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2018-2019 高考英语短文改错专项练习之名词

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高中英语审核员

中国现代教育网
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                       高考短文改错专项练习之名字

                                   教学内容


                                      名词

重点诠释

    名词是英语中最常用词性之一,因此在历年高考试题中屡见不鲜,其中考查热点集中在特
定语境下名词词义辨析、含名词短语的习惯搭配、可数名词与不可数名词的区分、名词所有格
以及相关冠词的用法、主谓一致等。要在短文改错中准确辨别名词方面的错误,首先应对名词
中容易出现错误的知识点掌握清楚。

     重点一:      特定语境下要求运用名词复数形式 

    英语中名词分为可数名词和不可数名词,可数名词又分为单数可数名词和复数可数名词。
那么名词要求用复数形式常见于以下几种情况:

    1.名词前有     two, ten, several, many 等表复数意义的限定词。

  【典例   1】But one and a half year later I now think English is fun to learn.

    解析:year→years。本题考查名词前限定词对名词单复数的限制。one                        and a half 表示“一个
半”,是复数概念,因此后边的名词应用复数形式。one                      and a half years 相当于 one year and a 
half。

    2.名词用复数形式表示类属,即“一类人”或“一类物”。

  【典例   2】All over the world men and woman, boys and girls enjoy sports.
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    解析:woman→women。本题考查平行结构中名词单复数的确定。本句中,men                                    and 
woman 和  boys and girls 构成两对对称的短语,意思遥相呼应,“男女老少”,那么形式也要一致,
因此都用复数形式。同时注意以下常见名词变为复数时的不规则变化:

    单、复数同形类:means, deer, fish, Chinese, Japanese, sheep, works, cattle 等;

    改变元音字母类:man—men,          woman—women,   foot—feet, tooth—teeth, goose—geese, ox—
oxen 等;

   完全不规则类:child—children, mouse-mice     等。

    3.某些名词,只用复数形式,如              glasses 眼镜,clothes 衣服,goods    货物,trousers  裤子,
belongings 所有物,wages 工资,riches  财富, surroundings 环境,ashes  灰尘, congratulations 祝贺,
have words with sb. 同某人吵架,in high spirits 以很高热情地,give one’s regards to sb.向某人问
侯,in rags 衣衫破烂    good manners 有礼貌。

  【典例   3】We offered our congratulation on his winning a gold medal at the 10th National Games.

    解析:congratulation 用于口头上祝贺某人时,常用复数形式,因此应把                      congratulation 改为
congratulations。

    4.在特定语境下,只能用复数形式才能照应句子内在逻辑。

  【典例4】Sometimes, we talked to each other very well in class, but after class we become stranger 
at once.

    解析:stranger→strangers。本题考查特定语境下名词复数的判定,难度较大。stranger                      是单
数可数名词,“陌生人”,结合语境,“有时我们课堂上愉快交谈,但课后立即变成陌生人了。”
这里指我和我的同学们,复数概念。

     重点二:不可数名词误用

    不可数名词误用主要有以下几种情况:

    1.英语中不可数名词一般没有复数形式,不能直接与数词连用,前边也不能用                                  a, an 等不
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定冠词。

  【典例   5】Without enough knowledges, you can never learn well.

    解析:knowledges→knowledge。本题考查不可数名词表示泛指的用法。该句表示“没有足
够的知识,你永远学不好。”这里              knowledge 泛指各种知识,属于常规用法。

    2.一般说来抽象名词、物质名词为不可数名词,但当它们表示具体的东西时,可用作可
数名词且词义发生变化,主要类型如下:

    ⑴抽象名词表示具有某种特性、状态、感情情绪的人或事。如:           

               抽象名词(不可数)                 具体化(个体名词,可数名词)

               in surprise 惊讶地           a surprise 一件令人惊讶的事

               win success 获得成功          a success 一个(件)成功的人(事)

               win honor 赢得荣誉            an honor 一件引以为荣的事

               by experience 靠经验         an experience 一次经历

               youth 青春                  a youth 一个青年人

               with pleasure 乐意          a pleasure 乐事

               have pity on sb.怜悯某人      a pity 可惜的事情

    ⑵抽象名词与      a(an)连用,淡化了抽象概念,转化为似乎可以体验到的动作、行为或类别。
如:

    A knowledge of English is a must in international trade.

    英语知识在国际贸易中是必须的。

    Would you like to have a walk with me?

    你愿意和我一起散步吗?
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    It is a waste of time reading such a novel.

    阅读这样的小说真是浪费时间。

    She made an apology to her mother for her wrong doings.

    因为自己的错误行为她向母亲道了歉。

    ⑶物质名词也是不可数名词,但表示数量或种类之多时,可以用作可数名词。如:

    some coffee 一些咖啡,a coffee  一杯咖啡,three coffees   三杯咖啡

    some drink 一些饮料, a drink 一杯饮料,three drinks  三杯饮料

    his hair 他的头发,a few grey hairs 几根白发

    glass 玻璃,a glass 一只玻璃杯

  【典例   6】Oh, John. What pleasant surprise you gave us!

    解析:pleasant  前加  a。本题考查抽象名词具体化的用法。surprise               作“惊讶”讲,是不可数
名词,但这里指具体的“惊讶的事情”,转化为可数名词,所以前边应用不定冠词                                  a。

    3.不可数名词的修饰语与可数名词的修饰语应严格区分。

         类别                 单词或短语

         只修饰不可数名词           much, little, a little, a great deal of…

         只修饰可数名词            many, few, a few, a number of, a good many…

         既修饰可数名词又           some, a lot of, plenty of, a large quantity of, large 
         修饰不可数名词            quantities of, masses of…

  【典例   7】There’s so many traffic on the roads that driving is not a pleasure.

    解析:many→much。本题考查不可数名词的修饰语。traffic                  表示“交通流量”,是不可数名
词,应用    much 修饰。many    修饰可数名词复数形式。
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     重点三:名词作定语及名词所有格的用法

    1.名词作定语一般用单数,但             goods, clothes, sales, sports 等单词例外;boy, girl 作定语只
用单数,而     man, woman 作定语随中心词单复数变化而变化。

  【典例   8】These girls students want to be women doctors when they grow up.

    解析:girls→girl。本题考查名词复数形式及名词作定语。结合前边所讲,这里应用
girl(单数形式)作定语。

    2.在英语中有些名词可以加"s"来表示所有关系,带这种词尾的名词形式称为该名词的所
有格,如:a teacher's book。名词所有格的规则如下:

    ⑴单数名词词尾加's,复数名词词尾没有                s,也要加's。如:

    the boy's bag 男孩的书包,men's room   男厕所 

    ⑵若名词已有复数词尾-s,只加'。如:

    the workers' struggle 工人的斗争 

    ⑶凡不能加"’s"的名词,都可以用"名词+of +名词"的结构来表示所有关系。如:

    the title of the song 歌的名字 

    ⑷在表示店铺或教堂的名字或某人的家时,名词所有格的后面常常不出现它所修饰的名词。
如:

    the barber's 理发店  the doctor’s 医务室

    ⑸如果两个名词并列,并且分别有's,则表示"分别有";只有一个's,则表示“共有”。如:

    John's and Mary's room(两间)John and Mary's room(一间)

  【典例   9】If the company wants to fire me, they have to give me three months notice. 

    解析:months→months’。本题考查名词所有格的用法。three                 months’ notice 指提前三个月
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通知。该句意为:如果公司想解雇我,他们必须提前三个月通知我。

  【典例   10】This is Anne's and Jane's bedroom. The twin sisters like it very much.

    解析:Anne's→Anne。本题考查并列名词所有格的用法。后半句表示两人共有一个房间,
因此只能在后面的名词后加’s。

课堂笔记


【好题调研】

1. Please read the instruction carefully before using the medicine.

2. It's such an important information that we should report it to the headmaster at once.

3. Are they going to have a picnic on Childrens Day?

4. To my surprised, I found we have much in common in our taste.

5. There are five shoes to choose from, but I’m at a loss which to buy.

6. The New York Times are read all over the United States.

7. The police is searching the city for a thief.

8. During my stay in London I visited many places of interests.
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9. We study quite a few subject, such as maths, Chinese, English, and physics.

10. I take a quick at some of the headline on the front page. 

答案与解析:

1.  instruction→instructions。本题是不了解名词的特殊用法而造成的错误。Instruction               作产品的
  “说明”讲时,要用复数形式。

2. 去掉冠词    an。本题属不可数名词的使用错误。information              是不可数名词,前边不能用不定冠
  词修饰。

3. Childrens→Children’s。本题考查复数名词所有格的用法。children              本身是复数名词,其所有
  格应加’s,类似地,Women’s Day, Teachers’ Day, Nurses’ Day    等。

4. surprised→surprise。本题考查含有名词的习惯搭配。my            是形容词性物主代词,后接名词。

5. shoes 前加 pairs of。本题考查一些不可数名词和部分“成双”、“成套”的名词表示数量的用法。
  类似短语,a pair of gloves, a piece of meat, a cup of coffee 等。

6. are→is。本题考查专有名词作主语的用法。英语中表示地点、国家、书籍、报刊杂志等专有
  名词作主语,谓语动词都用单数形式。

7. is→are。本题考查集体名词作主语时主谓一致的用法。family, class, committee, government               等
  集体名词强调成员,谓语用复数形式,强调整体,谓语用单数形式。police, people, cattle                         等名
  词作主语,谓语总是用复数形式。

8. interests→interest。本题考查含有名词的习惯搭配。a           place of interest 意为“名胜点”,复数是
  places of interest。

9. subject→subjects。本题考查特定语境下名词复数的确定。quite               a few 意为“相当多”,修饰复
  数名词。

10. headline→headlines。本题考查特定语境下名词单复数形式的判断。类似                     one of, many of 结
  构,后边的中心名词应用复数形式。
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【强化闯关】

1. We practice three times every week and often watch football match on TV together.

2. Carry your valuable with you, your money, jewelry, camera and so on.

3. The majority of doctors believes smoking is harmful to health.

4. After one year hard work, the Senior Three students have already prepared themselves for the 
entrance examination. 

5. Today I visited the Smiths—my first time visit to an American family.

6. That is where the main difference between animals and human being lies.

7. She said she and my classmate all wished me success.

8. Professor White gave me one of the best piece of advice I’ve ever heard.

9. If you have troubles falling asleep, some people suggest breathing slowly. 

10. I asked several passer-by, but unfortunately none of them knew the difference.

11. Remember that we will not always get so many time for our parent and other family members.

12. I saw your wife and children waiting for me with warm smile of welcome on their faces.

13. I told her not to use the office phone for personal call.

14. Looking back at my childhood experience, I think that three reason might explain the fear.

15.Many new homes have been built in helping you to get round London. 

答案与解析:

1. match→matches。本题是名词复数的使用错误。结合语境,通过电视所看比赛不止一场,复
  数概念。

2.  valuable→valuables。本题是因为不了解词的特殊意义而出错。此处                   valuable 是名词,作“贵
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  重物品”讲,应用复数形式。

3. believes→believe。本题是因为不了解      majority 的用法造成主谓不一致。majority         表示“大多数”
  ,作主语,谓语用复数形式。

4. year→year’s。表示“时间”等名词此作定语时,常用其所有格形式。

5. 去掉  time。本题考查英汉差别造成的语义重复。英语中                    first 本身已经包含“第一次”之意,因
  此后边的    time 是多余的。

6. being→beings。本题是名词数的使用错误。human              being 表示“人类”,是可数名词,此处与
  animals 相对应,应用其复数形式。本句中              the main difference 作主语,单数形式。

7.        classmate→classmates。本题考查根据语境用复数的判断能力。结合常识一个学生的
  classmate 不止一个吧,其次,后边用          all 表示“都祝福我成功”也说明          classmates 应用复数形式。


8. piece→pieces。本题考查语境中必须用复数形式的场合。one                  of…结构中心名词须用复数形式
  来表示“……之一”。

9. troubles→trouble。本题考查常用句型中名词的用法。have trouble/difficulty in doing        是常用句
  型,其中    trouble/difficulty 都是不可数名词。

10.   passer-by→passers-by。本题考查根据语境用复数的判断能力以及复合名词复数的构成。
  several 暗示后边用复数形式;passer-by       属于复合名词,这类词往往加在中心名词上,再如,
  brothers-in-law, standers-by, grown-ups。

11. many→much。本题考查不可数名词的修饰语。many,                a good many, a great number of 等都表
  示“许多”概念,但只能修饰可数名词复数形式。

12. smile→smiles。本题考查根据语境用复数的判断能力。不止一个人的笑脸,因此应用复数形
  式。

13. call→calls。本题为名词数的误用。call        为可数名词,在此语境中须用复数;如用单数须加不
  定冠词   a。
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14. reason→reasons。本题为名词数的误用。three        后接复数名词。

15.homes→houses。  home 表示“有人类活动的家庭”,而            house 单纯指“供人居住的房子”。

课堂小结:


实战演练

Dear Ralph, 

I'm a newcomer here of a small town. I would describe myself as shy and quietly. Before my 
classmates,it seems always difficult for me to do things well as them. I'm sure they will laugh to me 
and see me as a fool. So I feel unhappy every day. Besides, I have few friends. I don't know that they 
don't like to talk with me. Sometimes, we talked to each other very well in class, but after class we 
become stranger at once. I am trying to improve the situation since it doesn't seem to work. Can you 
tell me about what I should do?

                                                     Yours
                                                              Xiao Wei

Lesson 1 

1. of 改为 from  2. quietly 改为 quiet   3. well 前面加 as

4. to 改为 at   5. 对  6. that 改为 why

7. talked 改为 talk   8. stranger 改为 strangers

9. since 改为 but   10. 去掉 a
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                  Lesson 2  

I often dream of a teacher. I dream of standing on the  platform in the classroom and give lessons to 
lovely boys  and girls. I teach them, play with them, but watch them  growing up. I am always young 
when I was staying with them. I know there is not easy to be a teacher. You have to learn in order 

to teach. Without enough knowledges, you could never learn well. What is more, you have to be 
friends with your  pupils and take good care of him. Only in this way can you be a good teacher and 
win respect from them. Though I am a student now, I will work as very hard to make my dream come 
true.  

Lesson 2

1. of being becoming   2. give 改为 giving    3. but 改为 and 4. was 改为 am  5. there 改为 it

6. knowledges 改为 knowledge  7. learn 改为 teach  8. him 改为 them  9. 正确   10. 去掉 as

课堂小结:


Homework

Though great progress has been made in science these years, there are still many people living in poor 

conditions. They make their lives by collecting and selling used thing. Their children cannot go to 

School because they don’t have enough money to send their children to there.

Why you think so many people still suffer from poverty now? The answer lies on the population explos
ion. A president of a developing country once said: “It is us who are to blame for the poverty because 
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we used to ‘produce’ child without limit.”Although this few words sound simple enough, they have  
clear pointed out one of the causes of poverty is the population explosion.

1. 正确   2. lives 改为 living   3. thing 改为 things

4. 去掉  children 后面的 to   5. why 后面加  do

6. on 改为 in   7. us 改为 we   8. child 改为 children   9. this 改为 these

10. clear 改为 clearly

第二节    完形填空(共       20 小题;每小题       1.5 分,共   30 分)

     阅读下面短文,        掌握其大意,从每题所给的             A、B、C、D     四个选项中,选出最佳选项,
并在答题卡上讲该项          涂黑。

                                  A Welcome Gift

        Dario and his mother loved their new apartment. The living room was large enough for their 
piano. That night, the two of them    36   side by side at the piano. They played jazz music to 
celebrate their new home. The loud     37    filled the room and made them feel very happy.

      The next morning,    38    , their happiness disappeared. Someone had left a    39    
under their door during the night. One of their neighbor had written to complain(抱怨) about the sound 
of the piano. Dario’s mother asked the building superintendent(管理员) if he knew anything about it. 
But he said that they were all    40    people and he couldn’t imagine any of them had done that. 
Later that morning, Dario suggested that they write a letter to their     41    and apologize for their 
playing.

      “Maybe we could go and    42    everyone in person.” his mother said.

     “What if we invited them to come here for a    43    instead? Dario asked.

     They both loved the    44   . Over the next few days, they sent out invitations and prepared 
desserts    45     their guests. They decorated the apartment with streamers(彩带) and party lights.

     Finally, the day of the party   46   . Some guests brought presents. Others brought flowers. 
Some even brought desserts to    47   . One woman, Mrs. Gilbert,    48    Dario’s mother with 
a book of piano music by Chopin.

     “I heard you playing the other night,” she said. “The sounds woke me out of bed. I ___49___    
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that you might play like this every night. So I wrote a short note. I hope you don’t think I disliked the 
playing.”

      Dario’s mother smiled at Mrs. Gilbert. “I think maybe we    50    you an apology.” she 
said. “I didn’t    51    how late it was when we were playing. Maybe we should play some quieter 
music at night.

      “You play, you play!” Mrs. Gilbert said. “I like what you play! Just not so loud at night.” She 
pointed to the book she had given them. “These songs are not such    52    music.”

      “These songs are beautiful music.” Dario’s mother said. “We will be    53    to play them 
in the evening.”

      “And we won’t play so loud or late!” Dario said. He was already looking forward to ___54___   
the new music. More than that, however, he was happy to see the big smile on his mother’s face. It 
gave him a feeling of    55    and made him feel that they were home at last.

 36.  A. sat            B. stood         C. lay            D. walked

 37.  A. voice          B. ring          C. music          D. cry

 38.  A. therefore      B. however       C. otherwise      D. instead

 39.  A. note           B. poster        C. bill           D. report

 40.  A. proud          B. rich          C. lucky          D. nice

 41.  A. neighbors      B. friends       C. relatives      D. audience

 42.  A. blame          B. instruct      C. question       D. visit

 43.  A. party          B. concert       C. show           D. play

 44.  A. experience     B. idea          C. performance    D. action

 45.  A. to             B. with          C. for            D. from

 46.  A. continued      B. arrived       C. passed         D. finished

 47.  A. order          B. sell          C. share          D. advertise

 48.  A. treated        B. presented     C. helped         D. served
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 49.  A. promised       B. admitted      C. agreed         D. worried

 50.  A. give           B. send          C. offer          D. owe   

 51.  A. realize        B. remember      C. understand     D. accept

 52.  A. sweet          B. strange       C. funny          D. loud

 53.  A. brave          B. sorry         C. happy          D. afraid

 54.  A. changing       B. practicing    C. recording      D. writing

 55.  A. equality       B. freedom       C. warmth         D. sympathy

36-40 ACBAD           41-45 ADABC              46-50 BCBDD           51-55 ADCBC  

第二节(共      5 小题;每小题       2  分。共    10 分)    根据短文内容,从短文后的七个选项中选出
正确的填入空白处。选项中有两项为多余选项。

                               This Way to Dreamland

       Daydreaming means people think about something pleasant, especially when this makes them 
forget what they should be doing. Daydreamers have a bad reputation for being unaware of what’s 
happening around them. They can seem forgetful and clumsy.    71   They annoy us because they 
seem to be ignoring us and missing the important things.

       But daydreamers are also responsible for some of the greatest ideas and achievements in 
human history.    72    Can you imagine what kind of world we would have without such ideas and 
inventions?

      So how  can you come up with brilliant daydreams and avoid falling over tree roots or 
otherwise looking like a fool?

      First, understand that some opportunities(机会) for daydreaming are better than others. Feeling 
safe and relaxed will help you to slip into daydreams.    73    And if you want to improve your 
chances of having a creative idea while you’re daydreaming, try to do it while you are involved in 
another task—preferably something simple, like taking a shower or walking, or even making 
meaningless drawings.

      It’s also important to know how to avoid daydreams for those times when you really need to 
concentrate. “Mindfulness”, being focused, is a tool that some people use to avoid falling asleep. 
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___74___

      Finally, you never know what wonderful idea might strike while your mind has moved slowly 
away.    75   

      Always remember that your best ideas might come when your head is actually in the clouds.

   A. Having interesting things to think about also helps.

   B. They stare off into space and wander by themselves.

   C. Without wandering minds, we wouldn’t have relatively, Coke or Post-it notes.

   D. At one time, daydreaming was thought to be a cause of some mental illnesses.

   E. It involves slow, steady breathing for self-control that helps people stay calm and attentive.

   F. Daydreams are often very simple and direct, quite unlike sleep dreams, which may be hard to 
understand.

   G. Therefore, it’s a good idea to keep a notebook or voice recorder nearby when you’re  in the 
daydream zone.

 71-75 BCAEG  
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