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阅读理解
                                      Passage 1
There are stories about two U.S . presidents,Andrew Jackson and Martin Van Buren,which attempt to 
explain the American English term OK.We don’t know if either story is true,but they are both 
interesting.
  The first explanation is based on the fact that President Jackson had very little education.In fact,he 
had difficulty reading and writing.When important papers came to Jackson,he tried to read them and 
then had his assistants explain what they said.If he approved of a paper.he would write“all correct”on 
it.The problem was that he didn’t know how to spell.So what he really wrote was“ol korekt”.After 
a while,he shortened that term to“OK”.
    The second explanation is based on the place where President Van Buren was born,Kinderhook,
New York.Van Bnren’s friends organized a club to help him become President They caned the club the 
Old Kinderhook Club,and anyone who supported Van Buren was called“OK”.
Passage 1
这里要讲述      Andrew Jackson  和  Martin Van Buren 这  2 届美国总统的小故事。这          2 个小故事也
许可以解释美语中        OK  一词的来历。故事的真实性我们不得而知,不过内容却很有意思。

第一个解释来源于总统          Andrew   Jackson 的故事。Andrew      Jackson 几乎没有受到过什么教育,
事实上,他对于日常的读写都有困难。当收到重要文件的时候,在尝试阅读之后,还是让他的助手
帮忙解释文件的内容。如果批准一份文件,Andrew                     Jackson 就在上面写“all       correct”。麻烦
的是,他不知道怎么这          2 个单词怎么拼写,因此,实际上他在文件上写的是“ol                       korekt”。过了
不久,他又把这       2 个单词缩写为“OK”。

第二个解释来源于总统          Martin   Van   Buren 的家乡的名字——纽约的           Kinderhook。为了帮助
Van   Buren  成为总统,他的朋友为此组织了一个社团。他们把这个社团叫做                           Old  Kinderhook 
Club,社团中支持       Van Buren  的人都被称为“OK”
31.The author  C  
    A. believes both of the stories    B.doesn’t believe a word of the stories
    C.is not sure whether the stories are true    D. is telling the stories just for fun
32. According to the passage,President Jackson  D  _
  A.couldn’t draw up any documents at all    B. didn’t like to read important papers by himself
  C.often had his assistants sign documents for him    D .wasn’t good at reading,writing or spelling
33.According to the first story, the term “OK”  C  
  A. was approved of by President Jackson  B.was the title of some Official documents
  C.was first used by President Jackson   D.was an old way to spell“all correct’’
34 .According to the second story,the term‘‘OK”  D  
  A.was  the short way to say‘‘old Kinderhook Club”  B.meant the place where President Van 
Buren was born
  C.was the name of Van Buren’s club         D.was used to call Van Buren’s supporters in the 
election
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35.According to the second story.the term“OK”was first used _B_
    A.by Van Buren    B.in a presidential election
    C.to organize the Old Kinderhook Club   D.by the members of the‘‘Old Kinderhook Club”
                                        Passage 2
    Although the United States covers so much land and the land produces far more food than the present 
population needs,its people are by now almost entirely an urban society Less than a tenth of the people 
are engaged in agriculture and forestry(林业),and most of the rest live in or around towns,small and 
large.Here the traditional picture is changing:every small town may still be very like other small 
towns,and  the typical small town may represent a widely accepted view of the country,but most 
Americans do not live in small towns any more.Half the population now lives in some thirty metropolitan 
areas(1arge cities with their suburbs、of more than a million people each—a larger proportion than in 
Germany  or England,let alone France.The statistics(统计)of urban and rural population should be 
treated with caution because so many people who live in areas classified as rural travel by car to work in a 
nearby town each day.As the rush to live out of town continues.rural areas within reach of towns are 
gradually filled with houses,so that it is hard to say at what moment a piece of country becomes a suburb 
But more and more the typical American lives in a metropolitan rather than a small town environment.
Passage 2
尽管美国幅员辽阔,而且土地所产出的粮食远远超过现有人口的需求,现今的美国却几乎完全是个
都市化的国家。不足十分之一的人口在从事农业和林业,而剩余的大多数人都居住在大大小小的城
镇中或者城镇的周围。传统的景象在这里不断发生着变化:小的城镇之间仍然彼此十分相似,典型
的小城镇还是呈现出大家心目中的乡村的风貌;但是大部分的美国人却不再住在小城镇了。现在半
数的人口都在大约        30 几个大都市地区(包括附近郊区的大型城市)——这种大都市地区的人口都
在百万以上,总的都市人口数量远远超过德国和英国,更不用说法国了。城市和乡村的人口统计需
要特别对待,因为我们所谓的住在乡村的人们,每天都会开车前往附近的城镇工作。当远离城镇居
住的热潮持续的情况下,城镇周围的乡村地区逐渐盖满了房屋。那么说不定什么时候,一块乡村的
地区就变成了城市的郊区。不过,典型的美国人还是越来越趋向于居住在大都市而不是小城镇的环
境中。

36.If now America has 250 million people.how many of them are engaged in agriculture and forestry?  
( C )
    A.About 25 million.     B.More than 25 million.  
    C.Less than 25 million.   D. Less than 225 million
37.Which  of the following four countries has the smallest proportion of people living in metropolitan 
areas? ( C )
      A.United States.  B.Germany.      C.France.D.England.
38.What’s the meaning of the word“metropolitan”in the middle of the passage? (A)
      A .Of a large city with its suburbs.    B.Of small and large towns.  
     C.Of urban areas.    D.Of rural areas.
39.According to the passage,what can we learn about small towns in the United States?(B)
      A  Most small towns become gradually crowded    B.Small towns are still similar to each 
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other.
      C.As the traditional picture is changing,towns are different.  D .Small towns are turning into 
large cities
40.Why is it hard to say when a piece of country becomes a suburb?( C )
      A.Because they are the same.     B.Because the rush takes place too quickly
      C.Because the process is gradual.  D.Because more and more Americans live in metropolitan 
areas.
                                         Passage 3
  If we were asked exactly what we were doing a year ago,we should probably have to say that we could 
not remember But if we had kept a book and had written in it an account of what we did each day,we 
should be able to give an answer to the question.
    It is the same in history Many things have been forgotten because we do not have any written account 
of them Sometimes men did keep a record of the most important happenings in their country,but often it 
was destroyed by fire or in a war.Sometimes there was never any written record at all because the people 
of that time and place did not know how to Write.For example,we know a good deal about the people 
who lived in China 4,000 years ago, because they could write and leave written records for those who 
lived after them.But we know almost nothing about the people who lived even 200 years ago in central 
Africa. because they had not learned to write.
  Sometimes.of course,even if the people cannot write,they may know something of the past.They 
have heard about it from older people,and often songs and dances and stories have been made about the 
most important happenings,and these have been sung and acted  and told for many generations For most 
people are proud to tell what their fathers did in the past.This we may call ’remembered history’.Some 
of it has now been written down. It is not so exact or so valuable to us as written history is,because words 
are much more easily changed when used again and again in speech than when copied in writing.But 
where there are no written records,such spoken stories are often very helpful.
Passage 3
当我们被问起准确的说书一年之前的这个时候我们正在做什么,我们可能不得不承认记不得了。但
是,如果我们有个册子,上面记录了每天我们做过什么的话,这个问题就不难给出答案了。
对于历史的记录也是如此。许多事情由于没有任何书面的记录而被人遗忘。有时也有人会对于他们
国家发生的重要事件进行记录,但是这些记录往往毁于火灾或者战乱。有时也因为那个地方或那个
时代的人不会写字,而根本不会有书面记录的存在。譬如说,因为中国                              4 千年前的古人会写字而且
给后人留下了很多文献,所以我们对那个时代的中国人十分了解;但是对于甚至                                  2 百年前的中非人,
由于他们不会写字,而使我们对其几乎一无所知。
当然了,有的时候就算人们不会写字,对于过去的历史也会多少有些了解。也许是从老一辈的那里
听说的,或者从一些由重大事件编出的歌曲和舞蹈中了解的——这些传说和歌舞是从很多辈人流传
下来的。很多人都喜欢夸耀他们的父辈在过去的丰功伟绩,我们把这个叫做“remembered 
history”(记忆中的历史)。现在一些记忆中的历史已经变成了文字而保留了下来。由于反复经
过口头传送的历史远比书面记录的历史变化大,这种历史不如书面历史那么精确和有价值。但是,
在没有书面历史存在的时候,这种口头流传的故事就很有帮助了。
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    41. Which of the following ideas is not suggested in the passage?(D )
      A.“Remembered history”,compared with written history,is less reliable
      B.Written records of the past play the most important role in our learning of the human history.
      C.A written account of our daily activities helps US to be able to answer many questions.
      D.Where there are no written records.there is no history.
    42.We know very little about the central Africa 200 years ago because _D__
      A.there was nothing worth being written down at that time
      B .the people there ignored the importance of keeping a record
      C.the written records were perhaps destroyed by a fire
      D.the people there did not know how to write
    43.“Remembered history”refers to _D__.
      A.history based on a person’s imagination
      B .stories of important happenings passed down from mouth to mouth
      C .songs and dances about the most important events
      D .both B and C
    44.“Remembered history”is regarded as valuable only when __B___.
      A. it is written down     B .no written account is available
      C.it proves to be time   D.people are interested in it
    45 .The passage suggests that we could have learned much more about our past than we
    do now if the ancient people had _A____
    A.kept a written record of every past event    B. not burnt their written records in wars
    C.told exact stories of the most important happenings    D.made more songs and dances

                                       Passage 1
  When  Mrs.Joseph Groeger died recently in Vienna,Austria,people asked the obvious,“Why did 
she live to be 107?”Answers were provided by a survey conducted among 148 Viennese men and women 
who had reached the age of 100.Somewhat surprising was the fact that the majority had lived most of 
their lives in cities.In spite of the city’s image as an unhealthy place,city living often provides benefits 
that country living can lack.One factor seems to be important to the longevity(长寿)of those 
interviewed.
    This factor is exercise.in the cities it is often faster to walk short distances than to wait for a 
bus.Even  taking public transportation often requires some walking.Smaller apartment houses have no 
elevators(电梯),and so people must climb stairs.City people can usually walk to local supermarkets  
Since parking spaces are hard to find,there is often no alternative to walking.
    On  the other hand,those who live in the country and suburbs do not have to walk every day.In 
fact,the opposite is often true.To go to school,work,or almost anywhere else,they must ride in 
cars.
Passage 1
在奥地利的维也纳,最近当一位名为                Joseph   Groeger 的老妇人过世的时候,人们忍不住要问:
“为什么她可以活到         107  岁呢?”当对      148 个 100  岁以上的维也纳人进行调查之后,我们得出
                     中国现代教育网      www.30edu.com  全国最大教师交流平台
了答案。有点让人惊讶的是,这些人中的多数人都大部分的人生都是在都市生活的。尽管城市给我
们的印象一直都是不利于健康的,但是城市生活往往提供一些乡村缺乏的便利。其中有一个就是这
些被调查者长寿的重要因素。
这个因素就是锻炼。在城市,对于比较短的路程,往往走路比你等着坐公车去更快捷。就算去搭乘
一些公共交通工具也经常要走一段路程。较小的公寓一般没有电梯,人们就不得不爬楼。城市人还
经常步行去附近的超市买东西。在停车位如此难找的情况下,往往没有别的选择只有步行。
另一方面,那些住在乡村和郊区的人反而无需每天走路。事实上,他们每天都乘坐交通工具,去上
学,去上班,或者去其他任何地方,都必须开车前往。
Passage 1
在奥地利的维也纳,最近当一位名为                Joseph   Groeger 的老妇人过世的时候,人们忍不住要问:
“为什么她可以活到         107  岁呢?”当对      148 个 100  岁以上的维也纳人进行调查之后,我们得出
了答案。有点让人惊讶的是,这些人中的多数人都大部分的人生都是在都市生活的。尽管城市给我
们的印象一直都是不利于健康的,但是城市生活往往提供一些乡村缺乏的便利。其中有一个就是这
些被调查者长寿的重要因素。
这个因素就是锻炼。在城市,对于比较短的路程,往往走路比你等着坐公车去更快捷。就算去搭乘
一些公共交通工具也经常要走一段路程。较小的公寓一般没有电梯,人们就不得不爬楼。城市人还
经常步行去附近的超市买东西。在停车位如此难找的情况下,往往没有别的选择只有步行。
另一方面,那些住在乡村和郊区的人反而无需每天走路。事实上,他们每天都乘坐交通工具,去上
学,去上班,或者去其他任何地方,都必须开车前往。

31.The Vienna survey may help to explain ___C__
  A.the complaints of people in apartment houses    B.the cause of Mrs Groeger’s death
  C.the longevity of people like Mrs.Groeger       D. the image of cities in general
32.The purpose of the second paragraph is to list some __B___
  A.benefits of walking     B.occasions for walking in city life
  C. comments made by city people    D.problems of city living
33.To reach the third floor of a building.it would probably be most healthful _B_
  A. to take the elevator    B.to walk up the stairs   C.to ride in a car       D.to find an 
alternative to walking
34.People who live in the country probably do more driving than walking because _A_
  A.they don’t live near business areas    B. they don’t need the exercise
  C.they never have parking problems    D.they can’t afford to take the bus
35.A conclusion that can be drawn from this passage is that _D___
  A.air pollution is not serious    B.anyone can live to be 107
  C.country people should move to the city    D.walking is a healthful exercise
                                       Passage 2
For any Englishman,there can never be any discussion as to who is the world’s greatest dramatist(剧作家)
.Only one name can possibly suggest itself to him:that of William Shakespeare Every Englishman has 
some knowledge,however slight,of the work of our greatest writer.All of US use words,phrases and 
quotations from Shakespeare’s writings that have become part of the common property of the English-
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speaking people.Most of the time we are probably unaware of the source of the words we used,rather 
like the old lady who was taken to see a performance of Hamlet and complained that it was full of well—
known proverbs and quotations.
    Shakespeare,more perhaps than any other writer,makes full use of the great resources of the 
English language.Most of US use about five thousand words in our normal use of English;Shakespeare 
in his works used about twenty-five thousand.
    There is probably no better way for a foreigner to appreciate the richness and variety of the English 
language than by studying the various ways in which Shakespeare used it.Such a study is well worth the 
effort(it is not,of course,recommended to beginners)even though some aspects of English usage,and 
the meaning of many words,have changed since Shakespeare’s day.
Passage 2
当提及谁是世界上最伟大的剧作家,对于每个英国人来说,答案都毫无疑义。只有一个名字值得这
个称号——莎士比亚。对于我们这个最伟大的剧作家,每个英国人都有些了解,即使很少。从莎翁
的剧作中我们拿来使用的单词,习语和引用,已经变成了英语使用者的通用词库中的一部分。很多
时候我们可能不知道自己使用的词语的来源,就好像一个去看过哈姆雷特的老妪回来之后抱怨剧中
充满了大家都知道的谚语和引用语。
莎翁与其它作者相比,更充分的利用了英语语言这一资源。大多数的人日常使用不过                                    5000 英语词
汇而已,但是莎翁在他的作品中使用了                 2 万 5 千左右的词汇。
对于一个外国人来说,研读莎翁对英语丰富多彩的使用方法是欣赏英语丰富性和多样性最好的手段。
虽说从莎翁的年代至今,一些英语的用法,许多单词的意义发生了变化,但是对莎翁作品的研究是
十分有意义的。(当然,对于初学英语的人不太推荐。)

36. English people __C____
A.have never discussed who is the world’s greatest dramatist
B.never discuss any issue concerning the world’s greatest dramatist
C.are sure who is the world’s greatest dramatist
D.do not care who is the world’s greatest poet and dramatist
37.Every Englishman knows __A____
  A.more or less about Shakespeare    B.Shakespeare,but only slightly
  C.all Shakespeare’s writings        D.only the name of the greatest English writer
38.Which of the following is true? C 
  A.We use all the words,phrases and quotations from Shakespeare’S writings.
  B.Shakespeare’s writings have become the property of those who are learning to speak English.
  C.It is likely to be true that people often do not know the origins of the words they use
  D   All the words people use are taken from the writings of Shakespeare
39.What does the word “proverb” mean? A 
  A.Familiar sayings     B.Shakespeare’s plays.  C.Complaints.          D.Actors  and 
actresses.
40.Why is it worthwhile to study the various ways in which Shakespeare used English? B 
  A.English words have changed a lot since Shakespeare’S time.
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  B.By doing SO one can be fully aware of the richness of the English language
  C. English words are now being used in the same way as in Shakespeare’s time
  D. Beginners may have difficulty learning some aspects of English usage

                                       Passage 3
  Trees are useful to man in three very important ways:they provide him wood and other products;they 
give him shade;and they help to prevent drought(干旱)and floods.
  Unfortunately,in many parts of the world,man has not realized that the third of these services is the 
most important.In his eagerness to draw quick profit from the trees,he has cut them down in large 
numbers
  Two thousand years ago,a rich and powerful country cut down its trees to build warships,with which 
to gain itself an empire It gained the empire but,without its trees,its soil became bare and poor.When 
the empire fell to pieces,the country found itself faced by floods and starvation.
    Even where a government realizes the importance of a plentiful supply of trees,it is difficult 
sometimes to make the people realize this.They cut down the trees but are too careless to plant and look 
after new trees So,unless the government has a good system of control,or can educate the people,the 
forests slowly disappear
    This does not only mean that there will be fewer trees.The results are even more serious:for where 
there are trees,their roots break the soil up,allowing the rain to sink in, and also bind the soil.This 
prevents the soil from being washed away.But where there are no trees,the rainfalls on hard ground and 
flows away on the surface,and this causes floods and the rain carries away the rich topsoil in which crops 
grow When a11 the topsoil is gone.nothing remains but worthless desert.
Passage 3
树木对于人来说有        3 个重要益处:树木给人类提供木材和其他产物;树木可以让人们乘凉;树木可
有效地防止旱涝灾害。
可惜的是,在世界上许多地方,人类没有认识到以上三个作用中,第三个是最重要的。人们急切于
从树木上快速的谋取利益,于是大量的砍伐森林。
两千年之前,有一个富裕和强大的国家。为了建立帝国,砍倒了树木来造战舰。帝国建立了,但是,
没有树木的土地变得荒芜和贫瘠。当帝国四分五裂的时候,整个国家发觉自己面临的是水灾和饥荒。

就算在政府认识到足够的树木储备的重要性时,有时却很难让人民也意识到这点。人们砍倒了树木,
却疏于种植和照料树苗。因此,除非政府建立一套体制来控制或者教育人们,否则森林就会渐渐消
失。
森林的消失不仅仅意味着树木的减少,还有更严重的后果。在有树的地方,树根不仅把土壤粉碎成
小块,便于雨水的渗入,还可以牢牢的抓住泥土,防止泥土被冲刷走。但是在没有书的地方,雨水
直接落在坚硬的地面,在土地表面流走。这不仅会导致洪水,雨水还会带走庄稼赖于生长的肥沃的
表层土。当所有的表层土被冲走之后,除了毫无价值的沙漠之外,什么也没有了。
Passage 3
树木对于人来说有        3 个重要益处:树木给人类提供木材和其他产物;树木可以让人们乘凉;树木可
有效地防止旱涝灾害。
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可惜的是,在世界上许多地方,人类没有认识到以上三个作用中,第三个是最重要的。人们急切于
从树木上快速的谋取利益,于是大量的砍伐森林。
两千年之前,有一个富裕和强大的国家。为了建立帝国,砍倒了树木来造战舰。帝国建立了,但是,
没有树木的土地变得荒芜和贫瘠。当帝国四分五裂的时候,整个国家发觉自己面临的是水灾和饥荒。

就算在政府认识到足够的树木储备的重要性时,有时却很难让人民也意识到这点。人们砍倒了树木,
却疏于种植和照料树苗。因此,除非政府建立一套体制来控制或者教育人们,否则森林就会渐渐消
失。
森林的消失不仅仅意味着树木的减少,还有更严重的后果。在有树的地方,树根不仅把土壤粉碎成
小块,便于雨水的渗入,还可以牢牢的抓住泥土,防止泥土被冲刷走。但是在没有书的地方,雨水
直接落在坚硬的地面,在土地表面流走。这不仅会导致洪水,雨水还会带走庄稼赖于生长的肥沃的
表层土。当所有的表层土被冲走之后,除了毫无价值的沙漠之外,什么也没有了。

41.Trees are useful to man mainly in three ways,the most important of which is that they can __D__
A. keep him from the hot sunshine          B.enable him to build warships
C.make him draw quick profit from them   D .protect him from droughts and floods
42.It’s a great pity that _C___
A.man is only interested in building empires         B.man is eager to profit from trees
C.man hasn’t realized the importance of trees to him   D. man hasn’t found out that he has lost all trees
43.Sooner or later the forests will disappear __C____.
  A. unless a country has a plenty supply of trees     B.unless people stop cutting down their trees
  C.unless aIl people are taught the importance of planting trees
  D.unless the government punishes those who cut trees instead of planting them
44.The word“bind”in Paragraph 5 means“__C___”
  A.to wash away         B.to make wet    C.to make stay together   D.to improve
45. When there is a heavy rain.trees can help to prevent floods.as they can. B 
A.keep rain from falling down to soft ground    B,cause the soil to allow rainwater to sink in
C.prevent the soil from being washed away     D .make the topsoil stick together
                                       Passage 1
    Dr.Harvey  Gates,the noted scientist,might never have discovered the Kamron lizard(蜥蜴)in 
Blovia,if it had not been for a childhood accident As a boy,he was determined to become a baseball 
player,but when he broke his arm in practice at the age of fourteen and was forced to stay off the playing 
field for a while,he took notice of the natural world around him and liked what he saw
    After he had recovered from his injury,he caught a squirrel(松鼠)and raised it as a pet.Soon he was 
bringing home snakes and other creatures from the woods near his school.
    In 1962,he  entered Blakeford College and majored in biology  By 1966 he had received his 
Bachelor(学士)of Science degree and two years later at Drysdale University, he received his Doctor of 
Science degree.It was while he was doing field research for his doctoral studies in South America in 1967 
that he discovered and named the Kamron lizard.This animal was different from others of its kind in that 
it had only four toes on its front feet. In other respects,it was similar to others of the same family It 
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could change its color and go for long periods without food.

31.0f the four statements,which one best indicates the author’s idea? B 
  A.Dr.Gates is a scientist who can always attract the public attention to his research.
  B.Dr.Gates is a very famous scientist,though he wanted to be a sportsman at first
  C   Dr.Gates is a scientist who always carries a notebook with him wherever he Goes.
  D.Dr.Gates is very popular for his determination to become a baseball player
32 In the first paragraph of the passage.the phrase“in practice”means“_D___”
  A.while doing some practical work                    B .while studying animals
  C.while making up his mind to become a baseball player   D.while playing baseball
33 In the second paragraph,the word“creatures”can best be replaced by
    “___C___”,
  A. people   B things    C.animals    D. living things
34 It was __D__ that Dr Gates discovered the Kamron lizard.
  A.after he had graduated from Drysdale University      B.right after he had finished his study for 
the doctor’s degree
  C.after he had received his highest degree             D during the time when he was studying for 
the doctor’s degree
35 Which of the following is not mentioned as a feature of the Kamron lizard? C 
  A.It possesses four toes on its front feet.  B.It can live a long while without eating
  C.It may go for weeks without drinking.  D.It is capable of changing colors.
                                       Passage 2
  I was due to take my driving test at 11:30 am.It was a rainy morning with low clouds and as I 
approached the driving school at 9:50 am,my heart sank.My driving instructor. Stan,said 
something,trying to drive away my fears,but I was not impressed
    We set off for the test centre with an hour to go I wanted a run round the test circuit (圈),but we got 
stuck in a traffic jam,and could only drive no faster than walking.
    We arrived at the test  centre at  11 am.Stan made me watch a group of six learners emerging from 
the building with their respective(各自的)examiners.Their instructors were looking out from two 
windows.We watched them drive off They must have been feeling very nervous
    Stan took me round the probable test track,pointing out the traps.The weather became even worse 
It seemed to make me feel worse too.I had developed a couldn’t-care-less mood,and was almost calm  
We returned to the test centre in time to see the six unfortunates returning.Their nerves must have been in 
a terrible state.
  I sat in the waiting room until six examiners came in to call out our respective names. Mine showed no 
emotion as he asked me to go to my car I showed none either,but the tension began mounting again.
36.On their way to the test center,Stan tried to comfort the author B 
  A.but it made the author’s heart sink deeper            B. but the words produced no effect
  C .so that the author could drive to the center with no fears   D.so that they could prepare for all he 
flaps
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37.Which of the following is TRUE according to the passage? A 
  A.Six learners would be tested at the same time.   B.The learners were tested in the presence of 
their instructors
  C.None   of the six learners passed the test in the end. D The instructors were as nervous as the 
learners
38.When the author was sitting in the waiting room,he was quite D 
  A.upset     B.nervous    C.frightened  D.relaxed
39 When it was his turn to take the test,the author went to his car with C 
  A.firm confidence    B mixed emotions  C.increased nervousness D.perfect calmness
40.The passage is mainly about B 
A.the influence of bad weather upon a test taker   B the feelings of a learner before his driving test
C the preparations before a driving test            D.an unforgettable day
                                       Passage 3
  The resources of the library can be helpful even when we are doing something very informal,such as 
trying to devise a better way to measure attitudes toward music or looking for a better way to teach 
mathematics The library can be equally helpful when we are doing something very formal,such as writing 
a dissertation(学位论文)or preparing an article for publication in a professional journal.In either case,
our goal should be to use the library as a useful tool to help us understand and solve our problem
    The following sections of this chapter will describe specific resources available in many libraries.In 
some cases you may already be aware of a resource and may use it frequently and successfully.In other 
cases you may be completely unfamiliar with a resource.Your goal should be to become aware of what is 
available and to know how to use each of these resources to help you solve the problem they are designed 
to solve.
  When  educators have a piece of information that they want to share with their colleagues,they often 
make this information available in professional journals or at professional meetings It would often be useful 
to have access to such information,and this chapter will describe the special services that enable us to 
locate such information.
41 The library resources can be helpful when we __D___
  A.want  to find a better way to measure attitudes toward music   B.are preparing a paper for a 
professional journal
  C.are writing a dissertation              D . A11 of the above
42.The familiarity of readers with different resources  C 
  A .is more or less the same  B.varies slightly    C.differs greatly         D.should not be 
different
43.The author believes that __D___
  A . library resources should be used frequently and completely
  B.1ibrary resources cannot be made good use of if they are not available to us
  C.one is supposed to be aware of the library resources that are usually not available
  D.one is supposed to have good knowledge and make good use of resources
44.When educators wish to share some information with their colleagues,they often A 
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  A.publish it in a professional journal     B.attend professional meetings
  C.get access to it in the library          D make use of some library services
45 The chapter in question  C 
  A.mainly deals with the ways of dissertation writing
  B . presents information on publishing papers in professional journals
  C.introduces some library services
  D.describes some professional meetings
                                       Passage 1
  Some of the notebooks George Washington kept as a young man are still in existence. They show that 
he was learning Latin,was very interested in the basics of good behavior in society,and was reading 
English literature.
    At school he seems only to have been interested in mathematics.In fact,his formal education was 
surprisingly brief for a gentleman,and incomplete For unlike other young Virginian of that day,he did 
not go to the College of William and Mary in the Virginian capital of Williamsburg.In terms of formal 
training then,Washington contrasts sharply with some other early American Presidents such as John 
Adams,Thomas Jefferson and James Madison.In later years,Washington probably regretted his lack of 
intellectual training He never felt comfortable in a debate in Congress(国会),or on any Subject that had 
not to do with everyday,practical matters And because he never learned French and could not speak 
directly to the French leaders,he did not visit the country he admired SO much.Thus,unlike Jefferson 
and Adams,he never reached Europe
Passage 1
George   Washington   年轻时候的一些手札仍然保存完好。从这些手札中我们可以得知,当时的
George Washington   正在学习拉丁语言和阅读一些英国文学,并对基本的优雅社交行为深感兴趣。

在学校的学习中,George Washington           好像只喜欢数学这一科。实际上,他作为一个标准绅士的
正式教育是不完整的,简直简短的令人惊讶。和当时弗吉尼亚州的年轻人不同,他没有去位于弗吉
尼亚州府威廉堡的        William  and Mary  学院。那么在正式的训练方面,Washington                和其他早期
的美国总统——如        John  Adams,  Thomas   Jefferson 和 James  Madison  就有着鲜明的对比。
在后来的日子里,Washington          大概对自己教育的缺乏感到后悔了。无论是对于国会的商讨活动,
还是其他并不是每天都常见的问题,或者一些实践性的事物,Washington                            始终不能轻松应对。而
且因为他从没学过法语,无法和法国的领导人直接交流,所以没能去访问这个他最向往的国家。因
此,和    Jefferson 还有 Adams  不同,他始终也没有访问过欧洲。

31.Why didn’t Washington go to college?  D 
  A.His family could not afford it.      B  A college education was rather uncommon in his time.
  C.He didn’t like the young Virginian gentlemen    D.The author doesn’t give any reason.
32.Washington felt uncomfortable in Congress debates because he __B___
  A.1acked practice in public speaking          B.felt his education was not good enough
  C.didn’t like arguing and debating with people  D  felt that debating was like intellectual training
33 The reason why Washington didn’t visit France was probably that he __C___
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  A.didn’t really care about going        B.didn’t know French 1eaders
  C.couldn’t communicate directly with the French leaders     D.was too busy to Navel
34 According to the author __A____
  A   Washington’s lack of formal education placed him at a disadvantage in later life
  B.Washington should have gone to France even though he could not speak French
  C.Washington was not as good a president as Adams,Jefferson or Madison
  D   Washington was a model for all Virginian gentlemen
35.The main idea of the passage is that Washington’s education __D___
  A   was of great variety,covering many Subjects
  B was probably equal to those of most young gentlemen of his time
  C.may seem poor by modern standards.but was good enough for his time
  D was rather limited for a president
                                       Passage 2
  Like most people,1 was brought up to look upon life as a process of getting It was not until in my late 
thirties that 1 made this important discovery:giving-away makes life so much more exciting You need not 
worry if you lack money This is how 1 experimented with giving-away.If an idea for improving the 
window  display of a neighborhood store flashes to me,I step in and make the suggestion to the 
storekeeper.One discovery I made about giving-away is that it is almost impossible to give away anything 
in this world without getting something back,though the return often comes in all unexpected form.One 
Sunday morning the local post office delivered an important special delivery letter to my home,though it 
was addressed to me at my Office.1 wrote the postmaster a note of appreciation More than a year later I 
needed a post—office box for a new business 1 was starting 1 was told at the window that there were no 
boxes left,and that my name would have to go on a long waiting list.As 1 was about to leave,the 
postmaster appeared in the doorway.He had overheard(无意中听到)our conversation.“Wasn’t it you 
that wrote US that letter a year ago about delivering a special delivery to your home?”I said yes“Well,
you certainly are going to have a box in this post office if we have to make one for you.You don’t know 
what a letter like that means to us.  We usually get nothing but complaints.’’
Passage 2
和大多数人一样,我从小被灌输的是生命是一个不断获取的过程。直到我                               30 多岁快   40 的时候,
有了这么一个重要的发现:给予使生命更加精彩。就算你没有钱也无需担忧做不到。我是这么尝试
给予的。如果可以改善附近一家铺子橱窗摆设的好点子忽然闪现在我的脑海中,我会走进这间店铺,
和店主说说的建议。对于给予我的一大发现是,付出总有回报,不过有的时候回报的形式是你始料
未及的。、一个周日的早晨,当地的邮局往我家送了一封重要的特快专递,其实信封上写的是我办
公室的地址,信却被专门送到家里。为此我给邮政局长写了一封感谢信。一年多过去了,我由于新
业务的开展去邮局申请新的邮箱。但是我被告知暂时没有多余的信箱了,要等的话也要排很长的名
单才能轮到我。当我打算离开邮局的时候,无意中听到我们谈话的邮政局长出现在门口。他问我:
“是不是你一年前写了封感谢我们特快专递服务的信啊?”我说是。他继续说:“你当然马上就能
拥有一个信箱了,我们这就给你弄一个。你不了解这种感谢信对我们意义多么大。通常我们除了抱
怨什么也得不到。”
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36.From the passage,we understand that __A____
  A   the author did not understand the importance of giving until he was in late thirties
  B.the author was like most people who were mostly receivers rather than givers
  C.the author received the same education as most people during his childhood
  D.the author liked most people as they looked upon life as a process of getting
37.According to the author __C___
  A   giving means you will lack money       B  the excitement of giving can bring you money
  C   you don’t have to be rich in order to give   D.when you give away money,you will be rich
38.The author would make the suggestion to the storekeeper _B__
  A.in writing    B.in person    C  in the window display    D.about the neighborhood
39.When the author needed a post-office box,__C____
  A.he had to put his name on a waiting list      B  he wrote the postmaster a note of appreciation
  C.many people had applied for post-office boxes before him     D.he asked the postmaster to make 
one for him
40.In reply to the postmaster’s question.the author said __D____
  A.it was the special delivery         B.it was the post-office box
  C.it was the note of appreciation he wrote      D it was he who wrote him a letter a year ago
                                       Passage 3
    Children in the United States are exposed to many influences other than that of their 
families.Television is the most significant of these influences,because the habit of watching television 
usually begins before children start attending school.
    Parents are concerned about the lack of quality in television programs for children.The degree of 
violence in many of these shows also worries them.Studies indicate that,when children are exposed to 
violence,they many become aggressive or insecure.
    Parents are also concerned at,out the commercials that their children see on television. Many 
parents would like to see fewer commercials during programs for children.And some parents feel that 
these shows should not have any commercials at all because young minds are not mature enough to deal 
with the claims made by advertisers.
  Educational television has no commercials and has programs for children that many parents approve of 
The most famous of these is Sesame Street,which tries to give preschool children a head start in learning 
the alphabet(字母)and numbers.It also flies to teach children useful things about the world in which they 
live.
    Even though most parents and educators give Sesame Street and shows like it high marks for 
quality,some critics argue that all television,whether educational or not,is harmful to children.These 
critics feel that the habit of watching hours of television every day turns children into bored and passive(被
动的)consumers of their world rather than encouraging them to become active explorers of it.
Passage 3
现在的美国儿童与他们的父母不同,受到各个方面的影响。这些影响中最重要的是电视节目,因为
常常在孩子们还没上学之间就养成了看电视的习惯了。
家长们对于儿童节目质量的低下很担忧。这些节目中出现的暴力的程度也烦恼着他们。研究显示,
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当儿童接触到暴力相关的节目,很多人会变得具有攻击性或者没有安全感。
家长们对于孩子们在电视上看到的广告同样也很担忧。在儿童节目的时间,家长建议减少广告的播
出。一些家长甚至认为这种时间段的节目中根本不应该有广告,鉴于儿童的思想还不够成熟,不能
对广告中的一些话语做出判断。
教育台没有广告,而且播出的儿童节目家长们都很赞赏。其中有个最有名的节目叫芝麻街,主要是
给学龄前儿童关于数字和字母的启蒙教育,以及对他们所在的世界的一些有帮助的认识。
即便大多数的家长和教育者给与芝麻街,以及这类的节目很高的评价,一些评论家还是认为所有的
电视节目,无论教育性与否,对于儿童都是有害的。他们认为每天看几个小时电视这种习惯让儿童
变成世界消极无聊且被动的取食者,而不是鼓励儿童变成世界积极的探索者。

41.Which of the following statements is NOT based on the passage? C 
  A.Parents are worried about the influence from television on their children    B  Television has 
much influence on children
  C   Both parents and their children like watching educational television.
  D.Some critics think that television is no good for children.
42.In what ways do children suffer from television? C 
  A.They become the victims of social violence     B  They spend hours watching television instead 
of doing school work
  C   The programs make the children lose interest in the world.
  D   The programs make the children spend too much of their parents’ money
43.Parents would not like their children to see commercials because __A__
  A.they  think that their children ore not old enough to handle advertising  B.commercials teach 
children alphabet and numbers
  C.commercials help to sell products       D.they don’t like commercials
44.Educational television is widely appreciated because C 
  A.it  does have the same commercials as others  B.it offers programs for both children and their 
parents
  C many  parents like the programs it offers for their children  D.children can learn some school 
subjects before they go to school
45.Which of the following can best serve as the title of the passage? C 
  A.Watching  Too Much  Television May Be Harmful to Young Minds  B.Television Is More 
Harmful than Educational
  C.Television’s Influence on Children  D  More Education Television
                                       Passage 1
  We can make mistakes at any age.Some mistakes we make are about money.But most mistakes are 
about people.“Did Jerry really care when I broke up with Helen?…‘When I got that great job,did 
Jerry really feel good about it,as a friend? Or did he envy my luck?” When we look back.doubts like 
these can make US feel bad.But when we look back.It’s too late
    Why do we go wrong about our friends-or our enemies? Sometimes what people say hides their real 
meaning.And  if we don’t really listen,we miss the feeling behind the words.Suppose someone tells 
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you.‘‘you’re    a lucky dog”.Is   he really on your side? if he says.“You’re  a lucky 
guy”or“You’re   a lucky gal”.That’s being friendly.But“lucky dog”?There’s a bit of envy in 
those words Maybe he doesn’t see it himself.But bringing in the‘‘dog”bit puts you down a 
little.What he may be saying is that he doesn’t think you deserve your luck.
    How can you tell the real meaning behind someone’s words? One way is to take a good look at the 
person talking.Do his words fit the way he looks? Does what he says square with the tone of voice? His 
posture(体态)?The look in his eyes? Stop and think.The minute you spend thinking about the real 
meaning of what people say to you may save another mistake
Passage 1
无论我们长到多少岁,都会犯错误。有时犯金钱上的错误,但大多数时间还是与人有关的错误。
“如果我和      Helen 分手,Jerry   会真的在意么?”“我得到了这么棒的工作,Jerry                   作为我的朋友
衷心的为我感到高兴么?或者他会嫉妒我的幸运?”当我们回忆过去,类似这种的疑问让我们感觉
很不舒服。但是回忆起这些的时候,想补救已经为时已晚了。
为什么我们总是对我们友善或者敌对的人会错意思呢?因为,有的时候,人们真正要表达的意思其
实隐藏在话语背后。那么如果我们没有真正的去聆听,就会错过语言后的感情。要是有人对你说:
“You’re  a  lucky dog.”他是真正的支持你的么?如果他说“你是个幸运的家伙”或者“你是个
幸运的女孩”,他的态度应该是友善的。但是,“lucky                       dog”这个词,好像有点嫉妒的味道在里
面。也许说话人自己也没有察觉到。但是,“dog”这个词好像有点贬低你的意思。他想说的可能
是他觉得你不配这么幸运。
那么如何分辨出别人话语之外的意思呢?一个办法就是仔细观察说话的人。他说的话和他说话的样
子搭配么?和说话的语调符合么?和他的姿势呢?还有眼神?停下来想一想。你用来思索别人话语
真正意思花的很少的时间,也许避免了另一个错误。

31.From the questions in the first paragraph we can learn that the speaker _B____
  A.feels happy,thinking of how nice his friends were to him
  B.feels he may not have“read” his friends’true feelings correctly
  C.thinks it was a mistake to have broken up with his girl friend,Helen
  D is sorry that his friends let him down
32.In the second paragraph.the author uses the example of“You’re a lucky dog”to
    show that   C   .
  A.the speaker of this sentence is just being friendly
  B   this saying means the same as “You’re a lucky guy” or “You’re a lucky gal”
  C   sometimes the words used by a speaker give a clue to the feeling behind the words
  D.the word“dog”shouldn’t be used to apply to people
33.This passage tries to tell you how to __C____
  A.avoid mistakes about money and friends    B.bring the“dog’’bit into our conversation
  C.avoid mistakes in understanding what people tell you    D  keep people friendly without trusting 
them
34.In listening to a person.the important thing is __C____
  A.to notice his tone,his posture,and the look in his eyes    B to listen to how he pronounces his 
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words
  C.to check his words against his manner,his tone of voice,and his posture    D.not to believe 
what he says
35.If you followed the advice of the writer,you would __A____
A be able to get the real meaning of what people say to you   B.avoid any mistakes while talking with 
people who envy you
C.not lose real friends who say things that do not please you   D.be able to observe people as they are 
talking to you
                                       Passage 2
    Why was Bastille important to the citizens of Paris? The building of the Bastille had been started in 
1370 under Charles V By the seventeenth century it had stopped to be important for defense.Cardinal 
Richelieu turned it into a prison.It was not an ordinary prison to punish common crimes.Its huge doors 
closed only on enemies of the King The Bastille’s workings were secret.Prisoners were taken to it in 
closed vehicles.Soldiers on guard duty had to stand with their faces to the wall NO talking was allowed 
Worst of all,a prisoner never knew if he would be there a day,a week,a year,or forever.Only the 
King’s letter could set him free
  Over the years the number of arrests by King’S letter had become fewer.By the time of its fall.most 
of the prisoners were writers who had written against the corruptions(贪污腐败)of the government 
Voltaire,the famous French writer,spent a year there in 1717~1718,and another 12 days in 1726.
    For those who believed in free speech and free thinking,the Bastille stood for everything evil.The 
day it was captured,only seven prisoners were found inside.Still,the Bastille was hated by the people 
It was a symbol of the King’s complete power.
Passage 2
为什么说对于巴黎的市民来说,巴士底狱的意义不同一般呢?巴士底狱这一建筑建于查理五世统治
时期的    1370 年。17   世纪的时候不再用于防御工事。教皇                Richelieu 把它变成了一所监狱。这并
不是处罚普通罪行的一般监狱。在它巨大的门墙之内,关的仅仅是国王的敌人。巴士底狱的运作方
式是秘密的。犯人被完全封闭的交通工具运进来。当值的士兵站岗时要面对高墙,而且禁止交谈。
最糟糕的是,囚犯自己从不知道自己要在这关上一天,一周,一年,或者永远。只有国王的亲笔信
可以释放里面的囚犯。
在此期间,被国王下令逮捕的人越来越少了。到巴士底狱被攻破的时候,大部分的囚犯都是针对统
治者的贪污腐败进行抨击的文人。伏尔泰                  Voltaire,法国著名的文人,曾经二次被关在这里,一次
从  1717 年到   1718 年的一年间,一次是在          1726 被关了    12 天。
对于信仰言论和思想自由的人们,巴士底狱是一切罪恶的象征。在它陷落的那天,里面只有                                       7 位囚
犯。即使如此,人民还是对巴士底狱深恶痛绝。因为它是国王专政的象征。

36.The Bastille had been a prison __D___
  A.since  the time of Charles V     B.since 1370      C.before  the seventeenth century  
D.since 血  e time of Cardinal Richelieu
37.According to the passage,which of the following statements is FALSE? A 
  A.Anyone who did something wrong could find himself suddenly in the Bastille
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  B.The Bastille was only for those who were opposed to the King.
  C.Things done in the Bastille were hardly known to people outside    D.Voltaire was twice put in 
the Bastille.
38 At the time of its fall,the Bastille housed __D__.
  A.a large number of prisoners     B a lot of writers who had been against the government
  C.some dozens of people who believed in free speech and free thinking     D only a few prisoners
39 Which of the following statements is TRUE according to the passage? C 
  A.All prisoners in the Bastille had to stay there for life
  B Over the years the number of prisoners in the Bastille was getting more and more.
  C.The King could put people in,or let them go out,as he wanted.
  D.At the time it was captured,there were so few prisoners in it that it meant little to the people.
40 This passage mainly ___D____
  A.tells how the prisoners were controlled by the King   B.tells how little was known about the 
Bastille
  C   shows the inner workings of the Bastille    D  gives a brief history of the Bastille

                                       Passage 3
  Almost every family buys as least one copy of a newspaper every day.Some people subscribe to as 
many as two or three different newspapers  But why do people read newspapers?
    Five hundred years ago,news of important happenings--battles lost and won,kings or rulers 
overthrown(推翻)or killed--took months and even years to travel from one country to another.The news 
passed by word of mouth and was never accurate.Today we can read in our newspapers of important 
events that occur in far away countries on the same day they happen.
  Apart from supplying news from all over the world,newspapers give us a lot of other useful 
information There are weather reports,radio,television and film guides,book reviews,stories,and of 
course.advertisements.The bigger ones are put in by large companies to bring attention to their 
products.They pay the newspapers thousands of dollars for the advertising space,but it is worth the 
money for news of their products goes into almost every home in the country For those who produce 
newspapers,advertisements are also very important.Money earned from advertisements makes it 
possible for them to sell their newspapers at a low price and still make a profit.
Passage 3
几乎每个家庭每天都会买至少一份报纸。一些人甚至订阅                        2 或  3 份不同的报纸。那么,为什么人
们要读报纸呢?
五百年前,重大事件的消息——战争的失败和胜利,国王或统治者被推翻或谋杀——要花几个月甚
至数年的时间从一个国家传到另一个国家。这些口头传播的消息往往不准确。现如今,我们可以在
报纸上得知当天发生在很远的国家的重大事件。
除了提供世界各地的新闻之外,报纸还给我们提供了许多其他有用的信息。比如天气预报,广播电
视电影的预告,书评,小说,当然还有广告。那些较大的广告是大公司为了让他们的产品引人注意。
虽然他们为了这些广告位付给报纸的经营者几千美元,但是这个钱还是花的值得的,由于广告的作
用他们的产品进入了千家万户。对于经营报纸的人,广告也很重要。广告的收入让他们可以以很低
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的价格出售报纸仍然获利。

41 The phrase “subscribe to’’ in the first paragraph means“ ___C_____”
  A.go to the newspaper stand and buy       B.send their own news stories to
  C.agree to buy for a specific period of time  D  become faithful readers of
42 The habit of reading newspapers is __A___
  A.widespread   B.found among a few families  C.not popular   D.uncommon
43.Before the time of the newspaper,__D____
  A   bad news traveled quickly and good news slowly   B few people cared about events that took place 
in far away countries
  C.kings and rulers were often overthrown or killed   D.news was passed from one person to another
44 The author seems to agree that money spent on advertisements is __C____
  A.wasted     B.not much    C well spent   D.of no use to anyone
45.Which of the following statements is TRUE? A 
  A.Five hundred years ago it took a long time for news to reach other countries.
  B.Newspaper advertisements turn people’S attention away from their products.
  C.The news that we read in newspapers is mainly about new products.
  D   When newspapers are sold at a low price,the newspaper producers will lose money.

                                       Passage 1
    One silly question I simply can’t stand is“How do you feel”.Usually the question is asked of a 
man in action—a man on the go.walking along the street.or busily working at his desk So what d0 you 
expect him to say?He’11 probably say.“Fine.I’m all right.”But “you’ve put a bug in his ear”一
maybe now he’s not sure If you are a good friend,you may have seen something in his face,or his 
walk.that he did not realize that morning It starts him worrying a little.First thing you know.he looks 
in a mirror to see if everything is aⅡ fight,while you go merrily on your way asking someone 
else.‘‘How do you feel?”
    Every question has its time and place It’s perfectly acceptable,for instance,to ask ‘‘How do you 
feel?’’ if you’re visiting a close friend in the hospital But if the fellow is walking on both legs,hurrying to 
make a train,or sitting at his desk working,it’s no time to ask him that silly question.
    When  George Bernard Shaw,the famous writer of plays was in his eighties,someone asked 
him“How    do you feel”,Shaw   put him in his place.‘‘When    you reach my  age”,he 
said.“either you feel all right or you’re dead”
Passage 1
 “你感觉怎么样”是一个愚蠢的让我无法忍受的问题。这个问题通常会问那些正在忙着的人——
一个正沿着街道赶路去某地的人,或者一个正埋头工作的人。那么你期望从他那里得到什么答案呢?
他很可能说“很不错”。但是你却给了他一个暗示——可能他当时不知道。如果你是他的一个好朋
友,你也许在他脸上,或者走路的样子上发现什么他早晨没有觉察到的不妥。你的话使他开始感觉
有点不安。你也猜的到,接着他要做的第一件事,就是找个镜子,看看自己是不是有什么不对。这
个时候你却开心的我行我素,去问其他人这个问题了“你感觉怎么样?”
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每个问题都有它提问的适当时机和场合。例如,如果你去医院探望一个亲密的朋友,这个时候你问
他“你觉得怎么样?”就十分的恰当。但是,如果这个人匆忙赶路去赶火车,或者在埋头工作,没
有时间去他这种傻瓜问题。
当  George Bernard Shaw——一个著名的剧作家,在他               80 多岁的时候,有人问他:“你感觉怎
么样”,Shaw      让这个人站在自己的角度来想想。“当你到了我这个年龄,”他说“要么你感觉良
好,要么你已经死了。”

31.According to the writer,greetings,such as“How do you feel?” _D__
  A.show one’s consideration for others  B.are a good way to make friends
  C are proper to ask a man in action      D.generally make one feel uneasy
32.The question“How do you feel?”seems to be correct and suitable when asked of  D 
  A.a man working at his desk    B.a person having lost a close friend
  C.a stranger who looks somewhat worried     D.a friend who is ill
33.The writer seems to feel that a busy man should _C___
  A   be praised for his efforts     B never be asked any question   C.not be bothered    D be 
discouraged from working so hard
34.George Bernard Shaw’s reply in the passage shows his _B_____
  A.cheerfulness    B.cleverness    C.ability    D.politeness
35‘‘You’ve put a bug in his ear’’ means that you’ve  D
A.made him laugh       B.shown concern for him    C  made fun of him       D.given him 
some kind of warning
                                       Passage 2
  Acting is such an over-crowded profession that the only advice that should be given to a young person 
thinking of going on the stage is“Don’t!”.But it is useless to try to discourage someone who feels that 
he must act,although the chances of his becoming famous are slim. The normal way to begin is to go to 
a drama sch001.Usually only students who show promise and talent are accepted,and the course lasts 
two years.Then the young actor or actress takes up work with a theatrical company(剧团),usually as an 
assistant stage manager This means doing everything that there is to do in the theatre and occasionally 
acting in very small parts It is very hard work indeed,the hours are long and the salary is tiny.
    Of course,some people have remarkable chances which lead to fame and Success without this long 
and hard training.Connie Pratt,for example,was just an ordinary girl working in a bicycle factory.A 
film producer happened to catch sight of her one morning waiting at a bus stop,as he drove past in his 
car.He stopped and got out to speak to the girl.He asked if she would like to go to the film studio to do a 
test,and she thought he was joking Then she got angry and said she would call the police It took the 
producer twenty minutes to convince Connie that he was serious The test was successful.And within a 
few weeks she was playing the leading part opposite one of the most famous actors of the day But chances 
like this happen once in a blue moon 
Passage 2
演艺界是一个人口密度过高的职业。对于想登上舞台的年轻人的唯一建议就是不要进入。但是想劝
阻那些明知成功的机会很渺茫却执意要做演员的人,这种说教是无用的。要做演员通常办法就是去
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戏剧学院进修。通常这里只接受有前途和有天赋的学生,课程要花                            2 年的时间。之后,年轻的女艺
人或者男艺人以舞台助理的身份,参与到剧团的工作。这意味着要做和舞台相关的所有事务和偶尔
的跑龙套。这确实是很辛苦的工作,工作时间长,薪水又少的可怜。
    当然,有些人没有经过长期辛苦训练,而是是通过不寻常的机会就获得了声望和成功。例如说,
Connie   Pratt 原本是自行车厂的一个普通女工。某个早晨她在公车站等车的时候被一个开车路过
的电影制作人看中了。制作人停车出来和她交谈,问她是否愿意来摄影棚试镜。Connie                                   认为他只
是在开玩笑罢了。最后她生气了,还威胁说要叫警察。最后制作人花了                              20 分钟的时间让
Connie  相信他是认真的。试镜很成功。几个星期之后,她就作为女主角和当时很有名的一个男演
员在一部戏中演对手戏了。但是,类似这样的机会少之又少啊。
36 From the very beginning,the author puts it clearly that acting is a profession __A____
  A   sought after by too many   B.too difficult for young people
  C.for slim people only      D.one can go into without special training
37.For someone who feels he must act,it is very likely that _D____
  A.he will become a film star at long last    B  he will become a stage manager
  C   he will be well paid                  D.he will end up without any Success
38.The film producer found Connie Pratt one morning when she was __D__
  A.at work in a bicycle factory    B.driving past him in her car
  C.going to a film studio         D.waiting for a bus
39.A few weeks after the test.Connie Pratt found herself __B____
  A   the most famous actress of the world        B.playing the leading female role in a play
  C.as famous as the greatest actor of the world   D.no less famous than the leading actor of the day
40 The concluding sentence “chances like this happen once in a blue moon” means  D 
  A   this is something which happens once in a while     B.this is a highly profitable chance
  C.this is something highly possible     D  this is a very rare chance
                                        Passage 3
      Soldiers and other military people wear uniforms with various other symbols to indicate their 
status.But in the business world everyone wears more or less similar suits,and you cannot tell at a 
glance who ranks higher or lower than another.So how do people in the business world show their 
superiority?
    An attempt to study this was made by two researchers using a series of silent films.They had two 
actors play the parts of an executive(经理)and a visitor,and switch roles each time.The scene had one 
man at his desk playing the part of an executive,while the other,playing the part of a visitor,knocks at 
the door,opens it and approaches the desk to discuss some business matter.
    The audience watching the films was asked to rate the executive and the visitor in terms of status.A 
certain set of rules about status began to emerge from the ratings.The visitor showed the least amount of 
status when he stopped just inside the door to talk across the room to the seated man.He was considered 
to have more status when he walked halfway up to the desk,and he had the most status when he walked 
directly up to the desk and stood right in front Of the seated executive.
      Another thing that affected the status of the visitor in the eyes of the observers was the time 
between knocking and entering.For the seated executive,his status was also affected by the time 
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between hearing the knock and answering.The quicker the visitor entered the room,the more status he 
had.The longer the executive took to answer,the more status he had.
assage 3
士兵和其他军队中的人都要穿制服,并且衣服上有各种各样的标志来表明他们的身份地位。但是在
商业的世界中,几乎每个人都穿的差不多一样的衣服。乍看之下,很难分出身份地位的高低。那么,
在商界,人们如果表明自己高人一等呢?
2 个研究者通过一系列的默剧对此进行尝试和研究。剧中只有                         2 个演员,分饰经理和拜访者的角色,
每次两人都要交换角色。剧中演的是经理坐在办公桌旁边办公,来访者敲门,推开门,往办公桌走
去,和经理讨论业务上的事情。
观看的观众被要求说出经理和拜访者的地位孰高孰低。从观众的意见总结出一套地位的归路。当拜
访者站在刚进门的地方,远远的穿过整个房间和经理说话,表明来访者的地位最低。当拜访者站在
门和桌子的中间时,地位较高;当他径直走到桌子旁边站在经理前面时,地位最高。
在观众眼中,另一个影响拜访者地位的事情是他敲门和进房间之间的时间间隔。对于坐在那里的经
理来说,他的地位受听到敲门和应答的时间间隔的影响。拜访者越早的进入房间,他的地位就越高。
经理越迟应答敲门声,他的地位越高。

  41.The experiment designed by the two researchers aimed at finding out _D____
    A.how   business is conducted by all executive and a visitor    B  how to tell the differences 
between an executive and a visitor
    C.how to tell businessmen at a glance     D.how businessmen indicate status
  42 Which of the statements can best sum up the passage?  C 
    A.The executive has a higher status than the visitor.      B.Military people wear uniforms but 
the businessmen do not
    C,A study revealing a set of rules about the status of businessmen.
    D   It is a good method to use a series of silent film in research.
  43 Having entered the room,the closer the visitor approaches the executive, _D__
    A.the less it affected his status     B.the lower his status    C.the more it affected his status  
D.the higher his status
  44.The longer the seated man was in answering the knock,__A____
    A.the higher his status    B.the less it affected his status  C.the lower his status     D  the 
more it affected his status
  45.Which statement is NOT true? B 
    A Soldiers wear uniforms with various symbols so that one call tell their status at a glance.
    B.In the experiment.one actor played the executive while the other played the seated man
    C.Business people wear similar suits.
    D The audience watching the film rated the executive and the visitor in terms of status.
 阅读理解一
 Are all your photographs good?Be honest with yourself. Aren’t some of your pictures too dark, 
 and others too light?How many times have you thrown away a photo?We, the Fine Photograph Club, 
 can help you. We meet every Wednesday in our comfortable club room in Bridge Street. At 7:30 p.m. a 
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member of the club or a visitor would give a talk, and then we have coffee. Our members will advise you 
on all the latest cameras and films. They will help you to develop your films or enlarge your pictures. 
What does it all cost?Only 5 pounds a year.
  Photography is now a big business. Do you know, for instance, that there are 15 million cameras in 
our country?And that 700 million photographs are taken a year, more than one-third of them in color?
Think of the amount of photography in television, the cinema, newspapers, books, advertisements and so 
on. In modern life people learn a lot from pictures, so photography is more and more important. It is also 
more complicated and more expensive than it used to be. You may only want to take good photographs of 
faces and places. If so, we can help you to get better results. You needn’t waste any more money. If you 
want to learn more about photography and how it is used, join the club please. You won’t be 
disappointed. Write now to the Secretary, Fine Photograph Club. Bridge Street.
  31. The purpose of passage is to _____.
    A. show people how to take fine pictures     B. tell people photography is now a big 
business
    C. tell people the club can do many things for you    D. encourage people to join the 
photograph club
  答案为     D。此句为测试作者的写作目的。“呼吁人们都来加入到摄影俱乐部!”这是本文的主
要目的。本文的最后部分也是对全文内容的重点回应。
  32. If you want to join the club, you _____.
    A. must be good at photography     B. must know about the latest cameras and films
    C. must pay a little money a year    D. must be honest with yourself
  答案为     C。此句为细节题。从短文第一段的最后一句话:five pounds a year                 中得出答案。
  33. You are able to be honest so that you can_____.
    A. say if your photos are good or bad     B. tell how much money you waste
    C. help the Fine Photograph Club    D. know the latest development in cameras
  答案为     A。此句为细节推理题。将第一段内容进行综合分析,可以知道:这是                             Fine 
Photograph club 所做的宣传广告,让人们知道他们是为了帮助人们提高摄影技术,避免出现浪费现
象,而且费用低廉。因此选项             A 符合短文的内容。
  34. The club can give the following service except _____.
    A. coffee    B. amusement    C. advice    D. information
  答案为     B。此句为细节推理题。从短文内容上看,文章中出现了:and then we have coffee(选
项 A 的内容),…will advise you on all the latest…(选项  C 的内容)和     if you want to learn…it is 
used(选项   D 的内容),这样只有选项           B 的内容在短文中没有出现了。
  35.Which statement of the following is true?
    A. If you are a member of Fine Photograph Club, it will cost you only 5 pounds to buy a camera.
    B. All the members of Fine Photograph Club can take free photographs of faces and places.
    C. More than a third of 700 million color photographs are taken a year.
    D. If you write to the photograph club, you will be very good at photographing.
  答案为     C。细节题。在短文         And that 700 million photographs are taken a year,more than one-
third Of them in color?中给出了答案。其中的      them 就是  700 million photographs。
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阅读理解二
Most   of us know about the Nobel Prize, especially the Nobel Peace Prize, but few of us know 
anything about the man who set them up. His name was Alfred Nobel. He was a great scientist and inventor 
himself. Besides, he had a big business. His business may surprise you. He made and sold explosives. His 
companies even made and sold weapons. Isn’t this something that surprises you? The man who made 
money from weapons should set up the Peace Prize?
  Though Alfred Nobel had a lot of money from weapons, he hated war. He hoped that there would be 
no war in the world. He was one of the richest in Europe. When he died in 1896, he left behind him a lot of 
money and his famous will. According to his will, most of his money was placed in a fund. He wanted the 
interest from the fund to be used as prizes every year. We know them as the Nobel Prizes. The Nobel Prizes 
are international. Alfred Nobel wanted the winners to be chosen for their work, not the country they came 
from.
  Alfred Nobel had given his whole life to his studies and work and to the benefits of mankind. He made 
money all by his own efforts, but he left the world share his wealth. His inventions and wealth stay with the 
world for ever.
  36. Alfred’s business was _____.
    A. making and selling explosives     B. not making and selling weapons
    C. making explosives and selling weapons    D. making weapons and selling explosives
  答案为      A。细节题。将这两句话          His  business may surprise you.   He  made  and  sold 
explosives.合并在一起理解.就是:他的企业是制造并贩卖炸药的。
  37. Nobel wanted to set up the Nobel Peace Prize because _____.
    A. he made enough money    B. he hated war
    C. he wanted to get more interest from the fund     D. he liked to live in a peaceful world
  答案为      B。此句为细节推理题。从           he hated war.He hoped that there would be no war in the 
world.这里可以看出       Nobel 讨厌战争,因此希望以后不再有战争。
  38. Nobel Prizes come from _____.
    A. all Nobel’s money in the fund     B. all Nobel’s money in his company
    C. all the interest from the fund     D. some of the interest in the fund
  答案为      C。此句为细节推理题。Nobel           Prizes 的来源在本文中是指:“He          wanted the interest 
from the fund to be used as prizes every year.”也就是他基金中每年的利息。
  39. Nobel was a (an) _____ person in the world.
    A. interesting     B. unselfish     C. kind-hearted    D. richest
  答案为      B。此句为细节推理题。从短文最后一段的内容看,Nobel                     的无私奉献为世界人民做出
了贡献。因此应该说他是一个无私的人。
  40. Which statement of the following is Right according to the passage? 
    A. Nobel set up his company to sell clothes.    B. Most of Nobel’s money was used for 
the world Wars.
    C. Nobel Prizes are only for some people from some special countries.
    D. Nobel worked hard in his life and saved lots of money for the world to share.
  答案为      D。此句为细节推理题。在           He made money all by his own efforts.But he left the world 
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share his wealth.这句话中,我们可以看出         Nobel 将所挣的钱全部留给世界人民去分享(share)。
阅读理解三
Dinner customs are different around the world. If you are a dinner guest in Ghana, this information 
will help you a lot.
  In Ghana dinner is usually from four in the afternoon to six in the evening. But there are no strict rules 
about time. Whenever a guest arrives, a family offers food. When you go to a home, the person who 
receives guests takes you to the living room first. At this time everyone welcomes you. Then you go to the 
dining room. There you wash your hands in a bowl of water. All the food is on the table.
  In Ghana you usually eat with your fingers. You eat from the same dish as everyone else. But you eat 
from one side of the dish only. It is not polite to get food from the other side of the dish. After dinner, you 
wash your hands again in a bowl of water.
  Most meals in Ghana have a dish called fufu. People in Ghana make fufu from the powder of some 
plants. Sometimes they cut the fufu with a saw because it is very hard. You must chew fufu well, or you 
may get sick. You eat fufu with the fingers of your right hand only.
  41. From the passage we know that in Ghana _____.
    A. the rules for dinner time are not strict    B. dinner is always at six in the evening
    C. a family offers food only at four in the afternoon    D. people usually invite their guests 
to dinner later in the evening 
  答案为      A。此句为推理题。将         1n Ghana dinner is usually from four in the afternoon to six in the 
evening.But there are no strict rules about time.Whenever a guest arrives,a family offers food.这两
句内容综合一下。就是:只要在下午                4 点至晚上    6 点,都是吃饭的时间:在这期间,客人什么时候
来就什么时候吃。因此选项            A 是正确答案。
  42. If you are a dinger guest in Ghana ,the host(主人)always takes you to _____.
    A. the dining room first     B. the living room first
    C. the kitchen first        D. the garden first
  答案为      B。此句为细节推理题。比较原文              When you go to a home,the person who receives guests 
takes you to the living room first 选项 B 的内容只是多了一个  first,而这使不使用是一样的,因为客
人一进来,主人就带你去           living room,因此  first 不说也知道。
  43. People in Ghana usually eat _____.
    A. from one side of a dish to the other    B. from the other side of the dish
    C. with their fingers    D. with their spoons
  答案为      C。此句为细节题。从选项的内容看,只有选项                   C 与短文中的     In Ghana you usually eat 
with your fingers.这句话的意思一样。
  44. In fact, most dishes in Ghana _____. 
    A. are cooked with the powder of some plants    B. have fufu in them
    C. are too hard to eat    D. are very hard
  答案为      D。此句为细节推理题。本题是根据               Most Meals in Ghana have a dish called fufu.…it is 
very hard.这几句话的内容综合得出的,要用              saw 来锯开   fufu 吃。可想而知是很       hard 的。
  45. When you eat fufu, you’d better _____.
    A. cut it with a saw     B. use your right hand only
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    C. chew it well    D. all of the above
  答案为      D。此句为细节推理题。细读最后              You must chew fufu well. or you may get sick.You eat 
fufu with the fingers of your right hand only.这几句话,就会发现选项  A、B  和 C 均在此句的意思中,
因此选项     D 是正确答案。
passage 1
    Most people usually traveled by ship and train which are driven by steam engine. 
It played an important part in many kinds of vehicles several scores of years ago. Who 
invented steam engine and what units could be used to measure the power of engine?
    The word “horse-power” was first used two hundred years ago. James Watt from a 
worker’s family made the world first widely used  steam engine. At first, he couldn’t 
tell  people how powerful  it was,  because there were  no units at  that time. Watt 
decided to find  out how much work one strong horse could do in one minute. He  named 
that unit one horse-power. In this way he could measure the work of his steam engine.
    He discovered that a horse could lift a 3300-pound weight 10 feet into the air in 
one minute. His engine could lift a 3300-pound weight 100 feet in one minute. Because 
his engine did ten times as much work as the horse, Watt called it a ten horse-power 
engine.
31. The main idea of the passage is __B_.
   A. James Watt invented the steam engine
   B. James Watt first used horse-power as a unit of measure
   C. how much power does a horse have
   D. why Watt’s engine is called a ten horse-power engine
32. The story says that Watt made the first __D__.
   A. engine    B. horse-power engine   C. useful engine   D. widely used steam engine
33. James Watt was born in _A___.
   A.  a worker’s family     B. a farmer’s family      C. a  teacher’s family   D. a 
doctor’s steam engine
34. Watt wanted to find a way to _D___.
   A. measure the work  his engine could do   B. tell people how powerful his  engine 
was
   C. lift a 3300-pound weight               D. both A and B
35. One horse-power means the __A__.
   A. work a horse could do in a minute      B. weight a horse could do in ten minutes
   C. work a horse could do in ten minutes   D. weight of one horse
 
Passage 2
    Another  thing an  astronaut has  to  learn about  is eating  in space.  Food is 
weightless, just as men are.
    Food for space has to be packed in special ways. Some of it goes into tubes that a 
man can squeeze into his mouth. Bite-sized cookies are packed in plastic.
    There is a  good reason for covering each bite. The plastic keeps pieces of food 
from traveling in the spaceship. On the earth very small pieces of food would simply 
fall to  the floor. But gravity doesn’t  pull them to the floor when they are out of 
the plastic in a spaceship. They move here and there and can get into a man’s eyes or 
into the spaceship’s instruments. If any of the instruments is blocked, the astronauts 
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may have trouble getting safely home.
    As  astronauts travel on  longer space trips, they  must take time  to sleep. An 
astronaut can fit himself to his seat with a kind of seat belt .Or, if he wants to, he 
can sleep in a sleeping bag which is fixed in place under his seat. But be careful he 
must put his hands under the belt when he goes to sleep. This is because he is really 
afraid  that he might touch one of  controls that isn’t supposed to be touched  until 
later.
36. Why would astronauts cover each bite of food in space?_B___
   A. Because small pieces of food would fall down to the floor.
   B. Because weightless pieces of food might make trouble when they travel around.
   C. Because they haven’t enough food for longer trips.
   D. because astronauts don’t want to waste food.
37. In a spaceship, astronauts can _D___.
   A.  walk just as they do on  the earth           B. not eat  anything because it’s 
dangerous
   C. control the spaceship when they are sleeping      D. not litter small things or 
it will make trouble
38. In what way is food for space packed?_D__
   A. Very  small pieces of food are put on  the floor.   B.  Some of it is put into 
tubes.
   C. Small-sized cookies are packed in plastic.        D. Both B and C.
39. Why does an astronaut put his hand under his belt when he sleeps?__B__
   A. Because he thinks it is comfortable to sleep in that way in space.
   B. Because he doesn’t want to touch any controls when he sleeps.
   C. Because the instruments of the spaceship are easily broken.
   D. Because he is afraid that the seat will move.
40. The best title of this article is __A__.
   A. Eating and Sleeping in Space
   B. How Astronauts Eat in Space
   C. Food for Space
   D. How Astronauts Sleep in Space
 

Passage 3 
    According to the American Automobile Association, since 1964 all cars sold in the 
United States have been equipped with seat belts. (These are also called safety belts.)
Many studies of auto mobile accidents have shown that safety belts can save lives. One 
study  showed that forty percent  of those killed in  auto accidents could have been 
saved if they had been wearing seat belts.
    Unfortunately belts are worn only by a small percentage of drivers and passengers-
-about  fifteen percent in cities, and only nine  percent in small towns. And  safety 
belts cannot protect people who do not wear them.
    In order to find out what kinds of people do wear seat belts, a study was made in 
several cities of the United States. The following facts were learned about those who 
use their safety belts:
    1. They do not smoke while driving.
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    2. They have had more education than non-users.
    3. They know someone who was injured(but not killed) in an automobile accident.
    Advertisements based on these facts have been printed in newspapers and magazines 
in order to teach people the importance of using seat belts. But these advertisements 
have not helped much. Some people believe there should be a law requiring drivers and 
passengers to  use safety belts. In Australia, where there  is such a law, deaths in 
auto accidents have decreased twenty-four percent.
41. The selection is mainly about __C__.
   A. automobiles in the United States
   B. accident involving cars
   C. safety belts for drivers and passengers
   D. traffic jams
42. The selection says that in Australia _A___.
   A. a law requires drivers and passengers to use seat belts
   B. about 50% of the drivers wear seat belts
   C. the importance of seat belts is advertised in newspapers and magazines
   D. the auto accidents have kept the same percent
43. People who live in small towns _B__.
   A. have fewer accidents than those who live in cities
   B. are less likely to wear seat belts than those who live in cities
   C. tend to favour the passing of a law to require the use of seat belts
   D. are against the law that requires people to use seat belts
44. In Australia, where there is such a law, deaths in auto accidents have decreased 
    _A___.
   A. twenty-four percent
   B. fifty percent
   C. ten percent 
   D. fifteen percent
45. Many studies have shown that seat belts can save lives of those __C__.
   A. who never wear seat belts
   B. who seldom wear seat belts
   C. who are wearing seat belts when the accidents happen
   D. who sit at the back of the cars
Passage 1
    Many animals have an excellent sense of smell, which they use in hunting. On the 
other hand, their eyesight may be poor. Dogs, for example, have poor eyesight and no 
color  vision.  They  see  only shades  of  gray.  But  a  dog’s sense  of  smell is 
extraordinary.
    The kind of  dog known as Alastian has 220 million olfactory cells. Man has five 
million. Scientists believe that the Alastian is one million times better than man in 
finding out odors.
    The human sense of smell, however, is really quite good. The average human being 
can distinguish more than 10000 different odors.
Answer the questions:
31. According to the passage, which of the following facts is not true? _C___
   A. Many animals have poor eyesight while their sense of smell is quite good.
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   B. Dogs are color blind.
   C. The human sense of smell is not good.
   D. Dogs can see no more than shades of gray.
32. The Alastian’s olfactory cells are _A___ times as many as man’s.
   A. forty-four    B. one million   C. 220 million    D. 10000
33. The underlined word odor means a _C___.
   A. thing     B. person    C. smell     D. color
34. Generally speaking, a man can tell _B___ different odors.
   A. five  million    B. more than  10000    C. fewer than  10000   D. no more than 
10000
35. The best title of the passage is “_C___”.
   A. The Human Sense of Smell    B. Dogs Have Poor Eyesight
   C. Sense of Smell     D. Dogs Have Excellent Sense of Smell
 
Passage 2
    In  Melbourne, Australia, not  long ago  specialists gave advice  on a  patient’s 
problem. There’s nothing unusual in that except that the patient was in the far west 
of  New South Wales at the  time. That’s hundreds of miles from Melbourne. The  heart 
disease  experts were able to make  their diagnosis after listening to  the patient’s 
heartbeat over the telephone.
    They were testing a  new device that can change readings of a patient’s heartbeat 
into tone signals that can be sent by telephone. The device was designed in Australia. 
It is meant for use in areas far from large cities. Doctors in remote areas can take 
the  heartbeat readings right in the patient’s home. Then they  can play them over a 
telephone line to specialists in larger centers. The doctor in the remote area is thus 
able  to get an expert’s opinion on  the heart condition of his  patient. Experiments 
with the device show that the whole process takes only a few minutes.
Answer the questions:
36. This article is mainly about a device for _B___.
   A. preventing heart disease
   B. sending medical information
   C. moving heart patients
   D. recording doctors’ conversations
37. Doctors in remote areas sometimes need advice because they don’t have _D___.
   A. any training in medicine
   B. connections with telephone or telegraph offices
   C. enough nurses and technicians to help them
   D. the special knowledge needed to treat every condition
38. The readings are changed to tone signals in the _B__.
   A. specialist’s office 
   B. patient’s home
   C. city hospital 
   D. radio station
39. Which happens last? _C___
   A. The specialist makes his diagnosis.
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  B. The doctor goes to the patient’s home.
  C. The specialist gives the doctor his opinion.
  D. The specialist hears the patient’s heartbeat.
40. From the article we can conclude(得出结论)that Australia has a number of _A___.
  A. remote areas
  B. good highways
  C. mountainous regions
  D. strange animals
                  大学英语    B 级考试    24 篇短文
1.   There are stories about two U.S. presidents, Andrew Jackson and Martin Van Buren. 
which attempt to explain the American English term OK. We don't know if either story 
is true, but they are both interesting.
     The first explanation is based on the fact that President Jackson had very little 
education. In fact, he had difficulty reading and writing. When important papers came to 
Jackson, he tried to read them and then had his assistants explain what they said. It he 
approved of a paper, he would write "all correct" on it. The problem was that he didn't 
know how to spell, so what he really wrote was "ol korekt". After a while, he shortened 
that term to "OK".
    The second explanation is based on the place where President Van Buren was born. 
Kinderhook. New York. Van Buren's friends organized a club to help him become President. 
They called the club the Old Kinderhook Club, and anyone who supported Van Buren 
was called "OK".
2.   Although the United States covers so much land and the land produces far more food 
than the present population needs, its people are by now almost entirely an urban society. Less 
than a tenth of the people are engaged in agriculture and forestry (林业),  and most of the 
rest live in or around towns,   small and large.  Here the traditional picture is changing: 
every small town may still be very like other small towns, and the typical small town may 
represent a widely accepted view of the country, but most Americans do not live in small 
(owns any more.  Half the population now lives in some thirty metropolitan areas (large 
cities with their suburbs) of more than a million people each — a larger proportion than in 
Germany or England, let alone France. The statistics(统计)of urban and rural population 
should he treated with caution because so many people who live in areas classified as 
rural travel by car to work in a nearby town each day. As the rush to live out of town 
continues, rural areas within reach of towns are gradually filled with houses, so that it is 
hard to say at what moment a piece of country becomes a suburb. But more and more the 
typical American lives in a metropolitan rather than a small town environment.
3.     If we were asked exactly what we were doing a year ago, we should probably have 
to say that we could not remember. But if we had kept a book and had written in it an 
account of what we did each day , we should be able to give an answer to the question. 
    It is the same in history. Main things have been forgotten because we do not have 
any written account of them. Sometimes men did Keep u record of the most important 
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happenings in their country, hut often it was destroyed by fire or in a war. Sometimes there 
was never any written record at all because the people of that time and place did not know 
how to write. For example, we know a good deal about the people who lived in China 4,000 
years ago, because they could write and leave written records for those who lived after them. 
Rut we know almost nothing about the people who lived even 200 years ago in central 
Africa, because they had not learned to write.
      Sometimes, of course, even if the people cannot write, they may know something of 
the past. They have heard about it from older people, and often songs and dances and stories 
have been made about the most important happenings, and these have been sung and acted and 
told for many generations. For most people are proud to tell what their fathers did in the 
past. This we may call 'remembered history'. Some of it has now been written down. It is 
not so exact or so valuable to us as written history is, because words are much more easily 
changed when used again and again in speech than when copied in writing. But where there 
are no written records, such spoken stories are often very helpful.

 4.     You will find that college classes are very different from high school classes. 
You will have more work and responsibilities without being pushed as much. On the other 
hand, you will have more freedom—freedom to choose what to study, when to study, or 
whether to study. You will need to exercise maximum self-discipline. This is the hardest 
kind of discipline because it is self-imposed (志愿的) and you have only yourself to 
answer to . The decisions you make concerning your study habits will be a determining 
factor in your success, or lack of success in college.
    In addition, you will discover that your instructors differ from the ones you have had 
previously. They will expect you to take more initiative in your study habits and time 
management. Remember that much of your learning takes place outside the classroom. 
Your instructor will give you additional help outside of class if there is evidence that you 
are putting maximum effort into the course.
    Regardless of your abilities and skill mastery, you will need to manage your time 
effectively in order to succeed in college. A schedule based on efficient use of time will 
enable you to include both work and play. When you get a job, you will soon discover that 
you do not work only when you wish and as you wish. (221 words)

    5. When Mrs. Joseph Groeger died recently in Vienna, Austria, people asked the obvious, 
"Why did she live to be 107?" Answers were provided by a survey conducted among 148 
Viennese men and women who had reached the age of 100. Somewhat surprising was the fact 
that the majority had lived most of their lives in cities. In spite of the city's image as an 
unhealthy place, city living often provides benefits that country living can lack. One factor 
seems to be important to the longevity(长寿) of those interviewed.
   This factor is exercise. In the cities it is often faster to walk short distances than to wait 
for a bus. Even taking public transportation often requires some walking. Smaller apartment 
houses have no elevators (电梯) and so people must climb stairs. City people can usually 
walk to local supermarkets. Since parking spaces are hard to find, there is often no alternative to 
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walking.
    On the other hand, those who live in the country and suburbs do not have to walk every 
day. In fact, the opposite is often true. To go to school, work, or almost anywhere else, they 
must ride in cars.

   6. For any Englishman, there can never be any discussion as to who is the world's greatest 
dramatist (剧作家  ). Only one name can possibly suggest itself to him: that of William 
Shakespeare. Every Englishman has some knowledge, however slight, of the work of our 
greatest writer. All of us use words, phrases and quotations from Shakespeare's writings that 
have become part of the common property of the English-speaking people. Most of the time 
we are probably unaware of the source of the words we used, rather like the old lady who 
was taken to see a performance of Hamlet and complained that it was full of well-known 
proverbs and quotations.
   Shakespeare, more perhaps than any other writer, makes full use of the great resources 
of the English language. Most of us use about five thousand words in our normal use of 
English; Shakespeare in his works used about twenty-five thousand.
   There is probably no better way for a foreigner to appreciate the richness and variety of 
the English language than by studying the various ways in which Shakespeare used it. Such a 
study is well worth the effort (it is not, of course recommended to beginners) even though 
some aspects of English usage, and the meaning of many words, have changed since 
Shakespeare's day.

   7.  Trees are useful to man in three very important ways: they provide him wood and 
other products; they give him shade; and they help to prevent drought (干旱) and floods.
    Unfortunately, in many parts or the world, man has not realized that the third of 
these services is the most important. In his eagerness to draw quick profit from the trees, he 
has cut them down in large numbers.
   Two  thousand years ago, a rich and powerful country cut down its trees to build 
warships, with which to gain itself an empire. It gained the empire hut, without its trees, its 
soil became bare and poor. When the empire fell to pieces, the country found itself faced 
by floods and starvation.
   Even where a government realizes the importance of a plentiful supply of trees, it is 
difficult sometimes to make the people realize this. They cut down the trees hut are too 
careless to plant and look after new trees. So, unless the government has a good system of 
control, or can educate the people, the forests slowly disappear.
This does not only mean that there will be fewer trees. The results are even more serious: 
for where there are trees, their roots break the soil up, allowing the rain to sink in. and 
also bind the soil. This prevents the soil from being washed away. But where there are no 
trees, the rain falls on hard ground and flows away on the surface, and this causes floods 
and the rain carries away the rich topsoil in which crops grow. When all the topsoil is 
gone, nothing remains but worthless desert.

8.  He has been proclaimed "the finest mind alive", "the greatest genius of the late 20th 
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century'% and "Einstein's heir(继承人) "• Known to millions, far and wide , for his book A 
brief History of Time(《时间简史》), Stephen Hawking is a star scientist in more ways than 
one. His gift for revealing the mysteries of the universe in a style that non-scientists can enjoy 
mad Hawking an instant celebrity(名人)and his book a bestseller in both Britain and America. 
It has earned a place in the Guinness Book of Records for spending 181 weeks in The Sunday 
Times "top-ten"  lists, and has sold more than five million copies worldwide virtually 
unheard-of success for a science book.
   How did all this happen? How has a man who is almost completely paralyzed(瘫痪) and 
unable to speak except through a computer overcome these incredible obstacles and achieved 
far more than most people ever dream of?
   Hawking says: "I soon realized that the rest of the world won't want to know you if you're 
bitter or angry. You have to be positive if you're to get much sympathy or help. " He goes on: 
"Nowadays, muscle power is obsolete (无用 ). What we need is mind power — and disabled 
people are as good at that as anyone else. " (205 words)

   9.Dr. Harvey Gates, the noted scientist, might never have discovered the Kamron lizard(蜥蜴) 
in Blovia, if it had not been for a childhood accident. As a boy, he was determined to become a 
baseball player, but when he broke his arm in practice at the age of fourteen and was forced to 
stay off the playing field for a while, he took notice of the natural world around him and liked 
what he saw.
   After he had recovered from his injury, he caught a squirrel (松鼠)and raised it as a pet. 
Soon he was bringing home snakes and other creatures from the woods near his school.
    In 1962, he entered Blakeford College and majored in biology. By 1966 he had received his 
Bachelor(学士) of Science degree and two years later at Drysdale University, he received his 
Doctor of Science degree. It was while he was doing field research for his doctoral studies in 
South America in 1967 that he discovered and named the Kamron lizard. This animal was 
different from others of its kind in that it had only four toes on its front feet. In other respects, it 
was similar to others of the same family. It could change its color and go for long periods 
without food.

   10.I was due to take my driving test at 11:30 am. It was a rainy morning with low clouds 
and as I approached the driving school at 9:50 am, my heart sank. My driving instructor, Stan, 
said something, trying to drive away my fears, but 1 was not impressed.
   We set off for the test centre with an hour to go. I wanted a run round the test circuit(圈), 
hut we got stuck in a traffic jam, and could only drive no faster than walking.
   We arrived at the test centre at 11 am. Stan made me watch a group of six learners 
emerging from the building with their respective(各自的) examiners. Their instructors were 
looking out from two windows. We watched them drive off. They must have been feeling 
very nervous.
   Stan took me round the probable test track, pointing out the traps. The weather became 
even worse. It seemed to make me feel worse too. I had developed a couldn't-care-less 
mood, and was almost calm. We returned to the test centre in time to see the six unfortunates 
returning. Their nerves must have been in a terrible state.
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   I sat in the waiting room until six examiners came in to call out our respective names. 
Mine showed no emotion as he asked me to go to my car. I showed none cither, hut the 
tension began mounting again.

   11.The resources of the library can be helpful even when we are doing something very 
informal, such as trying to devise a better way to measure attitudes toward music or looking 
for a better way to teach mathematics. The library can be equally helpful when we arc doing 
something very formal, such as writing a dissertation (学术论文) or preparing an article 
for publication in a professional journal. In either case, our goal should be to use the 
library as a useful tool to help us understand and solve our problem.
   The following sections of this chapter will describe specific resources available in 
many libraries. In some cases you may already be aware of a resource and may use it 
frequently and successfully. In other cases you may be completely unfamiliar with a 
resource. Your goal should he to become aware of what is available and to know how to use 
each of these resources to help you solve the problem they are designed to solve.
   When educators have a piece of information that they want to share with their colleagues, 
they often make this information available in professional journals or at professional 
meetings. It would often be useful to have access to such information, and this chapter will 
describe the special services that enable us to locate such information.

   12.When I visited the Netherlands last year, my first impression was that it was all too 
good to be true: a country where everyone is satisfied! So, knowing that young people 
everywhere are gifted social critics, I sought out some university students and inquired 
what issues young people were concerned about. I was stunned to learn that the main 
problem students there see is with employment. In a country that's made good work 
conditions a(n) priority this came as a real surprise. Even more stunning was the fact that 
it wasn't unemployment that these students were worried about — it was a shortage of 
highly paid management positions available to fresh university graduates. As the students 
expressed their resentment toward the older generation for " taking up all the good jobs" 
and their bitterness over the thought of struggling to make ends meet on an entry-level 
salary, I couldn't help looking back on my own early employment experiences. I had 
graduated with honors form a good school, but my first job was doing door-to-door 
market research for a salary that just barely allowed me to get by. For some reason I never 
doubted that I’d ultimately end up with a better job. 1 simply accepted that a young person 
who was just starting out would have to struggle a bit at first. (216 words)

   13.Some of the notebooks George Washington kept as a young man are still in 
existence. They show that he was learning Latin, was very interested in the basics of 
good behavior in society, and was reading English literature.
    At school he seems only to have been interested in mathematics. In fact, his formal 
education was surprisingly brief for a gentleman, and incomplete. For unlike other 
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young Virginian of that day, he did not go to the College of William and Mary in the 
Virginian  capital of Williamsburg. In terms of formal training then, Washington 
contrasts sharply with some other early American Presidents such as John Adams, 
Thomas Jefferson and James Madison. In later years, Washington probably regretted his 
lack of intellectual training. He never felt comfortable in a debate in Congress(国会), or 
on any subject that had not to do with everyday, practical matters. And because he never 
learned French and could not speak directly to the French leaders, he did not visit the 
country he admired so much. Thus, unlike Jefferson and Adams, he never reached Europe.
   14.Like most people, I was brought up to look upon life as a process of getting. It was not 
until in my late thirties that 1 made this important discovery: giving away makes life so much 
more exciting. You need not worry if you lack money. This is how I experimented with 
giving-away. If an idea for improving the window display of a neighborhood store (lashes to 
me, 1 step in and make the suggestion to the storekeeper. One discovery 1 made about giving-
away is that it is almost impossible to give away anything in this \\orld without getting 
something back, though the return often comes in an unexpected form. One Sunday morning 
the local post office delivered an important special delivery letter to my home, though it was 
addressed to me at my office. I wrote the postmaster a note of appreciation. More than a year 
later I needed a post-office box for a new business 1 was starting. I was told at the window 
that there were no boxes left, and that my name would have to go on a long waiting list. As I 
was about to leave, the postmaster appeared in the doorway. He had overheard(无意中听到) 
our conversation. "Wasn't it you that wrote us that letter a year ago about delivering a 
special delivery to your home?" I said yes. "Well, you certainly arc going to have a box in 
this post office if we have to make one for you. You don't know what a letter like that 
means to us. We usually get nothing hut complaints. "
   15.Children in the United States are exposed to many influences other than that of their 
families. Television is the most significant of these influences, because the habit of watching 
television usually begins before children start attending school.
Parents are concerned about the lack of quality in television programs for children. The 
degree of violence in many of these shows also worries them. Studies indicate that, when 
children are exposed to violence, they many become aggressive or insecure.
   Parents are also concerned about the commercials that their children see on television. 
Many parents would like to see fewer commercials during programs for children. And sonic 
parents feel that these shows should not have any commercials at all because young minds are 
not mature enough to deal with the claims made by advertisers.
   Educational television has no commercials and has programs for children that many 
parents approve of. The most famous of these is Sesame Street, which tries to give preschool 
children a head start in learning the alphabet(字母) and numbers. It also tries to teach children 
useful things about the world in which they live.
   Even though most parents and educators give Sesame Street and shows like it high marks 
for quality, some critics argue that all television, whether educational or not, is harmful to 
children. These critics feel that the habit of watching hours of television every day turns 
children into bored and passive(被动的) consumers of their world rather than encouraging 
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them to become active explorers of it.

   16.Another useful method for improving your reading is the ability to reflect on what is 
being presented. Readers reflect on the material that they have read not simply to understand 
it, but also to interpret, analyze, and critique this information. Readers use several different 
methods to help them reflect such as careful note-taking, synthesis(综合), and analysis.
    Careful note-taking on your reading material should occur while you read. Pausing 
periodically to take notes about important claims or ideas, relevant details, or questions about 
unclear concepts is a valuable practice. The act of note-taking will help you to reflect 
about the content of the document, and the IIOICN vou keep will serve as an archive that 
you can refer to in the future.
   Synthesis is the ability to take what are at first seeming irrelevant points and put 
them together into a meaningful, new whole. Synthesis may occur during your reading, 
or it may tale place after you have read a document in its entirety.
  Analysis moves synthesis one step further, encouraging a reader to carefully examine 
thoroughly the points being made, and how they are synthesized. After readers analyze a 
passage or a whole text, they take a position regarding the document, either generally 
agreeing or disagreeing with its message. (205 words)

   17.We can make mistakes at any age。 Some mistakes we make are about money. 
But most mistakes are about people. '"Did Jerry really care when I broke up with 
Helen?" "When I got that great job, did Jerry really feel good about it, as a friend? Or 
did he envy my luck'?" When we look back, doubts like these can make us feel bad. 
But when we look back, it's too late.
   Why do we go wrong about our friends — or our enemies? Sometimes what people 
say hides their real meaning. And if we don't really listen, we miss the feeling behind 
the words. Suppose someone tells you, ''you're a lucky dog". Is he really on your side? 
If he says, "You're a lucky guy" or "You're a lucky gal", that's being friendly. But 
"lucky dog"? There's a bit of envy in those words. Maybe he doesn't see it himself. 
But bringing in the "dog" hit puts you down a little. What he may be saying is that 
he doesn't think you deserve your luck.
   How can you tell the real meaning behind someone's words'? One way is to take a 
good look at the person talking. Do his words fit the way he looks? Does what he says 
square with the tone of voice? His posture(体态)? The look in his eyes'? Stop and 
think. The minute you spend thinking about the real meaning of what people say to 
you may save another mistake.

   18.Why was Bastille important to the citizens of Paris? The building of the Bastille had 
been started in 1370 under Charles V. By the seventeenth century it had stopped to he 
important for defense. Cardinal Richelieu turned it into a prison. It was not an ordinary prison 
to punish common crimes. Its huge doors closed only on enemies of the King. The 
Bastille's workings were secret. Prisoners were taken to it in closed vehicles. Soldiers on 
guard duty had to stand with their faces to the wall. No talking was allowed. Worst of all. a 
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prisoner never knew if he would be there a day, a week, a year, or forever. Only the King's 
letter could set him free.
   Over the years the number of arrests by King's letter had become fewer. By the time of 
its fall, most of the prisoners were writers who had written against the corruptions of the 
government. Voltaire, the famous French writer, spent a year there in 1717 -1718, and 
another 12 days in 1726.
For those who believed in free speech and free thinking, the Bastille stood for everything 
evil. The day it was captured, only seven prisoners were found inside. Still, the Bastille 
was hated by the people. It was a symbol of the King's complete power.

    19.Almost every family buys as least one copy of a newspaper every day.   Some 
people subscribe to as many as two or three different newspapers. But why   do people read 
newspapers? 
    Five hundred years ago, news of important happenings - battles lost and won. kings 
or rulers overthrown(推翻) or killed—took months and even years to travel from one 
country to another. The news passed by word of mouth and was never accurate. Today we 
can read in our newspapers of important events that occur in far away countries on the same 
day they happen.
    Apart from supplying news from all over the world, newspapers give us a lot of other 
useful information. There are weather reports, radio, television and film guides, hook 
reviews, stories, and of course, advertisements. The bigger ones are put in by large 
companies to bring attention to their products.They pay the newspapers thousands of dollars 
for the advertising space, but it is worth the money for news of their products goes into 
almost every home in the country. For those who produce newspapers, advertisements are 
also very important. Money earned from advertisements makes it possible for them in sell 
their newspapers at a low price and still make a profit.

    20.Homesickness is very common among students away from home—even those who 
had previously been away at overnight camp or traveled far away. There is a difference 
between being away from home for 8 weeks and being gone for 8 months. There is also a 
difference between leaving home for a while ( knowing you will be going back) and the 
start of leaving for good ( knowing your returns may never be the same again). Feeling 
homesick does not make you less mature or mean you are not ready to be on your own. If you 
feel homesick, talk lo your friends at school about it. Chances are they are feeling the same way. 
Keep in touch with family and friends back home, but make sure you go away new 
relationships at school. If your homesickness will just not develop and does not 
seem to be getting better after a few months at school, speaking with a counselor 
might help. Also, remember that going home for the first visit may be difficult 
because of changes in yourself or your family. Old conflicts do not just disappear 
once you go  to college, and new ones  may surface. Again, if things are too 
stressful for you to handle alone, talk to a counselor.

    21.One silly question I simply can't stand is "How do you feel". Usually the 
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question is asked of a man in action—a man on the go, walking along the street, or busily 
working at his desk. So what do you expect him to say? He'll probably say, "Fine, I'm all 
right. " But "you've put a bug in his ear"—maybe now he's not sure. If you are a good 
friend, you may have seen something in his face, or his walk, that he did not realize that 
morning. It starts him worrying a little. First thing you know, he looks in a mirror to see if 
everything is all right, while you go merrily on your way asking someone else, "How 
do you feel?"
   Every question has its time and place. It's perfectly acceptable, for instance, to ask 
"How do you feel?'1 if you're visiting a close friend in the hospital. But if the fellow is 
walking on both legs, hurrying to make a train, or sitting at his desk working, it's no time 
to ask him that silly question.
     When  George Bernard Shaw, the famous writer of plays was in his eighties, 
someone asked him "How do you feel", Shaw put him in his place. "When you reach my 
age", he said, "either you feel all right or you're dead. "

   22.Acting is such an over-crowded profession that the only advice that should be given 
to a young person thinking of going on the stage is "Don't!". But it is useless to try to 
discourage someone who feels that he must act* although the chances of his becoming 
famous are slim. The normal way to begin is to go to a drama school. Usually only students 
who show promise and talent are accepted, and the course lasts two years. Then the young 
actor or actress takes up work with a theatrical company(剧 团 ). usually as an assistant stage 
manager. This means doing everything that there is to do in the theatre and occasionally 
acting in very small parts. It is very hard work indeed, the hours are long and the salary is 
tiny.
   Of course, some people have remarkable chances which lead to lame and success without 
this long and hard training. Connie Pratt, for example, was just an ordinary girl working 
in a bicycle factory. A film producer happened to catch sight of her one morning waiting 
at a bus stop, as he drove past in his car. He stopped and got out to speak to the girl. He asked 
if she would like to go to the film studio to do a test, and she thought he was joking. Then 
she got angry and said she would call the police. It took the producer twenty minutes to 
convince Connie that he was serious. The test was successful. And within a few weeks she 
was playing the leading part opposite one of the most famous actors of the day. But chances 
like this happen once in a blue moon!

   23.Soldiers and other military people wear uniforms with various other symbols to 
indicate their status. But in the business world everyone wears more or less similar suits, 
and you cannot tell at a glance who ranks higher or lower than another. So how do people in 
the business world show their superiority?
   An attempt to study this was made by two researchers using a series of silent films. 
They had two actors play the parts of an executive(经理) and a visitor, and switch roles 
each time. The scene had one man at his desk playing the part of an executive, while the 
other, playing the part of a visitor, knocks at the door, opens it and approaches the desk to 
discuss some business matter.
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    The audience watching the films was asked to rate the executive and the visitor in terms 
of status. A certain set of rules about status began to emerge from the ratings. The visitor 
showed the least amount of status when he stopped just inside the door to talk across the room 
to the seated man. He was considered to have more status when he walked halfway up to the 
desk, and he had the most status when he walked directly up to the desk and stood right in 
front of the seated executive.
    Another thing that affected the status of the visitor in the eyes of the observers was the 
time between knocking and entering. For the seated executive, his status was also affected by 
the time between hearing the knock and answering. The quicker the visitor entered the room, 
the more status he had. The longer the executive took to answer, the more status he had.

   24.The proficient athlete possesses natural sporting abilities and very good physical 
coordination, but in addition to these physical assets he/she must be in superb(杰出的) 
physical condition. The World Health Organization (WHO) defines fitness as: "The ability 
to perform your normal daily tasks with vigor(活力) and alertness(机警) and without 
undue(过度的)   fatigue(疲劳), with enough energy left in reserve to cope with any 
emergencies that may arise or to follow the leisure pursuits(追求) of your choice", which is 
the most important of the benefits of physical fitness. That is being in superb physical 
condition. That is what we are urging you to attain.
    Physical exercise reduces the intensity of many illnesses or the risk of developing them, 
thus, allowing you to achieve what the WHO defines as fitness.
Of the benefits of physical fitness good health is a universal goal. We will guide you to 
achieve that goal. Look at the essential in-net its of physical fitness listed below and take 
the road to achieve them! Set gaining all the benefits of physical fitness as your great 
health achievement. A complete exercise program must contain the following two types of 
training to be successful in helping you attain the benefits of physical fitness. (211 words)
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