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专题四    第二节    分类突破
三、概括词汇类
内容索引


                            真题研析

                           微技能突破

                           随堂限时练
真题研析
(2016·江苏)
              An Extension of the Human Brain
   Other people can help us compensate for our mental and emotional
deficiencies(欠缺),much as a wooden leg can compensate for a physical
deficiency.To be exact,other people can extend our intelligence and
help us understand and adjust our emotions.When another person helps
us in such ways,he or she is participating in what I’ve called a
“social prosthetic(义肢的) system.” Such systems do not need to
operate face-to-face , and it’s clear to me that the Internet is
expanding the range of my own social prosthetic systems.It’s already a
big bank of many minds.Even in its current state,the Internet has
extended my memory and judgment.
   Regarding memory: Once I look up something on the Internet,I
don’t need to keep all the details for future use—I know where to find
that information again and can quickly and easily do so.More generally,
the Internet functions as if it were my memory.This function of the
Internet is particularly striking when I’m writing; I’m no longer
comfortable writing if I’m not connected to the Internet.It’s become
natural to check facts as I write,taking a minute or two to dip into
PubMed,Wikipedia,or other websites.
   Regarding judgment: The Internet has made me smarter in matters
small and large.For example,when I’m writing a textbook,it has
become second nature to check a dozen definitions of a key term,which
helps me dig into the core and understand its meaning.But more than
that,I now regularly compare my views with those of many others.If I
have a “new idea,” I now quickly look to see whether somebody else
has already thought of it,or something similar—and I then compare
what I think with what others have thought.This certainly makes my
own views clearer.Moreover,I can find out whether my reactions to an
event are reasonable enough by reading about those of others on the
Internet.
   These effects of the Internet have become even more striking since
I’ve begun using a smartphone.I now regularly pull out my phone to
check a fact,watch a video,read weibo.Such activities fill the spaces
that used to be dead time (such as waiting for somebody to arrive for a
lunch meeting).
   But that’s the upside(好处).The downside is that in those dead
periods I often would let my thoughts flow and sometimes would have an
unexpected insight or idea.Those opportunities are now fewer and
farther between.
               An  Extension of the Human Brain

        ●The  71.Internet can help make up for our mental and
        emotional deficiencies as a wooden leg can compensate for a
   A  
        bodily deficiency.
prosthetic 
        ●It 72.participates/joins in our daily events,extending our
 nature
        intelligence,comprehending our feelings,and expanding the
        range of social activities.
           ●On the Internet,we could quickly and easily locate the 
           details,and check facts,without 73.keeping them in mind.
 Wonderful 
           ●The Internet makes us smarter over 74.all/different/various
  aspects: 
           kinds of things.It provides a dozen definitions of a key term for 
memory and 
           us to find the 75.heart/core of the matter.
  judgment
           ●The Internet enables us to exchange ideas with many others 
           to 76.check our claims,and to 77.judge our actions.
                 ●Smartphones make it easier and more 
                 79.convenient to check reality,watch video clips,
 The 78.mixed/two read weibo.
sides of smartphones ●Smartphones 80.reduce the possibility for new 
                 and insightful minds,and steal away our dead 
                 time.
考场思维模式
第一步:读表格,填出较简单的概括性词汇题
文章标题是“人类大脑的延伸”,              然后分为三个部分:假肢给我们带
来的好处,网络的优点,智能手机的优点。其中第78题是概括词汇类,
78题根据其右表信息和文章的最后两段可知既提到了智能手机的优点也
提到了其缺点,所以这是智能手机的正反两方面内容,所以使用形容词
“mixed/two”,故第78题填mixed/two。
第二步:定位、定词、定性、定形
任务型阅读表格高度概括了原文信息,为了节约时间并且提高解题的针
对性,先读表格内容,然后在原文中进行定位。定位后进行定词。定词
后要定性(如名词、动词、形容词、副词),最后定形(如单复数、非谓语
形式、大小写等)。
1.原文词汇类
71.答案   Internet
解析    根据第一段第四句“Such       systems do not need to operate face-to-
face,and it’s clear to me that the Internet is expanding the range of
my  own social prosthetic systems.”可知因特网可以拓宽社会义肢系统
的范围,也就是说网络可以弥补我们精神和情感上的缺陷。
2.转换词汇类
72.答案   participates/joins
解析     根据第一段最后两句“It’s           already a big bank of many
minds.Even in its current state,the Internet has extended my memory
and judgment.”可知动词短语“participate/join in”符合句意。
73.答案   keeping
解析    根据第二段第一句“Once       I look up something on the Internet,I
don’t need to keep all the details...”可知动词短语“keep...in mind记
住”,在表格中放在介词without的后面,要使用动名词keeping的形式。
74.答案   all/different/various
解析    根据第三段第一句“The          Internet has made me smarter in
matters small and large.”可知原文中“matters small and large”就是
“all/different/various”的事情。
75.答案   heart/core
解析    根据第三段第二句“...which       helps me dig into the core and
understand its meaning”可知网络能让我们找到事物的核心并理解其真
正含义。故短语“the       core/heart of the matter”和原文中“dig into the
core”语义一致。
76.答案   check
解析    根据第三段第四句“If       I have a ‘new idea,’ I now quickly
look to see whether somebody else has already thought of it,or
something similar—and I then compare what I think with what others
have thought.”可知当我们有了新的观点以后,我们会上网检查核对别
人是否已经有了同样的观点,并对自己的行动做出判断。表格中check
与原文语义一致。
79.答案   convenient
解析    根据第四段后两句“I       now regularly pull out my phone to check
a fact,watch a video,read weibo.Such activities fill the spaces that
used to be dead time (such as waiting for somebody to arrive for a lunch
meeting).”可知我们可以使用智能手机随时查信息,看视频,读微博,
使用起来非常方便。所以使用形容词convenient。
80.答案   reduce
解析    根据文章最后两句“The       downside is that in those dead periods I
often would let my thoughts flow and sometimes would have an
unexpected insight or idea.Those opportunities are now fewer and
farther between.”(在过去那些“dead   periods”时,我总会有一些灵光
一现的神来之念,但是现在这些时间都被智能手机占用了。这无疑就减
少  了 这 些 神 来  之 念 的 可 能  性 。 ) 可 知 表 格 中 应 为  “reduce the
possibility”。
3.概括词汇类
77.答案   judge
解析    根据第三段最后一句“Moreover,I         can find out whether my
reactions to an event are reasonable enough by reading about those of
others on the Internet.”(而且在网络上阅读其他人的信息,让我判断我
的行为是否合理),所以表格里使用动词judge。
第三步:复查并将答案填在答题卡上
复查完确认没有修改之后,将试卷上所写答案填在答题卡规定区域,注
意要认真书写,不能潦草。
微技能突破
典型的任务型阅读题目通常设置分为两栏,左边是文章提纲(passage
outline),右边是支持性细节或者论据(supporting        details)。概括词汇类
要求能够最大程度地覆盖右栏信息,同时具有简洁性。这就要求考生对
全文或段落进行总体语篇把握,通过观察表格的设置特点,从而归纳和
概括出所考查的单词。
概括词汇要求考生能够准确无误地概括出文章的主题,能够在概括的基
础上进行推断、归纳、抽象并提炼出文章主旨或者重要信息,也就是要
拥有在语篇结构解读基础上的信息转换能力。考查考生对信息的综合加
工和处理能力,其信息既体现在短文阅读中,也体现在表格信息的比较
与理解中。
具体的解题步骤如下:
(1)一审表格结构。注意文章内容脉络,标题和所需的表达类型。
(2)二审短文意义。注意文章的段落和表格的匹配性。
(3)三审语法运用。注意涉及到的构词法和语法项目。
随堂限时练
(2018·泰州中学检测)
    Your life is composed of all the little things we experience every day,
and knowing how to find joy in some of those little things is one of the
easiest ways to let happiness slowly fill your cup.In order for that to
happen,you need to do two very simple things:put yourself in such
situations that you can experience happiness there,and then find a way
to savour the experience and let it sink into you.
    To put yourself in the position of experiencing happiness every day,
Lahna Catalino,Ph.D,at the University of California,San Francisco,
recommends an approach called “prioritizing positivity”—organizing
your day-to-day life on purpose so that it contains situations which
naturally give rise to positive emotions.It involves both carving out time
in your daily routine to do things that you really love and heavily
weighing the positive emotional consequences of major life decisions,
like taking a new job,and you will regularly find yourself.
    Then how can we find a way to savour the happy experience and let
it sink into you? Here is what psychologist Rick Hanson,the author of
Buddha’s Brain explains.
    Let a good fact become a good experience.
    Often we go through life and some good thing happens—a little
thing,like we checked off an item on our To Do list,we survived
another day at work,the flowers are blooming,and so forth.Hey,this
is an opportunity to feel good.Don’t leave the money lying on the table:
recognize that this is an opportunity to let yourself truly feel good.
    Really enjoy this positive experience.
    Practice what any school teacher knows:if you want to help people
learn something,make it as intense as possible—in this case,as felt in
the body as possible—for as long as possible.
    When sinking into this experience,sense your intention that this
experience is sinking into you.
    Sometimes people do this through visualization,like by sensing a golden light
coming into themselves or a soothing balm inside themselves.You might imagine a
jewel going into the treasure chest in your heart—or just know that this experience is
sinking into you,becoming a resource you can take with you no matter where you
go.
    It might seem a little cliche to say“stop and smell the roses”,but it’s
moments like those that can be stored in your happiness bank and withdrawn
later.Living a happy life can be as simple as accepting the happiness that’s already
around you.If you want more,it’s OK to go out and achieve it,but don’t forget
w h e r e   h a p p i n e s s   r e a l l y  c o m e s   f r o m .
        Let 71.______Happiness_____ Come Naturally with the “Little Things”
             *Put yourself in situations 73.______where  you experience 
72._______How/Ways___ 
             happiness.
to let happiness 
             *Find a way to savour the experience and let it sink into 
come your way
             you.

             *Organize your everyday life 75.___purposely/intentionally/_________________
Giving 
             __deliberately_________ to experience positive emotions.
74.________priority  to 
             *76.___Spare/Squeeze__________ your time to do things you love as 
positive things
             well as heavily weighing the positive emotional consequences.

       解析71  解析72   解析73  解析74   解析75   解析76  语篇解读     答案
               *Let a good fact become a good experience so that you 
                          chance/opportunity
Enjoying the   have the 77._________________ to feel good.
experience and *Really enjoy the positive experience as long as possible.
letting it sink into *When sinking into this experience,be 78.________________aware/conscious  of 
you            your intention so that it becomes a resource to take 
               with you wherever you go.


                                                  解析77    解析78    答案
             *Happy moments like “stop and smell the roses” are 
             80._____memorable/lasting/unforgettable/impressive__________________________________.
79.__Conclusions_________
             *Living a happy life can be as simple as accepting the 
             happiness already around you.


                                          解析79  解析80   答案
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