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高考专题英语之非谓语动词现在分词在句中的形式及用法

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     高考专题英语之非谓语动词现在分词在句中的形式及用法

                                  状元必读

  1. 本讲主要梳理以下知识点:现在分词在句中的形式及用法

  2. 本讲课程涉及的知识点在高考考试大纲中对应的考点为非谓语动词

  3. 该考点具体到考核目标与要求为五级知识点;

  4. 该考点常出现在单项选择题和完形填空中,大体分值为                       2-3 分;

    在阅读中也会考查学生对文中非谓语动词的理解;

    在书面表达中也鼓励学生运用非谓语动词使文章更简洁、生动。

                                 专家点拨


一、知识精讲[来源:学科网   ZXXK]

(一)现在分词的特点:             

     现在分词既具有动词的一些特征,又具有形容词和副词的句法功能。                                 

  1. 现在分词的一般形式:           v.+ing 

     语态上表示该现在分词与其逻辑主语之间是主动关系,在时间上表示进行或与谓
语动词同时发生或存在的动作或状态。

【例句】

    The girl wearing a red dress is our monitor.

    The children came into the classroom, talking and laughing.

状元典例

    (北京卷)              at my classmates’ faces, I read the same excitement in their eyes.

    A. Looking       B. Look      C. To look        D. Looked

    答案:A

    思路分析:look     与句子主语     I 之间为主动关系,      而且与句子中的谓语动词           read 同时发
生,因此用     looking.

  2. 现在分词的完成式:          having + 过去分词
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    语态上表示该现在分词与其逻辑主语之间是主动关系,在时间上表示完成或先于谓
语动词的动作或状态。

【例句】

    对比这两个句子:

    Visiting the park, we took a lot of photos. (在公园游览同时照相)

    Having visited the park, we went to the museum. (先去公园,后去博物馆)

    Having finished my homework, I went to bed.

    Having received her letter, I knew everything was all right there.

状元典例

    (湖南卷)Dina,            for months to find a job as a waitress, finally took a position at a 
local advertising agency.

    A. struggling       B. struggled        C. having struggled  D. to struggle

    答案:C

    思路分析:该空考查分词短语作时间状语,                   其逻辑主语     Dina 与 struggle 之间为主动
关系,故排除      B 项。由句中的      finally 可知非谓语动词表示的动作发生在句中谓语                took a 

position 之前,故用现在分词的完成主动式。[来源:学科网]

  3. 现在分词的被动语态:一般式               being+过去分词表示与谓语动词同时发生的被动的
动作,完成式       having been+过去分词    ,表示发生在谓语动词之前的被动的动作。                      

【例句】

    The problem being discussed is very important. 正在被讨论的问题很重要。         

    Having been told many times, the naughty boy made the same mistake. 

    已被告诉了好几遍,          (但)这个淘气的孩子           仍犯了同一个错误。           

状元典例    1

    (湖北卷)______from     other continents for millions of years, Australia has many plants 
and animals not found in any other country in the world.

     A. Being separated                 B. Having separated 

     C. Having been separated           D. To be separated

   答案:C

   思路分析:因为       Australia 与 separate 是被动关系,  且 separate 发生在谓语动词      has 之前,
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 所以用现在分词的完成被动式作原因状语。


状元典例    2

    (陕西卷)               around the Water Cube, we were then taken to see the Bird’s Nest 
for the 2008 Olympic Games.

    A. Having shown    B. To be shown     C. Having been shown   D. To show

    答案  :C

    思路分析:show     与  take 之间有明显的时间先后关系,且句子的主语与                  show 构成逻辑
上的动宾关系,故该空格处用现在完成时的被动形式。

  4. 现在分词的否定式:          not + 现在分词     

【例句】

    Not knowing what to do next, she stopped to wait.

    Not having received her letter, we wrote to her again.

状元典例

    (广东卷)______ the programme, they have to stay there for another two weeks.

    A. Not completing         B. Not completed

    C. Not having completed    D. Having not completed      

    答案:C

    思路分析:此题考查分词的完成式的否定形式的用法,依据题意,“未完成”和“逗留”
两者间有明显的时间先后关系,且分词的否定形式应在分词前加                           not,故选   C。 

(二)现在分词的句法功能:

  1. 作表语:     

【例句】

   The film being shown in the cinema is exciting. 正在这家 影院上映的电影很棒。         

    The present situation is inspiring. 当前的形 势鼓舞人心。     

    常用的作表语的现在分词:

    surprising, moving, frightening disappointing, interesting, encouraging 等。

状元典例
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    (北京卷)Mr Smith, ____ of the ____ speech, started to read a novel.  

    A. tired, boring      B. tiring, bored    C. tired, bored    D. tiring, boring

    答案:A

    思路分析:tired “感到厌倦”表示人的心理感受,要用过去分词;boring“令人厌烦的”,
表示事物本身所具有的性质或特点。

  2. 作定语:

【例句】

    The man speaking to the teacher is our monitor's father. 

    正与老师谈话的那个人是我们班长的父亲。

    The boy standing there is a classmate of mine. 

    Rewrite the sentence with the same meaning

    (1)The student answering questions is our monitor. 

    = 

    (2)The man working for extra hours gets an extra pay. 

    =  

    (3)They are visitors coming from several countries. 

    =

    小结  1:

    Verb-ing 形式作定语,可转换成___________,可表示__________的动作,也可表示

经常性的动作或当时的状态。

    Practice: Rewrite the sentence

    (1)His father who is watching football match is very excited.

    = 

    (2)Anybody who swims in the river will be fined. 

    =  

Compare : Do you find some differences?

    (1)The student answering questions is our monitor. 
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    (2)They are visitors coming from several countries. 

    the twinkling stars            the rising sun                 the falling leaves

    the birds flying in the sky      the girl singing on the stage

    小结  2:

    ____________作定语时,放在所修饰的名词之后,意义上相当于__________;
________作定语时,放在所修饰的名词前。

状元典例    1

    (湖南卷)The wild flowers looked like a soft orange blanket _____ the desert. 

    A. covering      B. covered            C. cover        D. to cover

    答案:A

    思路分析:本题考查非谓语动词作定语。因                  blanket 与 cover 之间是主谓关系,因此应
用现在分词作定语。

状元典例    2

    (江苏卷)Recently     a survey _______ prices of the same goods in two different 
supermarkets has caused heated debate among citizens.         

    A. compared        B. comparing      C. compares      D. being compared

    答案:B

    思路分析:句意:最近,在两家不同超市对相同商品进行的一次价格比较调查引起了
市民热烈的讨论。分析句子结构可知,句子的谓语动词为                        has  caused,故空格处应为非谓
语动词形式,来充当         a survey 的后置定语。a     survey 与 compare 之间存在主动关系,故用
现在分词。

状元典例    3

   (山东卷)Look over there——there’s a very long, winding path_____ up to the house.  

    A. leading            B. leads          C. led          D. to lead             

    答案:A

    思路分析:句意:看那儿——有一条很长的,蜿蜒曲折的小路通向那座房子。leads                               用
作谓语动词,本题的         there be 句型中已有    is,故排除    B 项;path 与  lead 之间是逻辑上的主
谓关系,又由题中的动词           look 可以判断   lead 这一动作不是表示将来的动作,故可以排除过
去分词短语和不定式短语充当的后置定语,即排除                     C,D  两项,在本句中       leading up to the 
house 作后置定语,修饰       path。
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  3. 作宾语补足语:分词前的谓语动词                多为感官动词或使役动词,如:                see, watch, 
hear, feel, find, notice, observe, listen to, look at, leave, get, keep,catch 等。 

【例句】

    Can you hear her singing the song in the next room? 你能听见她在隔壁唱歌吗?        

    He kept the car waiting at the gate. 他让小汽车在门口等着。        

状元典例    1

    (湖南卷)Listen! Do you hear someone          for help?

    A. calling          B. call            C. to call          D. called  

    答案:A

    思路分析:该空在句中为非谓语动词作宾补,                    根据   someone 与 call 之间的主动关系
排除   D 项。hear 后接不定式作宾补时应省略            to,  由此排除    C 项。由   Listen 可判断此处表
示正在求救,       故选  A 项。

状元典例    2

    (全国    II)They use computers to keep the traffic         smoothly.     

    A. being run       B. run         C. to run        D. running  

    答案:D

    思路分析:这里构成         keep sth. doing sth., doing 作 keep 的宾补。

  4. 作状语:

    不定式和分词作状语的比较


                                   状语类型[来源:学科网]


           名称[来源:Zxxk.Com]
                     时间    目的    结果    原因    方式   条件    伴随    让步

           不定式             √     √     √

           现在分词      √           √     √     √    √     √     √

    (1)作时间      状语: 

【例句】

     (While)   Working in the factory, he was an excellent worker. 

    Arriving at the cinema, they found the film had been over. 

    =When they arrived at the cinema, they found the film had been over.
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    Rewrite the sentence using the verb-ing form 

    When he was doing his homework, he heard someone crying in the next room. 

    =_____________________, he heard someone crying in the next room.  

状元典例

    (浙江卷)When ______ different cultures, we often pay attention only to the differences 
without noticing the many similarities. 

    A. compared      B. being compared      C. comparing       D. having compared

    答案:C

    思路分析:由于句中主语           we 与动词   compare 之间为主动关系,        所以用现在分词的主
动式。其中分词短语         when comparing different cultures 相当于时间状语从句   when we 
compare different cultures。

    (2)作方式和伴随状语:            作伴随状语,表示一个动作发生的同时,另一个动作也在
发生或进行。

【例句】

    He sat at his desk writing a letter.

    He stayed at home, cleaning and washing. 他待在家里,又擦又洗。         

状元典例    1

    (江苏卷)Whenever he was asked why he was late for class, he would answer carelessly, 
always ______the same thing. 

    A. saying                B. said            C. to say               D. having said

    答案:A

    思路分析:此题考查非谓语动词。由                “he”与“say”间的逻辑关系判断,         应为主动关系,
 故B  项可排除;此处表示一个经常的习惯性动作,故                    C 项的不定式表具体的未做的事情,
在此不合适;D       项的完成式也不符合句意;只有             A 项为最佳答案,       在句中作方式状语。

状元典例    2

    (安徽卷)My cousin came to see me from the country,  ______me a full basket of fresh 
fruits.  

    A. brought           B. bringing       C. to bring        D. had brought

    答案:B

    思路分析:bringing    与句子主语     my  cousin 间在逻辑上存在主谓关系,           在此句中用现
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在分词作伴随状语。

     (3)作条件状语:         

【例句】

    (If)Playing all day, you will waste your valuable time. 

    Working hard at your lessons, you are to succeed. 

    (4)作结果状语:          

【例句】

    He dropped the glass, breaking it into pieces. 他的杯子掉了,结果摔得粉碎。         

状元典例 

    (天津卷)It rained heavily in the south,             serious flooding in several 
provinces.

    A. caused   B. having caused    C. causing     D. to cause

    答案:C

    思路分析:句意:南方下了大雨,在几个省区造成严重洪灾。空格后的                              serious 
flooding 是 rained heavily 的后果,而且句子主语     it 和 cause 之间存在主动关系,所以此处
要用动词的     ing 形式作结果状语

    (5)作让步状语:          

【例句】

    Though raining heavily, it cleared up very soon. 

    Taking more care, I still made quite a few mistakes. 

状元典例 

   (上海卷)Though ______ money, his parents managed to send him to university.

    A. lacked      B. lacking of      C. lacking      D. lacked in

    答案:C

    思路分析:本题考查         lack(缺少)的用法以及“连词+现在分词”作状语。lack                用作及物
动词时,直接接宾语;用作不及物动词时,常接介词                      for;be lacking in 表示缺乏某种品质、
性格等,后接抽象名词;名词             lack 后则接  of。本题应选现在分词        lacking 作状语,
money 直接作   lacking 的宾语。

    (6)作原因状语:
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【例句】

    Being ill, he didn’t go to school yesterday.

    Not knowing his address, we couldn’t pay a visit to him.

状元典例 

    (安徽卷)He had a wonderful childhood, _____with his mother to all corners of the world

    A. travel       B. to travel   C.  traveled    D. traveling

    答案:D

    思路分析:主语(he)与动词            travel 之间存在主动关系,故用         traveling 作原因状语。

  5. 作独立成分:       

【例句】

    Judging from(by)   his appearance, he must be an actor. 

    从外表来看,他一定是个演员。

     Generally speaking, girls are more careful. 一般来说,女孩子更细心。       

状元典例

    ______ from media reports, the result has been unclear.

    A. To judge      B. Having judged     C. Judging         D. Judged

    答案:C

    思路分析:句意:从媒体报道来看,此项结果一直很模糊。judging from(从……判断)
无论与主句主语间是主动关系,还是被动关系,judge                    都只能用    v.-ing 形式。   


二.难点聚焦

    分词的独立主格:

    在句中作状语,在分词的独立主格结构中,分词前面可以带有自己的逻辑主语(名
词或代词)。

    (1)“逻辑主语+分词          ”或“名词/代词+分词         ”形式

【例句】

    I waiting for the bus, a bird fell on my head. 我等汽车时,一只鸟落到我头上。           
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    All the tickets having been sold out, they went away disappointedly. 

    所有的票    都已卖光,他们失望地离开了。                 

    Time permitting, we'll do another two exercises. 

    如果时间允许,我们将做另两个练习。                    

    (2)There being+主语

【例句】

    There being nothing else to do, we went home.

    (3)with   (without)   +名词(代词宾格)         +分词形式     

【例句】

    With the lights burning, he fell asleep. 他点着灯睡着了。

    With him leading the way, we had no difficulty in finding the old man’s house.


三、状元笔记

    小结   1:现在分词作状语时,它的逻辑主语必须与句子的主语是一致的,主语与现
在分词之间是主动或进行关系。

    注意:Verb-ing   形式作状语,来自状语从句。一般情况下,前后主语一致。 

状元典例 

    (全国   II)While watching television, __________.

    A. the doorbell rang                   B. the doorbell rings

    C. we heard the doorbell ring          D. we heard the doorbell rings

    答案:C

    思路分析:因为题干使用了            watching, 可以推断该句主语为人,           排除   A、B 两项。又
因为   hear 是感官动词,     其后要使用动词原形作宾语补足语,                所以   D 项不对。

    小结   2:Verb-ing  形式作定语,可转换成定语从句,与所修饰的词之间是主动关系,
表示动作在主动或进行。

    小结  3:Verb-ing 形式短语作定语时,           放在所修饰的名词之后,单个-ing           作定语时放
在所修饰的名词前。

                                 状元必练
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  1. (  )On receiving a phone call from his wife _____ she had a fall, Mr Gordon immediately 
rushed home from office.  

    A. says         B. said    C. saying   D. to say      

    答案:C

    思路分析:句意:一接到他妻子说她跌倒的电话,戈登先生立即从办公室往家赶。根
据句意和句子结构可知,空格后应是电话的内容,且                      a phone call 和 say 之间是逻辑上的主
谓关系,故应用现在分词短语作后置定语。

  2.(  )Do you wake up every morning _______ energetic and ready to start a new day?

    A. feel       B. to feel        C. feeling      D. felt      

    答案:C

    思路分析:句意:你每天早上醒来都精力充沛,准备好开始新的一天了吗?feeling                              短
语在句中作伴随状语。

  3. ( )        around the fire, the tourists danced with the local people.   

    A. Gather    B. To gather      C. Gathering     D. To be gathering           

    答案:C

    思路分析:句意:游客们和当地人围着篝火跳起了舞蹈。Gathering                       around the fire 为
现在分词短语作状语,补充说明人们当时的情况,由于                       tourists 和 gather 之间为逻辑上的
主动关系,所以要选         C。

  4. ( )The lawyer listened with full attention,        to miss any point. 

    A. not trying        B. trying not     C. to try not         D. not to try

    答案:B

    思路分析:句中       listen 和 try not to miss 为同时进行的动作,    故用现在分词的一般式作
伴随状语。又动词不定式的否定式要在其前加                    not,故选   B。

  5. ( )________ m any times, he finally understood it.  

    A. Told     B. Telling    C. Having told        D. Having been told  

    答案:D

    思路分析:句意:说过很多遍后他才理解。tell                 与主语之间的关系是被动和完成的关系,
 所以用   having been done 来表示被动和完成。  

  6. ( )I smell something __________ in the kitchen. Can I call you back in a minute? 
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    A. burning     B. burnt         C. being burnt        D. to be burnt

    答案:A

    思路分析:smell     something burning 闻到有东西烧焦了,由下句可知设空处表示动作正
在进行。

 7. ( )—Come on, please give me some ideas about the project.

    —Sorry. With so much work _______ my mind, I almost break down. 

    A. filled             B. filling    C. to fill  D. being filled

    答案:B

    思路分析:本题考查非谓语动词。With              的复合结构中,            宾补可以是     adj.,  adv., 
prep.phrase, doing, done 或 to do, 此处 so much work 与 fill 之间为主谓关系, 并且强调此时
的状态,   故用现在分词短语作宾补。

   8. ( )  Bats are surprisingly long lived creatures, some ______a life span of around 20 
 years.

    A. having   B. had     C. have     D. to have 

    答案:A

    思路分析:句意:蝙蝠是令人吃惊的长寿动物,有些蝙蝠的生命周期约达                               20 年。分析
句子结构可知,这是一个简单句,中间用逗号分隔,所以后半句是对前半句的补充说明,
some 是逻辑主语,其后应接非谓语动词形式,由于                   some 与  have 之间是逻辑上的主谓关
系,所以用现在分词形式,构成独立主格结构。
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