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18-19 人教版 必修一 Unit 4 Section Ⅳ Language Points(Ⅱ)

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Section Ⅳ Language Points(Ⅱ) (Learning 
      aboutLanguage & Using Language)

                           [教  材  语  篇  细  研]
    第一步 速读——了解文章主题和段落大意

    速读  P30 课文内容,选择最佳答案
    The article is a(n)        .
    A.letter of invitation        B.apology letter
    C.notice                      D.help letter
    【答案】 A
    第二步 细读——把控文章关键信息

    细读  P30 课文内容,选择最佳答案
    1.The student is invited to        .
    A.take part in the high school speaking competition
    B.give a speech to the park visitors on July 28
    C.help Zhang Sha to prepare for the opening of the new park
    D.visit the new park just as a guest
    2.The office will have the student speak to the park visitors on July 28 because        
.

    A.it's a day convenient for people to attend
    B.it's a day fit for an opening of a park
    C.it's the day the quake happened in 1976
    D.it's the day the quake ended in 1976
    3.In his/her speech,the student may not mention         .
    A.the terrible quake that happened in 1976
    B.the great work people did to rebuild Tangshan
    C.the bright future of Tangshan
    D.his/her hobbies
    【答案】 1-3 BCD
               中国现代教育网    www.30edu.com  全国最大教师交流平台

    第三步 精读——能力升华 接轨高考

    根据  P30 课文内容,在空白处填入          1 个适当的单词或括号内单词的正确形
式

    In the letter,Zhang Sha offers 1.congratulations (congratulate)to the winner of 
the high school speaking 2.competition (compete)about new Tangshan.And he tells 
the winner a group of five 3.judges (judge) heard the speech and agreed that his/hers 
was 4.the best one this year.
    Then he invites the winner 5.to speak (speak) to the visitors to a new park which 
will 6.be opened (open) to the public to honour those 7.who died in Tangshan 
earthquake and those who helped the 8.survivors (survive).Zhang Sha also hopes 
that the winner 9.will bring (bring) his or her family and friends 10.on July 28 at 11:
00 a.m.
                           [语  言  基  础  自  测]

    Ⅰ.单词拼写
    根据汉语或首字母提示,写出下列单词

    1.Personally I want to talk with my child about it,frankly and sincerely(真诚
地).
    2.He  made an outline(概要) of his views and got ready to present it at the 
meeting.
    3.The cyclist(骑自行车的人)turned off the highway onto a side road.
    4.We're  glad to get together to offer our congratulations on our homeland's 
success in the competition.
    5.Judging from his appearance,the manager can't be over 60 years old.
    6.He can express himself in fluent English after studying hard for four years.

    Ⅱ.拓展词汇
    根据词性和汉语提示,写出下列单词

    1.congratulate vt.祝贺;向……道喜→congratulation n.道贺;祝贺
    2.express vt.表达→expression n.表达;表示;表情;措辞
    3.cycle n.自行车,轮转→cyclist n.骑自行车的人

    Ⅲ.补全短语
                中国现代教育网    www.30edu.com  全国最大教师交流平台

     根据提示补全下列短语

     1.congratulate sb.on          就……祝贺某人
     2.offer congratulations to sb. 对某人表示祝贺
     3.judge from/by               根据……来判断
     4.be proud of                 对……感到骄傲
     5.on that special day         在那个特殊的日子

     Ⅳ.选词填空
     选用上述短语的适当形式填空

     1.Parents always are proud of their children and love them.
     2.I congratulate you on your success.
     3.Judging from what he said,he knew nothing about it.
     4.Our teacher offers congratulations to us for what we achieved.

     Ⅴ.经典句式仿写
     1.Here are my neighbours whose home was destroyed by the earthquake.
     这些是我的邻居,他们的家被地震毁掉了。
     [记句式结构]地点副词引起的全部倒装

     [仿写促落实]Here is your letter.你的信在这儿。
     2.Our office would like to have you speak to the park visitors on July 28 at 
11:00 am.
     我们办公室希望你在         7 月 28 日上午   11 点给公园的参观者做演讲。
     [记句式结构]have+宾语+宾补
     [仿写促落实]I often have Tom buy me lunch.
     我常常让汤姆给我买午饭。

                            [核  心  要  点  探  究]

       damage n.& vt.损失;损害
     do/cause damage to            给……带来/造成毁坏
     be badly damaged              遭受严重损害

     damage one's health           损害某人的健康

     ①Eating too much meat one time will cause damage to your stomach.
                中国现代教育网    www.30edu.com  全国最大教师交流平台

     一次吃太多的肉会对你的胃造成损害。

     ②Your father is angry because you have done damage to the flower beds.
     你把花坛损坏了,你父亲对此非常生气。

     [易混辨析] damage/ruin/destroy
             指“损坏”,一般指部分性的损坏,通过修复还可以恢复功能

    damage   等。用作名词时,常构成词组:cause/do              damage  to...对……造
             成损害。
             多用于比喻句之中,有时泛指一般性的破坏,有时可指把某物
             损坏到了不能再使用的程度。往往是非暴力的,并非一次打击
     ruin
             的结果,常指对美好的或希望中的事物的破坏。用作名词时,

             常构成词组:in ruins    严重受损,破败不堪。

    destroy  破坏,消灭,毁坏;指彻底破坏,不可修复,也可以指希望、
     v.      计划等被打破。
               (damage/ruin/destroy)
     Jane was unlucky.Her car was badly damaged in an accident and the damage was 
 so great that it would take a week or two to get it repaired.When she arrived home,
she found her house was in ruins because a big fire destroyed the building.She felt 
 that her life was ruined. 【导学号:11132047】
       frightening adj.令人恐惧的

     (教材  P28)It was a frightening night.
     这是一个骇人的夜晚。

     (1)frighten sb./sth.away      把……吓跑
     frighten sb.into/out of(doing)sth. 恐吓某人做/不做某事
     (2)frightened adj.            受惊的
     be frightened of...           害怕……
     be frightened at...           对……感到惊恐
     (3)frightening adj.           令人恐惧的;令人害怕的

     ①She has now begun placing speakers in the fields to see if elephants are 
 frightened away.她现在开始把扬声器放到田野里,去观察大象是否会被吓走。

     ②The news was frightening and they were all frightened(frighten).这则消息
                中国现代教育网    www.30edu.com  全国最大教师交流平台

 令人恐惧,他们都感到惊恐。

     ③They frightened the old lady into signing the paper.他们恐吓那位老太太,使
 她签了字据。

       congratulation n.祝贺;(复数)贺词

     (教材  P30)Congratulations!We are pleased to tell you that you have won the 
 high school speaking competition about new Tangshan.
     恭喜你!我们很高兴地告诉你,你已经赢得了以新唐山为主题的高中组演
 讲比赛。

     (1)offer/send congratulations to sb.on sth.
                                   向某人祝贺某事

     (2)congratulate v.            祝贺;向……致贺词
     congratulate sb.on/upon sth./doing sth.
                                   就某事向某人祝贺

     ①Congratulations on your 50th wedding anniversary!
     祝贺你们结婚      50 周年!

     ②We sent our congratulations(congratulate) to her when she passed the exam.
     当她通过考试时,我们向她表示祝贺。

     ③I congratulate you on what you have achieved.
     祝贺你取得的成绩。

     【温馨提示】 ①congratulation      作“祝贺”讲时,常以复数形式出现。

     ②congratulate 的宾语是指人的名词,不是指物的名词;celebrate               的宾语往
往是表示活动的名词。
     We held a large party to celebrate his birthday.
     我们开了一个盛大的宴会来庆祝他的生日。
     We congratulated him on winning the game.
     我们祝贺他赢得了这场比赛。

       judge n.裁判员;法官       vt.断定;判断;判决

     (教材  P30)Your speech was heard by a group of five judges,all of whom 
 agreed that it was the best one this year.五位评委听了你的演讲,他们一致认为那
 是今年最好的演讲。
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     (1)judge...by/from...         通过……判断……
     judge sb./sth.as/to be...     断定某人/物是……
     as far as I can judge         据我判断
     (2)judging by/from...         从……来看;根据……判断

     ①Don't judge a man by/from his looks.不要以貌取人。

     ②As far as I can judge,it is wrong for them to let some students carry mobile 
phones.
     我认为,他们让某些学生带手机是错误的。

     ③Judging(judge) by the look on Adam's face,the news must be terrible.
     从亚当的表情来看,肯定是可怕的消息。

       (教材  P30)Our office would like to have you speak to the park visitors on 
 July 28 at 11:00 am.我们办公室想请你在        7 月 28 日上午   11 点给来公园的参观
 者做演讲。

     【要点提炼】 have sb.do sth.让某人做某事

     (1)have sb.do sth.为“have+宾语+宾补”结构。这里的           have 为使役动词,
 意为“让,请”;speak        作宾语补足语(speak     与  you 之间是逻辑上的主谓关系)
     (2)have  sb./sth.doing sth.让……持续做某事,让……一直处于某种状态
 (sb./sth.与 do 之间是逻辑上的主谓关系)。           相当于    get/keep/leave sb./sth.doing 
 sth.。

     (3)have sth.done①让别人做某事;使某事被做;②蒙受……(sth.与                 do 之间
 是逻辑上的动宾关系)。

     ①Joe had me find a car for him.乔让我给他找辆车。

     ②He had us laughing (laugh) by telling jokes all through the meal.
     在整个用餐过程中,他一直讲笑话,让我们笑个不停。

     ③We had the machine mended(mend) just now.
     我们刚才请人把机器修好了。

     ④The old woman had her handbag stolen(steal).
     这位老太太的手提包被偷了。

       (教材  P30)As you know,this is the day the quake happened...
               中国现代教育网    www.30edu.com  全国最大教师交流平台

    你知道,这一天正是唐山地震发生的日子……

    【要点提炼】 as you know      是非限制性定语从句,as          代表整个主句的内容。
as 引导非限制性定语从句时放在主句前后均可,意为“正如”,后边的谓语动
词多是   see,know,expect,say,mention,report   等。

    as is known to all            众所周知
    as is expected                正如所预料的那样
    as is said                    正如所说的那样
    as is reported                正如所报道的那样
    as we all know                正如我们所知道的那样
    as you can see                正如你所看见的那样

    ①As is known to all,China has the largest population in the world.众所周知,
中国是世界上人口最多的国家。

    ②As I expected,he got the first place again in this midterm examination.正如
我所预料的那样,他在这次期中考试中又获得了第一名。

    ③As was reported(report),they failed in sending up a satellite.据报道,他们
发射卫星失败。

      express vt.表示;表达   n.快车;速递

    (教材  P30)I would like to express my thanks to...
    我想向……表达我的感谢。

    (1)express...to...            向……表达……
    express concern about         表达某人对……的担忧

    express one's satisfaction with 表达对……的满意
    express oneself               表达思想
    (2)expression n.              表达;表情
    beyond expression             无法表达
    without expression            毫无表情

    ①I wish to express my appreciation for your kindness.我要对于你的好意表
示感激。

    ②The company usually sends goods by express.
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     这家公司通常用快递发货。

     ③There was a worried expression(express) on her face.
     她脸上流露出担心的表情。             【导学号:11132048】

     ④The beauty of the scenery there is beyond expression.那儿风景的美丽是无法
 表达的。
     [语境助记] 

                         语景记忆    expression/express

     As soon as he got off the express train he noticed a piece of news,and his 
 expression expressed that it was something important beyond expression.
     他一从特快列车上下来,就注意到了一则消息,他的表情表明那是一件难
 以表达的重要事情。

        (教材  P31)The man  was  sleeping downstairs when the earthquake 
 happened.
     那个人正在楼下睡觉,突然发生了地震。

     【要点提炼】 该句中          when 为并列连词,意为“就在这时、突然”,相
当于   and then/just at that time。其句型结构为  sb.was/were doing sth.when...“某人
 正在做某事,这时……”。

     be about to do...when...      正要做……这时……
     be on the point of doing...when...
                                   正要做……这时……

     had just done...when...       刚刚做完……这时……

     ①I was on the point of telephoning him when his letter arrived.
     我正要给他打电话,这时他的信到了。

     ②I had just finished my test paper when the bell rang,announcing the exam 
 was over.
     我刚完成试卷,这时宣告考试结束的铃声响了。

     ③I was about to leave (leave) when it began to rain.
     我正要离开,这时开始下雨了。

                            [随  堂  效  果  落  实]

     Ⅰ.单句语法填空
               中国现代教育网    www.30edu.com  全国最大教师交流平台

    1.Nearly every building was damaged(damage)in the earthquake.
    2.Parents were too frightened(frighten)to bring their children for vaccination.
    3.It was a very frightening(frighten)experience and they were very brave.
    4.I said congratulations(congratulate) and walked up to him and shook his hand.
    5.Judging(judge) from his accent,he must be from Hunan.
    6.We sincerely(sincere) hope that you will soon be restored to health.
    7.The expression(express) in her eyes told me something was wrong.
    8.As is known to all,China has four famous ancient inventions.
    9.A  thirteen­year­old boy was sitting on the sofa watching TV when the 
telephone rang.
    10.I saw three camp beds,two of which were occupied.

    Ⅱ.单句改错(每个句子仅有          1 处错误)
    1.Congratulation on  your  being admitted  to Peking  University!

Congratulation→Congratulations
    2.He never drinks except on specially parties.specially→special
    3.No words are strong enough express our thanks for your rescue. enough 后加
to
    4.I am proud of to show visitors around our beautiful school yard. 去掉 of
                                                 【导学号:11132049】

    5.Which is known to us all,practice makes perfect.Which→As
                             (教师用书独具)
    [解题指导] 
    as,which 引导非限制性定语从句的区别:
    (1)从句置于句首时,只用         as 不用  which;
    (2)as 引导的从句意义上不能与主语相悖,而               which 不受此限制;
    (3)从句为否定句时,常用         which;
    (4)as 引导的非限制性定语从句可以放在主句之前或之后,甚至还可分割主
句;which  引导的非限制性定语从句,只能放在主句之后。
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