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2018-2019 高考英语 短文改错专题练习之词性变化

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                       高考短文改错专题练习之词性变化

                                     教学内容


                            词性的变化

热点诠释

   词性的变化在历年高考中占有举足轻重的作用,焦点集中在:名词、形容词和副词的词性
   误用上。其考点相对集中,应引起高度注意。

   热点一:围绕形容词引起的词性误用

   围绕形容词引起的词性误用在短文改错中所占比值最大,主要见于以下情况:

   1.作表语常用形容词

    【典例1】My pronunciation was terribly. I could only speak a few words.

   解析:terribly→terrible。很明显,这里应用形容词作表语,与                  was 构成系表结构。

   除了   be 动词后接形容词作表语外,还有下列连系动词考虑使用“系表结构”:

   表示“感觉”的系动词:feel, taste, smell, sound, seem, look, appear   等; 

   表示“变化”的系动词:become, get, turn, grow, go, come, run, fall   等;

   表示“状态”的系动词:keep, stay, remain, continue      等。如:

   To people who don't know him he probably appears rather unfriendly.

   对于不认识他的人来说,他困难看起来很不友善。

   I fell asleep as soon as my head hit the pillow.

   我头一挨着枕头就睡着了。
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   The shops stay open until 9 o' clock.

   商店一直营业到九点钟。

   2.修饰名词作定语常用形容词

   【典例    2】When we plan our vacation, my mother often offers practically suggestions.

   解析:practically→practical。根据语境,这里应用形容词作定语,对修饰的名词起限制作
用。

   注意   possible, present, alive 等形容词作定语,一般要后置。如:

   She is the best poet alive in Japan.

   她是当代日本最优秀的诗人。

   All the guests present were surprised at her sudden decision.

   所有在场的客人对她的突然决定感到惊讶。

   3.形容词可以用于某些动词后边作宾语补足语,对宾语起补充说明作用。这些动词有:
make, keep, leave, consider, push, find 等。如:

   Keep the baby warm.

   让婴儿保持暖和。

   The window was left open.

   有人让窗户开着。

   I find Russian grammar very difficult.

   我发现俄语语法很难。

   【典例    3】Jane pushed the door opened and went in hurriedly.    

   解析:opened→open。push…open         意为“把……推开”,open        是形容词作宾语补足语,表
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示“推门”的结果。

   4.形容词短语还可以作伴随状语或结果状语,位于句首或句末。如:

   Full of regret, she came into the manager’s office.

   内心充满着愧疚,她走进经理办公室。

   They climbed to the top of the hill at last, tired and hungry. 

   他们终于爬到山顶上,又累又饿。

  【典例   1】After his journey from abroad, Richard Jones returned home, exhaustedly.

   解析:exhaustedly→exhausted。这里应用形容词             exhausted 作结果状语。应注意的是,
这些状语前边或后边有逗号与句子隔开。

  【典例   2】They stared at the screen of TV, anxiously to know the election result.

   解析:anxiously→anxious。同样,这里形容词短语               anxious to…作伴随状语。

   热点二:围绕副词引起的词性误用

   围绕副词引起的词性误用在短文改错中复现率也很高,主要见于以下情况:

   1.修饰动词应用程度副词。              如:

   She speaks English very fluently.

   她的英语说得很流畅。

   More easily said than done

   说着容易做着难。

  【典例   3】 She looked at me serious and said, "It's bad to tell lies!"

   解析:serious→seriously。该句意为:她郑重地看着我说,“说谎不好!”这里修饰动词
looked 表示当时的神情,应用副词。
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   2.修饰形容词、副词作程度或评注性状语应用副词。                         如:

   He speaks Chinese terribly well.

   他汉语说得很好。

   Naturally their ideas are important to everyone in the country.

   自然了,他们的看法对国家里每个人都很重要。

  【典例   4】Two   middle-aged passengers  fell into the sea. Unfortunate, neither of them 
could swim.

   解析:Unfortunate→Unfortunately。这里应用副词作评注性状语,意为“不幸的是”。该句
意为:两位中年乘客落入海中。不幸的是,他们俩人都不会游泳。

   3.修饰介词短语应用副词。如:

   I think she is well above sixty.

   我想她的年龄远超过六十岁。

   She is far behind her classmates in writing.

   她的写作水平远落后于她的同学们。

  【典例   5】Tom will not be at the picnic, very to the family’s disappointment.

   解析:very→much。to one’s disappointment     意为“令某人失望的是”,“much to one’s +名
词”表示“令某人非常(惊讶、高兴、失望、满意)的是”。这里                         much          to        one’s 
disappointment=to one’s great disappointment。

   热点三:围绕名词引起的词性误用

   围绕名词引起的词性误用在短文改错中时常出现,常见情况有:

   1.定冠词之后一般用名词

  【典例   6】 The great successful of this programme has been largely due to the support of 
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 the local businessmen.

    解析:successful→success。前边       The 和  great 都要求后边用名词作句子的主语。该句意
 为:该项目的巨大成功很大程度上归功于当地商人们的支持。

    2.介词之后常用名词或动词-ing            形式作宾语

   【典例   7】I’m afraid you can’t get there other than by swim.

    解析:swim→swimming。该句意为:恐怕你除了游过去之外不能到达那里。介词                               by 后接
 动词-ing 形式作宾语。

    3.某些特定句型该用名词而使用了其它词类。

   【典例   8】It is reported that the United States uses twice as much energetic as the whole 
 of Europe.

    解析:energetic→energy。该句意为:据报道,美国消耗的能量是整个欧洲的两倍。as 
 much … as…是原级比较,同时这里            energy 作动词   uses 的宾语。

【好题调研】

1. The population of many Alaskan cities has more than double in the past five years.

2. He enjoys a cup of coffee sometimes, but almost he drinks tea.

3. These plastic flowers look so naturally that many people think they are real.

4. Computers must be of great useful to those doing the scientific research.

5. I bought a small round wood table the day before yesterday.

6. Nurses are required to look after the sick and wound.

7. Do you think the weather is well enough for a picnic?

8. Football is not too badly as long as I watch it with my dad!

9. Mr. Smith used to smoke heavy but he has given it up.
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10. Young people may grow quickly in some ways and more slow in others.

答案与解析:

1. double→doubled。本题是由于不明白           double 的用法造成词性误用。结合语境这里应用动词
  作谓语。

2. almost→mostly。本题考查副词词义辨析。almost             表示“几乎,差不多”,mostly        表示“主要地,
  多半”。根据句意可知,“有时他喝咖啡,但是,他主要是喝茶”。另外,mostly                              与
  sometimes  相呼应。

3.  naturally→natural。本题考查副词的误用。在系动词              look 之后,要用形容词。这里用            so 增
  加了本题的难度。

4. useful→use。本题考查形容词的误用。“be of +抽象名词”可以表示名词的同源形容词的意义。
  如:be    of value 相当于  valuable, be of important 相当于  importance, be of help 相当于
  helpful。这里   be of use 相当于  useful。

5.  wood→wooden。这里是名词误用。本句中是多个形容词修饰名词,根据一致原则,都用形
  容词作定语。

6. wound→wounded。这里是动词误用。“the+形容词”表示一类人,the wounded                     表示“伤员们”
  。

7. well→good。本题考查副词误用。“天气好”要用               good, 而  well 用作形容词时只表示“身体好。

8. badly→bad。本题是副词误用。这里用作表语只能用形容词                      bad。

9. heavy→heavily。本题是形容词误用。修饰动词要用副词。smoke heavily                   烟瘾大。

10. slow→slowly。本题是形容词误用。由            and 连接两个并列副词修饰动词             grow,所以用副词
  slowly。

【强化闯关】

1. He speaks English well indeed, but of course not as fluent as a native speaker.
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2. It is general believed that teaching is as much an art as it is a science.

3. If it is quite convenience to you, I will visit you next Tuesday.

4. Now she was back, eagerly to see her friend.

5. When they heard the bad news, they all looked sadly at the master and felt quite sadly.

6. John Smith, a successful businessman, has a large white Germany car.

7. Everyone was  on time for the meeting even Chris, who's usually ten minutes lately for 
  everything.

8. Also, the sport teaches us the important of obedience.

9. Strange enough  some  famous  scientists have the qualities of being both careful and 
  careless.

10. The flower is very beautiful. And it smells pleasantly.

11. In traditionally Chinese culture, marriage decisions were often made by parents for their 
  children.

12. Tom reached home at last, tiredly and hungry.

13. He’d like to sleep with the window wide opened at night.

14. If we work with a strong will, we can overcome any difficult, however great it is.

15. She smiled to the people around but mostly looked straightly ahead, getting hold of her 
  son’s hand.

答案与解析:

1.  fluent→fluently。本题是形容词误用。这里是修饰动词                speak,要用副词,另外还要和副词
  well 构成平行结构。

2.  general→generally。形容词误用。修饰动词           believed 用副词。It     is generally believed 
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  that….一般认为……。

3.   convenience→convenient。本题是名词误用。convenience          是名词,可是       is 后用形容词作
  表语;it is convenient to sb 表示“对某人方便的话”。

4. eagerly→eager。本题是副词误用。应用形容词短语作状语,表示伴随状况;be eager to do 
  sth 渴望做某事。

5.   sadly→sad。本题是副词误用。在系动词              felt 后要用形容词。而       look 由于和  at 搭配表示动
  作“看”,不是系动词,所以仍用             sadly 表示“伤心地看”。

6. Germany→German。这里是名词误用。Germany              是专有名词,“德国”,German          是形容词,
  “德国的;德国人的”,在本题中要修饰名词应用形容词                       German。

7.  lately→late。考查词形相近的副词误用。lately           表示“近来,最近”,late       表示“迟地,晚地”。
  句中表示“晚十分钟”,所以改为             late。

8.           important→importance。本题考查特定语境下名词的用法。冠词之后要用名词,
  importance“重要,重要性”。句意“运动教会我们服从的重要性。”teach                     后用双宾语结构。

9. Strange→Strangely。习惯搭配错误。strangely enough        是习惯搭配,意为“奇怪得很“,在句
  中作状语。

10.  pleasantly→pleasant。考查系表结构的用法。系动词              smell, taste, feel, seem, sound, 
  look 等后接形容词作表语。

11.  traditionally→traditional。本题考查多个形容词修饰名词的用法。也就是“平行结构”,这里
  形容词    traditional 作定语,表示传统的中国文化。

12.   tiredly→tired。本题考查特定语境下形容词的用法。这里是形容词作伴随状语,表示“又累
  又饿”,同时      and 连接两个并列成分,后面的形容词               hungry 也是很好的暗示。

13. opened→open。考查形容词在          with 复合结构中的用法。“with+名词/代词+宾语补足语“构成
  复合结构,宾语补足语可以是名词、形容词、副词、非谓语动词、介词短语等。本句中形容

  词  open 表示状态。
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14. difficult→difficulty。词类误用。在句中     overcome  是及物动词,后要用名词做宾语。另外,
  在本句中     however 引导让步状语从句,表示“无论……”。

    15. straightly→straight。这里是副词的误用。straight       既可以用作形容词又可作副词,这里
      意为“径直地;直接地”。
 小结:


 综合练习

 John:I’ve  been noticing recently quite a lot of black smoke coming out of the chimneys of that  
 factory near our school.  61 really pollutes the air here.

 Mary:Yes,it  does.But I heard recently that the  62 (own)of the factory have promised to take 

 measures to reduce their factory’s emissions.

 John:I sure hope they Will keep their promise.    

 Mary: I think they will.According to the factory owners,__63__ special machine is supposed to be 
 installed by the end of this year.It _64__clean the fine dust out of the smoke before it pours into the 
 air.

 John:That’s good.Dust is really  65 _to our lungs.I know that because my family lives near a 
 steelworks with a chimney that constantly  66  (pour)out black smoke

 Mary:Oh,you live near the steelworks?Is it true that we shouldn’t eat the fish from the lake near 
 the steelworks?
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John:Yes,that’s true—waste from the steelworks has  67  (pollute)the lake.

Mary:Why don’t the owners do anything to clean up the pollution?

John:They always promise, 68  never act.A bit of action,that’s  69  we need.

Mary:You’re    70  .

61_____  62_____  63_____  64_____  65_____  

66_____  67_____  68_____  69_____  70_____

61.It  62.owners  63.a  64.can  65.harmful  

66.pours  67.polluted  68.but  69.what  70.right


   Christmas was coming.Ginny and I turned on the television and watched a Christmas movie.We 
stopped the movie,as I yelled,“  36  ”.

   She was just a tiny ball with gray and brown fur.I rescued her a few months before Christmas and 
Ginny named her Callie.

   A week after I rescued her,Ginny said,“Mike,what about your tree?Callie will get into 
it.’’I thought about my preciousornaments(装饰品).Many came from my childhood. 37  “I 
never thought about that.I’m sure it will be OK.”

   1 was wrong!Ginny and I brought home boxes of ornaments and the tree . 38 The more layers I 
added,the higher she climbed.
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  We found a water bottle.It could spray water about ten feet far.It became my weapon to use on 
the little,tree hugger.I looked through the branches and saw her looking at me with a guilty look that 
said,“I can’t help myself.It’s even prettier on the inside looking out.”39

   We couldn’t leave her alone in the room where our tree was put.Ginny made that mistake 

once.She went shopping with her daughter one day.When she got in the car,she remembered but 

she’d only be for an hour,“How  much  damage can she do in that of time?”She talked to 

herself.40  Callie knocked them all off and played with them.

   Callie was naughty,but we loved her very much.She cried in the brush.We saved her.It was 
her first Christmas.She was making the best of it.

A.Some were gifts from a dear friend and expensive.

B.Callie likes playing in the branches of my Christmas tree.

C.As I put the tree together.Callie climbed the branches.

D.No,Callie!Get away from the tree!

E.Callie damaged all the balls decorated in the Christmas tree.

F.When she got home,all the balls on the lower branches were missing.    

G.The water from my bottle made her climb out and escape away.

36-40DACGF

HOMEWORK

 Have you ever seen the terracotta soldiers(兵马俑)in Xi’an?What would you do if you were looking at 10,000 of 

them and they suddenly came to life and tried to destroy the world?If you want to find out then you’d better watch the 

new movie,The Mummy:
                         中国现代教育网     www.30edu.com  全国最大教师交流平台

Tomb of the Dragon Emperor(《木乃伊 III:龙帝之墓》).

    Thousands of years ago,China’s ruthless Dragon Emperor (played by Jet Li)had plans to take over the 

world.But he was tricked,‘a1ong with his 10,000 soldiers,’by a witch(Michelle

Yeoh)and was forced to spend the rest of life trapped inside clay as a silent terracotta army.The army was long 

forgotten for many,many years.

   That is until Alex O’Connell(Luke Ford)discovers them.The young archaeologist is doing work in China when 

he is tricked into awakening the Han Emperor from his sleep.After sleeping for 2,000 years the Dragon Emperor 

understandably wants to make up for lost time.He starts trying to enslave the people of Earth.

    This is all Alex’s fault.So,what is a boy to do when he gets in trouble?Well,call his parents of course.

    Alex’s father,explorer Rick O’Connell(Brendan Frazier),knows a few things about fighting the undead.In 

the first two films in The Mummy series,0’Connell fought ancient warriors(战士)in Egypt and the Middle 

East.But now he needs to help his son in China.He brings along his wife,Evelyn(Maria Bello)and her brother,

Jonathan(John:Hannah)who have all been with him on

other adventures.

    The battle between good and evil(邪恶的)takes place in an adventure that races from the hidden,tombs of 

ancient China high into the cold Himalayas.Will the O’Connell family be able to save the world one final time or 

will the ancient Chinese emperor at last conquer (征服)all?

   The only way to find out is to go to Xi’an and keep an eye on those terracotta soldiers.Or you can just watch 

the movie 1

2 1.After woken up Dragon Emperor Wants to______.

  A.think over the rest of his life

  B.revenge himself on his enemy

  C.rule all over the world
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  D. picture how to build his country.    

22.What can we know about Rick O’Connell according to the passage?    

  A.He is a brave soldier.

  B.He often fights against the undead.

  C.He is a good archaeologist.

  D.He has got through many situations

23.Where do you think this passage probably come from?

  A.Advertising board    B.Film Journal

  C.Textbook           D.Newspaper

CDB
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