
定式做宾语补足语, 通常用语及物动词和一些动词短语
之后。如: want sb. to do, wish sb. to do, ask sb. to do. 
。
 注意

有些动词后面的不定式不带to,如feel(一感)
hear, listen to(二听)make, have, let(三让) see, 
watch, notice, observe(四看)。

I heard  them sing a pop song.
The teacher made me  answer the question.
We watched them play football.
不定式作宾语补足语省略to 的情况有下列口诀:一
感二听三让五看半帮助。但是这些句子如果变成被
动结构时, 就必须带上to。  
e.g.:
I often hear him sing the song. 
He is often heard to sing the song. 
4. 作定语
I have some books for you to read. 
当作定语的不定式如果是不及物动词,或者不定式
所修饰的名词或代词是不定式动作的地点, 工具等时, 
不定式后面必须有相应的介词。 
作定语


   1. 你有什么要说的吗?
   Do you have anything to say?
   2. Betty是第一个知道这真相的人。
   Betty was the first to know the truth.
e.g.:
He is looking for a room to live in. 
当作定语的不定式所修饰的名词或代词是不定式动
作的承受者时, 不定式即可以用主动语态, 也可以用
被动语态。但含义有所不同。
试比较:
Have you anything to send? 
你有什么东西要(自己)寄吗?
Have you anything to be sent?
你有什么东西要(我或别人)寄吗?
At last, they found a house _________. 
A. to leave his things with  
B. to leave his things in 
C. leaving his things in   
D. leaving his things 

本句的意思是:最后他们终于找到了一间可以存放东
西的屋子。当动词不定式所修饰的名词或代词是不定
式的地点,工具等时,不定式后面应有必要的介词。
5. 作状语, 表示目的, 原因, 结果或条件。
     e.g.:
     I came here to see you. 目的 
     We were very excited to find nobody there. 原因
     He hurried to the school to find nobody there. 结果
     To look at him, you would like him.条件
作状语

 He spoke loudly (so as / in order) to be heard.
             目的状语
 They jumped with joy to hear the news.
             原因状语
 I’m too tired to walk any further tonight.

             结果状语
6. 作表语
e.g.: My job is to help the patient. 
注意:
主, 表都是不定式, 前者为条件, 后者为目的或结果
  。
To learn a language is to use it. 
作表语


    1.  我的工作是教英语。

    My job is to teach English.

    2. 眼见为实。

    To see is to believe.
My chief purpose is _______ the difficulties of the 
matter.
A. pointing out              B. to be pointed 
C. pointed                      D. to point out 

本句的意思是: 我的主要目的是指出问题的难处。考
查动词不定式做表语的情况。point out 是“指出”的意
思。  
注意


 A. 动词不定式的否定式只须在to 前加  not。

 My father decided not to take up the job.

 The teacher  told us not to be late again.
注意


B. 带疑问词的动词不定式在to 前加疑问词。

Mr. Lin will teach us how to use the computer.

Can you tell me where to get the book?
注意

C. 作简短回答或避免不必要的重复时,动词不定
式常常省去to 后面的动词,只保留to 。

 A:Would you like to come to my party?

 B: Yes, I’d love to ( come to your party).

Mary想用我的自行车,但我叫她别用。

Mary wanted to use my bike, but I asked her 
not to ( use my bike).
Let’s try some more exercises.

  1. There are five pairs ____, but I’m at a loss 
    which to buy. 
       A. to be chosen     
    B. to choose from 
       C. to choose           
       D. for choosing 
2. I’ve worked with children before, so I know what 
  ____ in my new job. 
    A. expected               
    B. to expect 
    C. to be expecting     
    D. expects 
3. ___ late in the afternoon. Bob turned off the alarm. 
     A. To sleep      
     B. Sleeping 
     C. Sleep          
     D. Having sleep 
4. With a lot of problems ____, the newly-elected 
  president is having a hard time. 
    A. settled              
    B. settling 
    C. to settle            
    D. being settled 
5. Her wish is ______ a doctor.                                               
  A. becoming       
    B. become  
    C. to become  
    D. being come 
形式                      时间概念               语态

   to do /do 与谓语动词同时发生或发生在谓语动              主动
             词之后

to be doing  与谓语动词同时发生,动作在进行               主动

to have done 发生在谓语动词之前                     主动

to be done   与谓语动词同时发生或发生在谓语动              被动
             词之后,与逻辑主语呈动宾关系。

to have been 发生在谓语动词之前,与逻辑主语呈              被动
done         动宾关系。
不定式的时态和语态

1. 不定式的一般形式所表示的动作通常与谓语的动
  作(状态)同时(或几乎同时)发生, 或是在它之后发生
  。
   e.g.:
   I saw him go out. (同时)
   I plan to attend the meeting. (之后) 
2. 如果谓语表示的动作发生时, 不定式表示的动作正在
  进行, 这时要用进行时。
    e.g.:
   I am very glad to be working with you.
   They seem to be talking about something important. (
  不定式的动作与谓语动词的动作总是同时发生的)
3. 如果不定式的动作发生在谓语动词之前, 就要用完成时
  。
   e.g.:
  I’m sorry to have kept you waiting so long. 
  He seems to have seen the film.
  (不定式的动作在前)
4. 当不定式逻辑上的主语是这个不定式所表示的动作
  的承受者时, 不定式一般要用被动形式。
    e.g.:
    He asked to be sent to work in the countryside. 
    This book was said to have been translated into 
  many languages.
Have a try

1. Tom ____ when they spoke ill of him.                                                 
   A. happened to be passed                                                         
   B. happened to be passing by                                                                     
   C. happened passing by                                                                 
   D. happened to passed 
2. All the rooms in the house require ______.                           
    A. being cleaned   
    B.  to clean                                                         
    C. cleaning            
    D. cleaned 
3. The news reporters hurried to the airport, only 
  ___the film stars had left.                                                                                             
  A. to tell   
    B. to be told  
    C. telling  
    D. told 
but+不定式的用法

 1. 不定式在介词 but, except, besides, other than 后
  面时, 如果这些介词之前有行为动词do (非助动词
  )的各种形式时, 那么这些介词后面的不定式不带
  to,否则带to。
e.g.:
She could do nothing but cry. 
There was nothing for me to do other than(but) wait 
until the meeting was over. What do you like to do 
besides swim?
I have no choice but to wait. 
I had nothing to do but watch TV. 
(无事可做只有做……)
2. 当句子的谓语动词是can’t, can’t help, can’t choose 
  等结构时, but, except, besides后的不定式to 也省略
  。 can’t help but do…(不得不干……;不可能不干
  某事)
    can’t but do…(禁不住,情不自禁……)
    We can’t but admire his bravery. 
    We can’t choose but wait.
    She is such a lovely girl that I can’t help but love 
  her.
注意: 
but 作 “除了……以外” 解时, 若前面部分有do, 
did, done时, but 之后接do sth. 反之, 后接to do sth. 
He can do nothing but wait. 
He wanted nothing but to play in the park. 
Let’s try some exercises
1. Sandy could do nothing but _____ to his teacher 
   that he was wrong. 
     A. admit      
     B. admitted 
     C. admitting  
     D. to admit 
2.  --- How did you spend your weekend, 
          Jone?                                    
     --- I didn’t find anything interesting 
          for me ___ some washing instead of   
          my mother. 
         A. but did               B. but do  
         C. but doing           D. but to do 
3. The students did nothing except ____ all day 
   long. 
    A. played  
    B. playing  
    C. play  
    D. to play
Some more exercises
Put the verbs in brackets into the correct 
infinitive forms. 
1.  It is frightening ________(walk)to walk  in 
    the road in a sandstorm. I hope I reach   
    home soon. 
2. Experts hope_______to learn  (learn) more 
    about the movement of sandstorms. 
3. I’d like _________to be told  (tell) about the  
    situation before now.
4. The work needs _______________to be completed  
    (complete) by the end of the week.
5. My father was out of the city when the 
    sandstorm came. He was very glad 
    _____________(miss)to have missed  it. 
6. The building has _____________to be finished 
     (finish) by the end of the year. 
7.  To______ see  (see) a real sandstorm was very  
    frightening. 
Underline the correct answer. 

1.  I can’t help /but hope that they 
    will succeed. 
2. I can’t help but think/ to think that it 
    was a mistake. 
3. I can’t chose /choose but do it. 
4. He does nothing but complaining/complain. 
5. I can’t help but to love /love her. 
6. The workers do nothing but drinking/to drink 
  tea and talk to each other. 
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