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2019高考英语一轮复习练习题新人教版必修5 Unit3Lifeinthefuture含解析

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高中英语审核员

中国现代教育网
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                           Life in the future
                                    李仕才
一、阅读理解
阅读下面短文,从每题所给的             A、B、C  和  D 四个选项中,选出最佳选项。

    Plastic-Eating Worms

    Humans produce more than 300 million tons of plastic every year. Almost 

half of that winds up in landfills(垃圾填埋场), and up to 12 million tons 

pollute the oceans. So far there is no effective way to get rid of it, but a 

new study suggests an answer may lie in the stomachs of some hungry worms. 

    Researchers in Spain and England recently found that the worms of the 

greater wax moth can break down polyethylene, which accounts for 40% of 

plastics. The team left 100 wax worms on a commercial polyethylene shopping bag 

for 12 hours, and the worms consumed and broke down about 92 milligrams, or 

almost 3% of it. To confirm that the worms’ chewing alone was not responsible 

for the polyethylene breakdown, the researchers made some worms into paste(糊状

物) and applied it to plastic films. 14 hours later the films had lost 13% of 

their mass — apparently broken down by enzymes (酶) from the worms’ stomachs. 

Their findings were published in Current Biology in 2017. 

    Federica Bertocchini, co-author of the study, says the worms’ ability to 

break down their everyday food — beeswax — also allows them to break down 

plastic. "Wax is a complex mixture, but the basic bond in polyethylene, the 

carbon-carbon bond, is there as well, "she explains, "The wax worm evolved a 

method or system to break this bond. "

    Jennifer DeBruyn, a microbiologist at the University of Tennessee, who was 

not involved in the study, says it is not surprising that such worms can break 

down polyethylene. But compared with previous studies, she finds the speed of 

breaking down in this one exciting. The next step, DeBruyn says, will be to 
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identify the cause of the breakdown. Is it an enzyme produced by the worm 

itself or by its gut microbes(肠道微生物)?

    Bertocchini agrees and hopes her team’s findings might one day help employ 

the enzyme to break down plastics in landfills. But she expects using the 

chemical in some kind of industrial process — not simply "millions of worms 

thrown on top of the plastic. "

1. What can we learn about the worms in the study?

  A. They take plastics as their everyday food. 

  B. They are newly evolved creatures. 

  C. They can consume plastics. 

  D. They wind up in landfills. 

2. According to Jennifer DeBruyn, the next step of the study is to            . 

  A. identify other means of the breakdown

  B. find out the source of the enzyme

  C. confirm the research findings

  D. increase the breakdown speed

3. It can be inferred from the last paragraph that the chemical might            . 


  A. help to raise worms

  B. help make plastic bags

  C. be used to clean the oceans
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  D. be produced in factories in future

4. What is the main purpose of the passage?

  A. To explain a study method on worms. 

  B. To introduce the diet of a special worm. 

  C. To present a way to break down plastics. 

  D. To propose new means to keep eco-balance. 

    【文章大意】本文为说明文。文章介绍了一种吃塑料的虫子大蜡螟,它胃中的酶能够

降解塑料,这为解决塑料污染提供了新的途径。

1.C  【解析】细节理解题。根据文章第三段                 Federica Bertocchini, co-author of the 

      study, says the worms’ ability to break down their everyday food — 

      beeswax — also allows them to break down plastic. 可知,研究结果发现,蠕

      虫分解日常食物的能力让它们可以分解塑料,也就是说它们可以消费塑料。故选

      C。


       

3.D  【解析】推理判断题。根据文章最后一段                  But she expects using the chemical in 

      some kind of industrial process — not simply "millions of worms thrown 

      on top of the plastic. "可以推断出,Bertocchini      希望这种化学物质将来能在

      工业生产中使用,而不是仅仅依靠蠕虫来分解塑料。故选                        D。

4.C  【解析】写作意图题。根据文章第一段最后一句                    So far there is no effective 

      way to get rid of it, but a new study suggests an answer may lie in the 
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      stomachs of some hungry worms. 可知,有一种新的方法被用于分解塑料。再根据

      最后一段最后一句        But she expects using the chemical in some kind of 

      industrial process — not simply "millions of worms thrown on top of the 

      plastic. "可知,Bertocchini    希望将这种方法推广到工业中。由此可以推知写作

      意图为介绍一种分解塑料的方法。故选                 C。


二、教材与语法填空
根据教材课文内容,在空白处填入               1 个适当的单词或括号内单词的正确形式。
    I went into  the future because I 1.       (win) a  prize that gave me 2.       
tour. I suffered from “time lag” when I left my own time. Wang Ping gave me 
some green tablets 3.        could help me feel 4.       (little) nervous and 
uncertain. 5.       (he) parents’ company, 6.        (call) “Future Tours”, 
transported me 7.        (safe) into the future in  a time capsule. The first 
thing I noticed was the poor quality of the air, so my head ached. And I found 
several things  8.        (differently): a mask  to give me  enough oxygen; a 
hovering carriage driven by computer; a strange­looking house 9.      (belong) 
to Wang Ping’s parents. There the trees acted as walls and provided oxygen 10.       
the room; a  table, some chairs and a bed rose from under  the floor as if by 
magic.
答案:1.had won 2.a 3.which/that 4.less 5.His
6.called 7.safely 8.different 9.belonging 10.for

三、完形填空
    阅读下面短文,从短文后各题所给的                A、B、C  和 D 四个选项中,选出可能填入空白处
的最佳选项。

    A Letter to My Dad
    Four years ago we found out about the cancer growing inside you.You told me 
the news that it had already spread and that you didn't know how long you had 
__1__.
    I was still at university.A parent dying was something that happened to 
__2__ people—people older than me.I spent the first few months in__3__.For the 
first time I felt__4__.I wished I could just __5__ you and take the cancer 
out.But there was nothing I could do.
    We've been__6__.You reacted well to treatment and you're still here,though 

we don't know for how much __7__.
    I've always wanted to say that I love you,and that I'm__8__ for everything 

you've given me.But I can't.It feels like it is this unwritten__9__ in our 
                  中国现代教育网     www.30edu.com  全国最大教师交流平台

father­son relationship that__10__ it.You're a man conservative and guarded 
with your __11__.You keep them to yourself and __12__ others to do the same.
    But I know you __13__.I've seen your proud looks when I've told you about 
my __14__ at work and school over the years.I've seen your__15__ when things 
haven't gone well.I remember all the offers of help.
    I wish we could talk about what we __16__ to each other.I wish you could 
tell me you're __17__ and I could tell you I love you.I wish these __18__ 
concepts of masculinity(男子气概)weren't so deeply __19__ in both of us.Maybe 
we will still see our way to that __20__ before you go.But whatever the case,I 
just need to say it—I love you,and thank you.
    1.A.waited       B.left
       C.suffered           D.stayed
    2.A.any                B.few
       C.other             D.all
    3.A.doubt              B.anger
       C.vain              D.shock
    4.A.powerless           B.nervous
       C.lost               D.bored
    5.A.reach into           B.turn to
       C.stand by           D.look into
    6.A.confused            B.lucky
       C.active             D.hopeless
    7.A.better               B.deeper
       C.longer             D.further
    8.A.eager               B.grateful
       C.regretful           D.desperate
    9.A.letter               B.word
       C.idea               D.rule
    10.A.prevents            B.changes
        C.destroys           D.transforms
    11.A.illnesses            B.feelings
        C.belongings         D.opinions
    12.A.require             B.expect
        C.allow             D.persuade
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    13.A.lie                 B.understand
        C.care              D.fear
    14.A.achievements        B.difficulties
        C.goals             D.experiences
    15.A.power              B.anger
        C.curiosity          D.concern
    16.A.have               B.give
        C.leave             D.mean
    17.A.conservative         B.brave
        C.proud             D.helpful
    18.A.absurd              B.important
        C.useful             D.popular
    19.A.lost                 B.trapped
        C.rooted             D.covered
    20.A.situation             B.solution
        C.achievement        D.conversation
    【解题导语】你以为你对他的爱很深沉,这是你了解的;你不了解的是,他对你的爱
比你的深沉一万倍。对父母的爱,要怎么才说得出口?别太晚。如果没有勇气当面表达,
就写封信来告诉他。
    1.B 四年前作者发现父亲身患癌症,癌细胞已经扩散,因此,此处指不知道还能活
多久。how long you had left   是“你还剩下多长时间”的意思,left              用作后置定语。故
选  B 项。
    2.C 根据该空后的        people older than me 可判断,作者以为父(母)亲垂死这件事只
会发生在比他年龄更大的人身上。故选                 C 项。
    3.D in doubt  意为“怀疑”;in anger       意为“生气地”;in vain 意为“徒劳无益
地”;in shock   意为“震惊地;吃惊地”。听到父亲患癌这件事,作者当然是长时间地感
到震惊。故选      D 项。
    刷有所得·方法:做完形填空题时,有些题要注意该空前后的介词、副词等。有时需
要分别把选项与前后的介词、副词相搭配,再判断它们搭配后哪个短语的意思更符合上下
文的逻辑。
    4.A 根据下文      But there was nothing I could do.可知,作者什么都做不了,由
此可推测,此处指作者感到无能为力。powerless                意为“无能为力的”;nervous          意为“紧
张不安的;焦虑的”;lost          意为“迷路的;不知所措的”;bored              意为“厌烦的;烦闷的”
。根据语境可知选        A 项。
                  中国现代教育网     www.30edu.com  全国最大教师交流平台

    5.A 根据下文      and take the cancer out 可知,此处指作者希望可以进入父亲的身
体拿走癌细胞。reach into       意为“伸进;伸入”;turn to          意为“转向;求助于”;stand 
by 意为“袖手旁观;支持”;look into           意为“调查”。故选         A 项。
    6.B 根据该空后面的         You reacted well to treatment and you're still here 可
知,作者的父亲对治疗反应很好并且依然还活着,所以作者一家感觉是幸运的(lucky)。故
选  B 项。confused 意为“困惑的;混乱的”;active            意为“积极的”;hopeless        意为
“没有希望的”。
    7.C 父亲的治疗效果很好,“我们”很幸运,虽然不知道父亲还能坚持多久,但是
他还活着。better     意为“更好”;deeper       意为“更深”;longer       意为“更长久”;
further 意为“更远”。故选        C 项。
    8.B 根据设空后的        everything you've given me 可知,作者在此表达对父亲的感激
之情。eager   意为“渴望的;热切的”;grateful            意为“感激的”;regretful        意为“遗
憾的;后悔的”;desperate        意为“绝望的”。故选          B 项。
    9.D 句意为:好像在我们的父子关系上就是这不成文的规则阻止了这句话被说出口。
unwritten rule 意为“不成文的规则”,符合语境。故选                 D 项。
    10.A 根据下文的       You're a man conservative 和 You keep them to yourself 可知,
父亲很保守,所以这一不成文的规则阻止了父爱的表达。prevent                        意为“阻止;防止”;
change 意为“改变”;destroy 意为“破坏;摧毁”;transform                意为“使改观;使转化”
。故选   A 项。
    11.B guarded  意为“谨慎的”,结合下文的             You keep them to yourself 可知,此
处指父亲是一个保守的、对情感(feelings)谨慎的人。conservative and guarded with 
your feelings 作后置定语,修饰前面的          a man。故选   B 项。illness  意为“疾病”;
belongings 意为“所有物”;opinion       意为“观点”。
    12.B 根据前文对父亲的描述            conservative, guarded with your ________可知,
父亲收敛自己的感情,希望别人也这样做。require                  意为“要求”;expect       意为“期望;
盼望”;allow    意为“允许”;persuade       意为“劝说;说服”。故选            B 项。
    13.C 根据下文的       I've seen your proud looks 可知,父亲是很在意儿子的。
lie 意为“撒谎”;understand      意为“理解”;care       意为“在意;在乎”;fear          意为“害
怕”。故选     C 项。
    14.A 根据前面的       your proud looks 可知,父亲自豪的应该是作者取得的成就
(achievements)。故选   A 项。difficulty  意为“困难”;goal       意为“目标”;
experience 意为“经历”。
    15.D 根据设空后的        when things haven't gone well 及 I remember all the 
offers of help.可知,当事情进展不顺利时,父亲会主动提供帮助,因此可知,父亲是关
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心儿子的。power     意为“力量;权力”;anger          意为“愤怒;生气”;curiosity          意为“好
奇心”;concern    意为“担心;忧虑”。故选            D 项。
    16.D 结合下文      I wish you could tell me you're ________ and I could tell 
you I love you.可知,作者希望父亲能够告诉他父亲是如何想的,作者也能告诉父亲作者
爱他。由此可推测,此处指作者希望能够与父亲谈论他们对彼此意味着(mean)什么。故选
D 项。
    17.C 根据上文的       your proud looks 可知,此处指作者希望父亲能够告诉他父亲为
他而自豪。conservative     意为“守旧的;保守的”;brave            意为“勇敢的”;proud 意为
“骄傲的;自豪的”;helpful 意为“有帮助的”。故选                    C 项。
    18.A 根据上一题解析及空后的             masculinity 可知,此处指作者希望这些荒谬的大男
子观念不会在他和父亲的心中根深蒂固。absurd                 意为“荒唐的;可笑的”,符合语境。故
选  A 项。important 意为“重要的”;useful        意为“有用的”;popular        意为“流行的”
。
    19.C 根据语境可知,此处指作者希望这样的大男子观念不要根深蒂固。lost in                              意
为“迷失在……”;trapped in         意为“陷入”;rooted in       意为“植根于;深植于”;
covered in 意为“被……覆盖”故选          C 项。
    20.D 根据上文的       talk about 可知,此处指作者与父亲的谈话(conversation)。故
选  D 项。

四、教材与话题写作
(Ⅰ)用本单元所学知识完成下列句子。
1.随着科技的发展, 我对未来生活持乐观态度。(be optimistic about)
                                    
答案:With    the  development of science and technology, I  am optimistic about 
life in the future.
2.到那时我们生活的环境更舒适、 美丽。 (surroundings)
                                    
答案:By that time, the surroundings where we live will be more comfortable and 
beautiful.
3.太阳能、 风能将会被充分利用, 海水也会转变成能源, 人们再也不用担心缺乏能源。
 (be switched into; lack of energy)
                                    
答案:People    will  not worry  about lack of  energy any  longer because solar 
energy and wind energy will have been  made full use of and sea water will be 
switched into energy as well.
4.我们不但被提供丰富的衣食,                       而且我们可以花费更多的时间周游世界。(not 
only...but also; provide...with)
                                    
答案:We will not     only be provided with enough food and clothing, but we can 
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also spend more time travelling around the world.
5.正是因为工作效率更高了,                我们在工作学习上的压力将会更小。                  (efficiently; 
stress)
                                    
答案:We    will have  less stress either from our study or  work because we can 
work more efficiently.
(Ⅱ)将以上句子连成短文,要求衔接连贯、过渡自然。
                                    
                                    
                                    
                                    

五、下面是李华的一篇作文,文中有五处错误,改正错误并背诵该文。
    As the development of science and technology, I am optimistic about life in 
the  future. By  that  time,  the surroundings  which we  live  will be  more 
comfortable and beautiful. People will not worry about lack energy any longer 
because solar energy and wind energy will  have been made full use of and sea 
water will be switched into energy as well.
    Not only will we be provided with enough food and clothing, but we can also 
spend more time travel around the world. Furthermore, it is because of we can 
work more efficiently that we will  have less stress either from our study or 
work.
答案:
     As
    With the development of science and technology, I am optimistic about life 
                                                 which
in  the future.  By that  time, the  surroundingswhere we live  will  be more 
comfortable and  beautiful. People will  not worry  about lack  ∧  energy any 
                                                                of
longer because solar energy and wind energy will  have been  made full use of 
and sea water will be switched into energy as well.
    Not only will we be provided with enough food and clothing, but we can also 
                 travel
spend more time travelling around the world. Furthermore, it is because of we can 
work more efficiently that we will  have less stress either from our study or 
work.


 


 
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