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                                                第二节 分类突破

                              一、原文词汇类


(2017·江苏)

                              Population Change

    Why is the world’s   population growing?The  answer is not what you  might 

think.The reason for the explosion is not that people have been reproducing like 

rabbits,but  that people have stopped dropping dead like flies.In 1900,people 

died at  the  average age  of 30.By  2000  the average  age was  65.But  while 

increasing health was a  typical feature of the  20th century,declining  birth 

rate could be a defining one of the 21st.

    Statistics show that the average number of births per woman has fallen from 

4.9 in the early 1960s to 2.5 nowadays.Furthermore,around 50% of the world’s 

population live in regions where the figure is now below the replacement level 

(i.e.2.1 births per woman)  and almost all developed nations  are experiencing 

sub-replacement birth rate.You might think that developing nations would make up 

the loss  (especially  since 80%  of  the world’s   people  now live  in  such 

nations),but  you’d  be wrong.Declining birth rate is a major problem in  many 

developing regions too,which might cause catastrophic global shortages of work 
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force within a few decades.

    A great  decline in  young work  force is  likely to  occur in  China,for 

instance.What does  it  imply?First,China   needs  to undergo  rapid  economic 

development before  a  population decline  hits  the country.Second,if   other 

factors such  as  technology  remain  constant,economic  growth  and  material 

expectations will fall well below recent standards and this could invite trouble.

    Russia is another  country with population problems  that could break  its 

economic promise.Since 1992 the number of people dying has been bigger than that 

of those being born by a massive 50%.Indeed official figures suggest the country 

has shrunk by 5% since 1993 and people in Russia live a  shorter life now than 

those in 1961.Why is  this occurring?Nobody  is quite sure,but  poor diet  and 

above all long-time alcoholism have much to do with it.If current trends don’t 

bend,Russia’s population will be about the size of Yemen’s by the year 2050.

    In the north of India,the population is booming due to high birth rates,

but in the south,where most economic development is taking place,birth rate is 

falling rapidly.In a further twist,birth   rate is highest in  poorly educated 

rural areas and lowest in highly educated urban areas.In total,25% of India’s 

working-age population has  no education.In  2030,a  sixth  of the  country’s 

potential work force could be totally uneducated.

    One solution is obviously to import foreign workers via immigration.As for 

the USA,it is almost unique among developed nations in having a population that 

is expected to grow by 20% from 2010-2030.Moreover,the USA has a track record 

of successfully accepting immigrants.As a result it’s likely to see a rise in 

the size of its  working-age population and to witness strong  economic growth 

over the longer term.
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考场思维模式

第一步:读表格,知文章大意

通过略读树状图,可知本文话题是“人口下降”,并且分析了几个国家存在的人口问题。


第二步:定位,定词,定性,定形

任务型阅读树状图高度概括了原文信息,为了节约时间并且提高解题的针对性,先读图中的

内容,然后在原文中进行定位,定位后进行定词,定词后定性(如名词、动词、形容词、副

词),最后定形(如单复数、非谓语形式、大小写等)。

1.原文词汇类

74.答案 economic

解析 文章第三、四、五段分别分析了中国、俄罗斯、印度存在的人口问题以及对本国经济

发展的影响,结合第三、五段中出现的                economic       development 以及第四段中出现的

economic promise 可判断填   economic。

79.答案 immigration
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解析 最后一段介绍了美国解决人口问题的办法,即通过移民入境增加外国劳动力。根据

“One solution is obviously to import foreign workers via immigration.”可判断填

immigration。

2.转换词汇类

73.答案 immediate

解析     根据第二段中的“...which         might cause  catastrophic global shortages  of 

work force within a few decades.”可知,发展中国家出生率的下降可能会导致几十年后

灾难性的劳动力短缺,由           within a few decades 可知出生率下降带来的影响可能不会立即

显现出来,故填       immediate。

75.答案 old/older

解析 根据第三段第一句“A            great decline in young work force is likely  to occur 

in China,for  instance.”可知,中国很有可能出现年轻劳动力减少的问题,也就是说中

国的劳动力群体正在变老,此处既可以用                 old 的原级,也可以用其比较级。

76.答案 earlier

解析 根据第四段中的“...people in Russia live a shorter life now than those in 

1961.”可知,当前俄罗斯人的寿命比             1961 年时要短,live a shorter life     可以同义替换

为 earlier death(早逝)。

3.概括词汇类

71.答案 lower

解析 根据第一段最后一句“...declining birth rate could be a defining one of the 

21st.”可知,出生率的下降是          21 世纪的特征,也就是说,21           世纪的出生率可能会比          20 世

纪的更低,故填       lower。

72.答案 size/scale

解析 根据第二段中的“...almost            all developed  nations are  experiencing  sub-

replacement birth rate.”可知,大部分发达国家正经历着人口负增长,也就是说发达国

家难以保持人口的规模,“人口的规模”用                  the size/scale of population 表达。

77.答案 living/life

解析 根据第四段中的“...but           poor diet and  above all long-time alcoholism have 

much to do with it.”可知,糟糕的饮食习惯尤其是长期酗酒与俄罗斯人寿命变短有很大

的关系,所以需要改变人们的生活方式,“生活方式”可以用                          way of living/life 表达。
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78.答案 equality

解析 根据第五段中的“In            a  further twist,birth   rate  is highest  in  poorly 

educated rural areas and lowest in highly educated urban areas.”可知,在教育水

平落后的农村地区出生率最高,而在教育水平发达的城市地区出生率最低。由此可以推断,

暂时不考虑出生率问题,如果印度能够实现教育机会均等的话,它的经济可能会腾飞,故填

equality。

80.答案 compensate

解析 根据最后一段可知,移民入境将会弥补美国年轻劳动力不足的问题,“弥补”可用

compensate for 表示。

第三步:复查并且将答案填在答题卡上

复查完确认不需要修改之后,将试卷上所写答案填在答题卡指定区域,注意要认真书写,不

能潦草。


信息捕捉题就是常见的原文词汇题,这是属于对学生英语中低层水平能力的考查。一般占

50%左右,原文词汇题是基础题目,考查学生从文章中捕捉信息的能力。一般可以直接通过

表格和原文进行对照,边读文章边可以找出与试题相关的信息,获取到相关单词,有时候试

题和原文句型的句式不同,需进行简单的逻辑推理然后找到相应的单词,不需变化,直接填

入。解题关键是信息的定位和筛选。


(2018·盐城三模)

    Artificial intelligence(AI) is rushing into business.Firms of all types are 

using AI to forecast demand,hire  workers and deal with customers.The McKinsey 

Global  Institute,a  think-tank  within  a  consultancy,forecasts   that  just 

applying AI to marketing,sales and supply chains could create economic value of 

 2.7 trn over the next 20 years.

    Such grand forecasts fuel anxiety as well  as hope.Less familiar,but  just 

as important,is how AI will transform the workplace.

    Start with the benefits.AI ought to improve productivity.Humanyze,a people 

analytics  software  provider,combines   data   from  its  badges(工牌)     with 
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employees’  calendars  and e-mails  to work  out,say,whether   office  layouts 

favour teamwork.Slack,a  workplace  messaging app,helps   managers assess  how 

quickly employees accomplish tasks.Companies will see when workers are not just 

dozing off but also misbehaving.

    Employees will  gain,too.Thanks  to  advances in  computer vision,AI   can 

check that workers are wearing safety equipment and that no one has been harmed 

on the  factory floor.Some will  appreciate more  feedback on  their work  and 

welcome a sense of how to do better.

    Machines can help  ensure that pay  rises and promotions go  to those  who 

deserve them.That starts with hiring.People often have biases but algorithms(算

法),if designed correctly,can be more unprejudiced.Software can flag patterns 

that people might miss.

    Yet AI’s  benefits will come with  many potential drawbacks.Algorithms may 

not be  free of  the biases  of their  programmers,which  can have  unintended 

consequences.The length of a travel may predict whether an employee will quit a 

job,but  this  focus may harm  poorer applicants.Older staff  might work  more 

slowly than younger ones and could risk losing their positions if all AI looks 

for is  productivity.And  surveillance(监控)   may  feel Orwellian—a   sensitive 

matter now that people have begun to question how much Facebook and other tech 

giants know about their private lives.

    As  regulators and  employers  weigh  the pros  and  cons  of  AI  in  the 

workplace,three  principles ought  to guide  its spread.First,data  should  be 

anonymised where  possible.Microsoft,for  example,has   a product  that  shows 

individuals how  they manage  their  time in  the  office,but  gives  managers 

information only in  aggregated(整合)   form.Second,the  use of AI  ought to  be 

transparent.Employees should be told what technologies are being used in their 

workplaces and which data are being gathered.As a matter of routine,algorithms 

used by firms to hire,fire and promote should be tested for bias and unintended 

consequences.Last,countries should  let individuals  request their own  data,

whether they are ex-workers wishing to contest a dismissal or jobseekers hoping 
                  中国现代教育网     www.30edu.com  全国最大教师交流平台

to demonstrate their ability to prospective employers.

    The march of AI into the workplace calls for trade-offs between privacy and 

performance.A fairer,more productive workforce is a prize worth having,but not 

if it chains employees.Striking a balance  will require thought,a  willingness 

for both employers and employees to adapt,and a strong dose of humanity.

                                    AI Spy

       Passage 
                                      Supporting details
       outline

                   While its future in business is full of 71.        ,AI 
    Introduction
                   affects the workplace negatively.

                   •AI makes business more productive by analyzing the 

                   office layout,assessing the employees’ working 

                   efficiency and 72.         their behavior.
    Advantages of 
                   •AI can 73.         employees’ safety and provide 
         AI
                   feedback for them to better themselves.

                   •AI helps businesses hire more suitable employees and 

                   develop a better 74.         of promotion and pay rise.

                   •Undesirable results may arise due to the biases of the 
      Potential 
                   programmers.
    drawbacks of 
                   •Poorer applicants and older staff are at a 75.        .
         AI
                   •Employees’ privacy is 76.         in the age of AI.

                   •Keep the data anonymous when they are gathered and 

                   used.

     Principles    •78.         employees of technologies used in the 

   77.             workplace and test the algorithms to avoid undesirable 

   AI’s spread     results.

                   •79.         employees to access data for their own 

                   sake.

       Summary     Only when employees and employers are 80.         to 
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                   adapt and respect each other,can AI make workplace 

                   fairer and more productive.

                   

语篇解读 本文是一篇说明文。首先对人工智能的优、缺点进行了介绍,然后介绍了指导这

项技术普及的三个原则,并在最后进行了总结。


71.答案 promise/hope

解析 原文词汇题。根据第二段第一句“Such grand forecasts fuel anxiety as well as 

hope.”中的   hope 的提示,              AI 的前景很好,但是对于工厂有不良的影响。故填

promise/hope。

72.答案 monitoring

解析 转换词汇题。根据第三段最后一句“Companies                   will see  when workers are  not 

just dozing off but also misbehaving.”可知,公司会监视员工是否打瞌睡或者行为不

当,故填    monitoring。

73.答案 guarantee/ensure

解析 转换词汇题。根据第四段第二句中的“AI                    can check  that workers are  wearing 

safety equipment and that no one has been harmed on the factory floor”可知 ,

AI 可以保障工人的安全,确认他们穿着安全设备,不会受伤。故填                          guarantee 或 ensure。

74.答案 system

解析 概括词汇题。根据第五段最后两句“People often have biases but algorithms(算

法),if designed correctly,can be more unprejudiced.Software can flag patterns 

that people might miss.”讲到了人们可能会因为存在偏见而不公正,但软件可以解决这

个问题,也就是有一个更好的升职加薪系统。故填                     system。

75.答案 disadvantage

解析 转换词汇题。根据第六段第四句“Older                  staff  might  work more  slowly  than 

younger ones ...”可知,年长员工效率可能比年轻员工低,容易被淘汰,处于弱势。故填

disadvantage。

76.答案 violated/disturbed

解析 转换词汇题。根据第六段末句中的“now that people have begun to question how 
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much Facebook and other tech giants know about their private lives”可知,人们开

始质疑脸书还有其他科技巨头对他们的私人生活有多么了解,也就是说人们的隐私被侵犯、

打扰。故填     violated/disturbed。

77.答案 guiding

解析 转换词汇题。根据倒数第二段第一句中的“three principles                     ought to  guide its 

spread”可知应用     guide 的相关形式。此处作定语,故填             guiding。

78.答案 Inform

解析 转换词汇题。根据倒数第二段第五句“Employees                      should   be    told    what 

technologies are  being used  in their  workplaces and  which data  are  being 

gathered.”可知,员工需要被告知信息。这里考查固定搭配                      inform  sb.of  sth,故填

Inform。

79.答案 Permit/Allow

解析 转换词汇题。根据倒数第二段最后一句“Last,countries should let individuals 

request their own data...”可知,应允许员工为了个人需求访问这

些数据。固定搭配        allow/permit sb.to do sth,故填  Permit/Allow。

80.答案 willing

解析 转换词汇题。根据最后一段最后一句“...a                    willingness for both employers and 

employees to adapt...”可知,管理者和员工愿意互相接受和尊重。固定搭配                       be willing 

to do sth,故填   willing。
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