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2018年江苏高考二轮专题限时集训(19)阅读理解:推理判断题1

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       专题限时集训(十九) 阅读理解 推理
                             判断题(Ⅰ)

                           (对应学生用书第       153 页)
                             加★的为推理判断题
                                     A
      (2017·南通、泰州高三一模)Given that motivation is so central to our lives,
what do we truly understand about how it operates and about its role in our lives? The 
assumption is that it's driven by a positive,external reward.Do this,get that.But the 
story is much more complex.
      One of the most striking aspects of motivation is that it often drives us to 
achievements that are difficult,challenging and even painful.You may think that you 
would be happy to spend all your time sitting on a white­sand beach drinking and that 
as long as you get to fill your days this way,you would be happy forever.But while a 
few days of enjoyment might be fun from time to time,I can't imagine that you 
would be satisfied by spending your days,weeks,months,years and even your life 
this way.
      Research that examines the differences between meaning and happiness finds 
that the things that give us a sense of meaning don't necessarily make us 
happy.Moreover,people  who report having meaningful lives are often more 
interested in doing things for others,while those who focus mostly on doing things 
for themselves report being only superficially(表面的)happy.The essential quality of 
“ meaning” has to do with having a sense of being involved in something bigger than 
the self.
      We  all know people obtain a great sense of meaning even in the most 
unpleasant of circumstances.Many volunteers spend portions of their lives working in 
dangerous,war­torn areas trying to keep disease and death from innocent civilians 
or teaching orphans to read.Their pain is real;their sense of doing something truly 
meaningful is substantial(重大的).They show how our deep­rooted desire to believe 
 that our lives have purpose beyond our lifespan drives us to work extra hard,even to 
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 the point of our own personal suffering,in order to gain more meaning.
      The point is that these seemingly odd and irrational(不合理的)motivations get 
us to do things that are complex,difficult and unpleasant.But they go beyond helping 
people in need.They motivate us in every aspect of our lives—whether in our personal 
relationships,in our individual pursuits or in the workplace.
 【语篇解读】 本文是一篇议论文。动机对人们来说有着非常重要的作用,它
 影响着人们生活的方方面面,它引导着人们走向成功。

 1.According to the author,which of the following about motivation is TRUE?
   A.Motivation is simply driven by external rewards.
   B.Motivation is largely determined by social responsibilities.
   C.Motivation enables us to gain more financial returns.
   D.Motivation drives us to struggle for achievements.
   D [考查细节理解。根据第二段中的第一句可知,动机常常会驱使人们去获
   取费力的、具有挑战性的和甚至艰难的成功。故选                       D 项。]

 ★2.According to the research,which of the practices gives us a sense of meaning?
   A.Reading a classic novel in the leisure time.
   B.Enjoying sunshine and comfort on the beach.
   C.Accompanying terminal patients in hospital.
   D.Listening to popular music in the sitting room.
   C [考查推理判断。根据第三段中的“Moreover,people                  who report having 
   meaningful lives are often more interested in doing things for others ...The 
   essential quality of ‘meaning’ has to do with having a sense of being involved 

   in something bigger than the self.”可知,认为自己的生活有意义的人通常更
   乐于为别人服务,而意义的本质其实是要参与到超乎自我的更重要的事情中

   去。故    C 项“陪伴住院的病危病人”符合题干要求。其他三个选项都只关注
   了自己的快乐,未惠及他人,故可排除。                   ]

 ★3.The  example  of people's voluntary work in Para.4 mainly  indicates 
    that________.
   A.experiencing personal suffering is a necessary part of our growth
   B.voluntary work serves the purpose of adding happiness to our lives
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   C.it's our duty to help people in need to get out of their sufferings
   D.life's great rewards come from our experience of tough circumstances
   D [考查推理判断。根据第四段第一句话中的“people                   obtain a great sense of 
   meaning even in the most unpleasant of circumstances”可知,作者认为在最让人
   感到不愉快的环境里人们也会获得强烈的意义感。作者在本段所举的例子中
   也强调了这些志愿者们所处的环境的危险和恶劣,但他们却致力于帮助他人,
   做有意义的事情,在帮助他人的同时实现了自己的人生价值。这些都说明了

   最艰苦的环境造就了生活中伟大的奖赏。故选                     D。]

 ★4.What can we infer from the passage?
   A.People should make sacrifices for social benefits due to their short lifespan.
   B.The   value and impact of motivation goes beyond our social circle and 
   existence.
   C.Helping people in need is the most important goal of a human being nowadays.
   D.Superficially happy people usually put others first rather than focus on 
   themselves.
   B [考查推理判断。根据最后一段中的“But they go beyond helping people in 
   need.They motivate us in every aspect of our lives—whether in our personal 
   relationships,in our individual pursuits or in the workplace.”可知,动机的价
   值和影响力超出我们的社交圈子和社会存在。故选                       B 项。]
                                     B
      (2017·南京、盐城高三一模)In         1880,the traveler and journalist Lafcadio 
Hearn was living in New Orleans and writing for a couple of local papers,Daily City 

Item and the Times­Democrat.Hearn sensed that New Orleans exists in a state of 
insidious disintegration(蜕变)—“crumbling into ashes”—thanks to its dangerous 
geography and its “frauds and maladministration”.And yet, Hearn wrote to a 
friend,“It is better to live here in sackcloth and ashes than to own the whole state 

of Ohio.” New Orleanians have always resembled New Yorkers;they tend to share 
the sense that to live anywhere else would lead inevitably to a stupid and pitiable 
existence beyond the bounds of understanding.
      In part,the spirit of New Orleans is rooted in the city's below­seal­evel 
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 unsteadiness,the condition of looking out—and even up—at the water all around 
you,the knowledge that water saturates(浸透)the ground you stand on.Katrina,the 
 fierce hurricane that destroyed the Gulf Coast on August 29,2005,tested the 

 self­possession of every citizen who survived it.More than eighteen hundred people 
 did not survive it,and hundreds of thousands lost their homes.The storm and the 
 terrible flooding that followed—a natural disaster worsened by a range of manmade 
disasters—revealed much that had been fragile,or rotten,in Hearn's time and grew 
 worse with every decade:shabby civil engineering;corruption and inefficient 
government institutions; and it turned out that an Administration in Washington 
 witnessed for days a city drowning—a largely black city drowning—and reacted with 
 annoying indifference.And yet,in the face of abandonment—in hospitals,on 
 rooftops,on highway overpasses—the residents of New Orleans behaved with 
resilience(不折不挠).Rebecca    Solnit,an acute observer of Katrina and its 
aftermath,has written,“The belief that a Hobbesian war of all­against­all had 
broken loose justified treating the place as a crime zone or even an unfriendly country 
 rather than a place in which grandmothers and children were trapped in frightful 
conditions,desperately in need of food,water,shelter and medical attention.”
      Alec Soth,a photographer who lives in Minneapolis and travels the Midwest 
and the South with the energy of a latter­day Walker Evans,did not join the artists 

who came to New Orleans a decade ago to capture what he calls the “eye candy of 

rot and ruin”.Instead,he waited,preferring to capture the city of water ten years 
later,a city in a state of both persistent suffering and persistent renewal.Soth shows 

us the upsetting image of a freestanding column—all that is left of a house in the 

hard­hit Lower Ninth Ward—but he moves toward a vision of promise,a lonely 
figure at his leisure,staring into the waters of today's New Orleans.
 【语篇解读】 本文是说明文。主要介绍了美国南部城市新奥尔良。

 5.New Orleanians are similar to New Yorkers in that ________.
   A.they refuse to leave their homeland
   B.they exist in insidious disintegration
   C.they possess dangerous geography
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   D.they have a sense of boring existence
   A [考查细节理解。根据第一段最后一句“New                     Orleanians have  always 
   resembled New Yorkers;they tend to share the sense that to live anywhere else 
   would lead inevitably to a stupid and pitiable existence beyond the bounds of 
   understanding.”可知,新奥尔良人和纽约人往往认为住在其他任何地方将不
   可避免地导致愚蠢、可悲的存在,由此可判断,新奥尔良人和纽约人的相似

   之处在于他们都拒绝离开他们的家乡。故选                    A 项。]

 ★6.What can we know from the hurricane Katrina and its damaging consequences?
   A.A range of manmade disasters led to the fierce hurricane.
   B.The hurricane happened following a terrible flooding.
   C.The American government failed to provide help and support.
   D.The residents of New Orleans have a deep hatred for governors.
   C [考查推理判断。根据第二段中的“...it turned out that an Administration in 
   Washington witnessed for days a city drowning—a largely black city drowning—
   and reacted with annoying indifference.”可知,在飓风袭击城市,导致城市被
   淹时,政府并没有提供支持和帮助。故选                   C 项。]

 ★7.Why  did Alec Soth refuse to join other artists to take photos of New Orleans a 
    decade ago?
   A.He also treated New Orleans as a crime zone.
   B.He had high expectations of the future of New Orleans.
   C.He couldn't put up with the suffering the hurricane caused.
   D.He was traveling the Midwest and the South with Walker Evans.
   B [考查推理判断。根据最后一段中的“Instead,he                   waited,preferring to 
   capture the city of water ten years later ...a lonely figure at his leisure,staring into 

   the waters of today's New Orleans.”可推知,十年前    Alec Soth 拒绝跟其他艺
   术家一起拍摄受到飓风袭击的新奥尔良的图片,因为他关注的是这座城市十

   年后的情景,他对新奥尔良的未来有很高的期待。故选                         B 项。]
                                     C
      (2017·常州高三一模)The domestic cat is a contradiction.No other animal has 
developed such a close relationship with human,while at the same time demanding 
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 and getting such self­determining movement and action.The cat manages to remain a 
 tame(驯化的)animal  because of the process of its upbringing.By living both with 
other cats(its mother and brother and sisters)and with human(the family that has 
adopted it)during its babyhood,it is considered to belong to both species.It is like a 
child that grows up in a foreign country and as a consequence becomes bilingual(双语
的).The   young cat becomes bimental.It may be a cat physically but mentally it is 
both  feline(猫科的)and  human.Once  it is fully adult,however,most of its 
 responses are feline ones,and it has only one major reaction to its human owners.It 
 treats them as pseudo(假的)parents.
      This is rather different from the kind of bond that develops between human and 
dog.The dog sees its human owners as pseudo parents,as does the cat.On that score 
the process of attachment is similar.But the dog has an additional link.Canine(犬科的)
society is group­organized;feline society is not.Dogs live in packs with tightly 
controlled status relationships among the individuals.There are top dogs,middle 
dogs,and   bottom dogs and under natural circumstances they move around 
together,watching and following one another the whole time.So the adult pet dog 
sees its human family both as pseudo parents and as the dominant(主宰的)members 
of the pack,hence its well­known reputation for obedience and loyalty.Cats do have 
a complex social organization,but they never hunt in packs.In the wild,most of 
their    day      is    spent     in     individual   stalking(潜行追踪)
.Going_for_a_walk_with_a_human,therefore,

 has_no_appeal_for_them.And_as_for_“coming_to_heel”_and_learning_to_“sit”

 _and_“stay”,
 they_are_simply_not_interested.Such_drills_have_no_meaning_for_them.
      Because of this difference between domestic cats and domestic dogs,

cat­lovers tend to be rather different from dog­lovers.As a rule cat­lover have a 
stronger personality bias(偏向)toward  working  alone,away   from  larger 
group.Artists like cats;soldiers like dogs.The highly­praised “group loyalty” 
phenomenon can't be seen in both cats and cat­lovers.If you are a company person,a 
member of the gang,or a person picked for the military team,the chances are that 
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 at home there is no cat curled up in front of the fire.The ambitious politician,the 
 professional athlete,these are not typical cat­owners.It is hard to picture football 

 players with cats in their laps—much easier to imagine them taking their dogs for 
 walks.
      Those who have studied cat­owners and dog­owners as two distinct groups 
report that there is also a gender bias.The majority of cat­lovers are female.This bias 
is not surprising in view of the division of labor obvious in the development of human 
societies.Prehistoric males became specialized as group­hunters,while the females 

concentrated on food­gathering and childbearing.This difference contributed to a 

human male “pack mentality” that is far less marked in females.Wolves,the wild 
ancestors of domestic dogs,also became pack­hunters,so the modern dog has much 
more in common with the human male than with the human female.
      The argument will always go on—feline self­sufficiency and individualism 
against canine camaraderie(同志之情)and good­fellowship.But_it_is_important_to_ 
 stress_that_in_making_a_valid_point_I_have_caricatured(凸显)the _two_positions. 
 In_  reality_ there_are_many_people_who_enjoy_ equally_the_company_of_ 
 both_cats_and_dogs.And_all_of_us,or_nearly_all_of_us,have_both_feline_ 
 and_canine_elements_in_our_personalities.We_have_moods_when_we_want_to_be_
 alone_and_thoughtful,and_other_times_when_we_       wish_to_be_in_the_ 
 center_of_a_ crowded ,noisy_room.
 【语篇解读】 本文是一篇说明文。介绍了猫和狗不同的天性,以及他们的主
 人在性格上的不同点。

 8.The primary purpose of the passage is to________.
   A.advocate dogs as making better pets than cats
   B.distinguish the different characteristics of dogs and cats
   C.show the poor nature of dogs because of their loyalty characteristics
   D.emphasize the role that human plays in the personalities of domestic pets
   B [考查写作意图。根据文章第二段第一句“This                   is rather different from the 
   kind of bond that develops between human and dog.”及文章第三段第一句

   “Because  of this difference between domestic cats and domestic dogs,
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  cat­lovers tend to be rather different from dog­lovers.”可知,这篇文章的主要
  意图是通过对比来区别猫和狗的不同特点。]
9.According   to  the  passage,the  domestic  cat  is  a  contradiction 
   because________.
  A.it possesses the physical characteristics of both feline and human
  B.it can't be tamed and will always keep its wild habits
  C.it refuses to be dominated despite living comfortably with human
  D.although it plays the part of a pet,it really dominates human beings
  C [考查细节理解。根据文章第一段第一、二句“The                       domestic cat  is a 
  contradiction.No other animal has developed such a close relationship with 
  human,while  at the same time demanding and getting such self­determining 

  movement  and action.”可知,家猫是一种矛盾体。一方面,没有其他动物能
  像它们一样和人类培养出如此密切的关系,另一方面,它们更为苛求获取自

  主决定的动作和行为,而不是一味地服从主人,故选                        C 项。尽管它们和主人
  生活得很舒适,然而它们又拒绝被统治。]

★10.The underlined sentences in the second paragraph are used to stress________.
  A.the disharmonious relationship between cats  and human beings
  B.a difference between cats and dogs that emphasizes cats' nature
  C.the ignorance of dogs,which makes them more loyal pets
  D.the laziness of cats that keeps them from being pack animals
  B [考查推理判断。上文叙述狗以服从和忠诚而出名,习惯于群体行动,将
  主人视作是它们群体的主宰者,而猫更喜欢个体潜行追踪,从来不会成群捕
  食。因此,和人类一起散步对它们来说毫无吸引力。至于“紧随主人”,学
  习“坐”和“不动”,它们根本没有兴趣。这些训练对猫没有意义。故这段

  话是为了进一步说明猫与狗的不同特点。]

★11.The author suggests in the third paragraph that cat­lovers are ________than 

     dog­lovers.
  A.less dependent
  B.less creative
  C.more successful
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  D.more out­going
  A [考查推理判断。根据文章第三段第二句“As                     a  rule cat­lover have a 
  stronger personality bias(偏向)toward working alone,away  from  larger 

  group.”可知。]

★12.The fourth paragraph indicates that human females ________.
  A.preferred to raise domestic dogs to help with food­gathering
  B.developed independent roles that required less group behavior
  C.had to gather food because they were not strong enough to hunt
  D.were negatively affected by the division of labor of human societies
  B [考查推理判断。根据文章第四段倒数第二句“This                      difference contributed 

  to a human male ‘pack mentality’ that is far less marked in females.”可知。]

★13.The underlined four sentences in the last paragraph provide ________.
  A.a summary of the points made earlier
  B.a reason for the statements made earlier
  C.an adjustment of the position taken earlier
  D.an example of the main points made earlier
  C [考查推理判断。作者在这里强调说为了论证一个有效的观点,在上文的
  阐述中,他凸显了两种不同的立场。而在实际生活中,有许多人既享受猫的
  陪伴,同样也享受狗的陪伴。几乎所有人,在个性方面,既有猫科动物方面
  的特点,也兼具犬科动物的特点,所以加下划线的句子的作用是对上文作者

  所持观点的适度调整。]
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