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2019版高考英语黄冈经典一轮(实用课件)全国通用版 素养提升模拟练 十四

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                   素养提升模拟练 十四
                             自然与灾难


  2016   年浙江高考题完形填空叙述了在战争期间丈夫被安排到环境恶劣的沙

漠执行任务,      作者开始无法忍受,        而后慢慢发现了沙漠的美。引导考生树立亲

近自然,    回归自然的意识,       了解自然的奥妙,       尊重大自然;     辩证看待灾难与不公, 

珍惜眼前所有,       用联系的观点看世界。


                                                      (2016·浙江高考)

  During the war, my husband was stationed at an army camp in a desert in 

California. I went to live there in order to be  1  him. I hated the place. I had never  

2  been so unhappy. My husband was ordered out on a long-term duty, and I was 

left in a tiny shack(棚屋) alone. The heat was  3 —almost 125°F even in the 

shade of a cactus(仙人掌).   4  a soul to talk to. The wind blew non-stop, and all 

the food I ate, and the very air I breathed, were  5  with sand, sand, sand!  

  I was so sorry for myself that I wrote to my parents. I told them I was  6  and 

coming back home. I said I couldn’t stand it one minute longer. I  7  be in prison! 

My father answered my  8  with just two lines—two lines that will always sing in 

my  9 —two lines that completely changed my life:  
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  Two men looked out from prison bars, 

  One saw the mud, the other saw the stars. 

  I read those two lines  10 .  I was ashamed of myself. I made up my mind I 

would find out what was good in my present  11 ; I would look for the stars.  

  I made friends with the natives, and their  12  amazed me. They gave me 

presents of their favorite artworks which they had  13  to sell to tourists. I studied 

the delightful forms of the cactus. I watched for the desert sunsets, and  14  for 

seashells that had been left there millions of years ago when the sands of the desert 

had been an ocean  15 .  

  What brought about this  16  change in me? The desert hadn’t changed,   

17  I had. I had changed my  18 . And by doing so, I changed an unhappy 

experience into the most amazing  19  of my life. I was excited by this new world 

that I had discovered. I had looked out of my self-created prison and  20  the stars. 

 

【文章大意】战争期间,          丈夫被安排到沙漠中执行任务,             作者为了住得离他近

些也搬到了那里。但是孤独感、恶劣的环境等让作者无法坚持下去,                            而父亲的

两句话改变了作者的态度。

1. A. off      B. behind      C. near    D. beyond

【解析】选      C。背景常识题。根据首句得知丈夫被安置在沙漠军营中,                       作者也

到那里去住,      当然是为了离丈夫近一些。near           靠近,  符合语境。

2. A. before   B. already     C. then    D. still
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【解析】选      A。逻辑推理题。根据         I hated the place. 可知作者之前从未这么不

开心过。before    以前。

3. A. inflexible     B. incomprehensible

C. uncontrollable    D. unbearable

【解析】选      D。逻辑推理题。根据         almost 125℉even in the shade of a cactus 可知, 

气温非常高,      天气热得让人无法忍受。unbearable         无法忍受的。

4. A. Only     B. Not

C. Many        D. Such

【解析】选      B。逻辑推理题。根据上文的            alone 可知作者感到孤独,      连个谈心的

人都没有。soul     在此处指“人”。

5. A. covered     B. filled

C. buried         D. charged

【解析】选      B。词义辨析题。根据         air 和 sand 可以推断出,   此处表示呼吸的空

气中充满了沙子。cover        覆盖; fill 充满; bury 埋; charge 指责, 控告, 充电。

6. A. catching up    B. keeping up

C. giving up         D. getting up

【解析】选      C。逻辑推理题。根据上文的叙述可知作者后悔来到了这里,                        所以

给父母写信,      根据  coming back home 可知作者告诉他们自己想放弃这里的生活

并返回家里。give up     放弃。

7. A. ought to       B. might well

C. would rather      D. had better
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【解析】选      C。逻辑推理题。上句指出,           我一分钟也忍受不了了,          由此可推断出

本句句意“我宁愿住在监狱里”。would rather           宁愿。

8. A. request     B. call

C. question       D. letter

【解析】选      D。逻辑推理题。根据本段第一句              I wrote to my parents 可知, 父亲

用两句台词回复了作者的来信。letter            信。

9. A. comparison     B. imagination

C. consideration     D. memory

【解析】选      D。词义辨析题。根据文章内容可知,               作者是在回忆过去的事情, 

结合本句中的将来时态,          可以判断出这两句台词永远在作者的记忆中吟唱,                     后

来也彻底改变了作者的生活。memory              记忆; comparison 比较; imagination 想象; 

consideration 考虑。

10. A. over and over    B. by and by

C. up and down          D. now and then

【解析】选      A。逻辑推理题。根据下文可知,             这两句台词对作者的影响很大, 

由此推断出作者把这两句台词反复读了很多遍,                    故 A 项正确。over and over  反

复地。

11. A. company       B. occupation

C. situation         D. relationship

【解析】选      C。词义辨析题。根据         I would look for the stars 可以判断出, 作者决

心要发现现在情况中好的方面。situation            情况,  情形; company  公司,  伙伴; 

occupation 职业; relationship 关系。
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12. A. movement      B. reaction

C. guidance          D. purpose

【解析】选      B。词义辨析题。根据         下文  They gave me presents of their favorite 

artworks. . . 可知, 作者和当地人交朋友,       他们的反应让作者感到吃惊。

reaction 反应; movement 动作; guidance 指导; purpose 目的。

13. A. refused    B. failed

C. managed        D. happened

【解析】选      A。词义辨析题。根据上文的            amazed 可以推断出,    他们把自己最喜

欢的艺术品当礼物送给了作者,             这些东西他们连游客都拒绝出售。refuse to do 

sth. 拒绝做某事; fail to do sth. 未能做某事; manage to do sth. 成功地做了某事; 

happen to do sth. 碰巧做某事。

14. A. asked      B. hunted        C. waited      D. headed

【解析】选      B。词义辨析题。此处与上文提到的“研究仙人掌”和“看沙漠日落”

并列,   由此可推断此处表示“寻找几百万年前留下的海洋生物的贝壳”。hunt 

for 寻找; ask for 请求, 征求; wait for 等待; head for 前往。

15. A. floor      B. surface    C. rock     D. level

【解析】选      A。逻辑推理题。根据文章内容可知,               几百万年前这里留下了海洋

生物的贝壳,      由此可以判断这片沙漠在当时应该是海底。floor(海洋)底。

16. A. shocking      B. challenging

C. puzzling          D. astonishing

【解析】选      D。逻辑推理题。根据上段的叙述以及之前的状态,                    可知作者发生

了惊人的变化。astonishing     惊人的。
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17. A. as   B. but      C. for     D. or

【解析】选      B。逻辑推理题。空格前的句子指出沙漠没有发生改变,                      空格后的

句子指出作者发生了改变,           由此可知两句之间为转折关系。

18. A. attitude   B. principle

C. identity       D. standard

【解析】选      A。词义辨析题。之前作者只看到了困难的一面,                   但后来作者看到

美好的一面,      由此可知是作者的态度发生了改变。attitude             态度; principle 原则; 

identity 身份; standard 标准。

19. A. vacation      B. operation

C. affair            D. adventure

【解析】选      D。词义辨析题。根据倒数第二段的叙述以及下句中的                      this new 

world 可以得知,    作者通过态度的改变,         把人生中这段不开心的经历变为了最神

奇的冒险过程。adventure      冒险; vacation 假期; operation 操作, 运营,  手术; 

affair 事务。

20. A. sought     B. counted    C. found       D. reached

【解析】选      C。词义辨析题。此处与父亲回信中的台词形成呼应,                     根据“saw the 

stars”可知, 作者透过自我设立的牢狱向外看,              找到了台词中所提到的星星。

find 找到; seek 寻找, 探索; count 数; reach 到达。


        [来源:学+科+网]


通读文   章,  根据框架写出关键词[来源:学&科&网]
                  中国现代教育网  www.30edu.com  全国最大教师交流平台


答案:①stand      ②help  ③attitude  ④reflection


Ⅰ. 阅读理解

How can we reduce the risk? 

  There are four general approaches to dealing with volcanic(火山的)dangers.  

We can try to keep the danger from occurring—often an impossible task.  We can 

try to change its path or reduce its impact on existing development.  We can take 

steps to protect future development.  We can also do our best to have disaster 

response plans in place before they are needed. 

Removing the Threat

  Clearly,  there is no way to stop an eruption.  We can,  however,  attempt to 

reduce the eruption’s effects by strengthening structures,  for example,  building 
                  中国现代教育网  www.30edu.com  全国最大教师交流平台

protective works such as walls to make lava(熔岩)flow away from developed areas.  

Such efforts can be and have been successful,  but are of limited use in a large-

scale(大范围的) eruption. 

Planning for the Future

  Protecting future development from volcanic dangers is a simple task.  Before 

building houses,  we should judge the risk.  If the risk seems too great,  a safer 

location should be found.  This type of planning is very effective,  but all too often,  


people are drawn to the lush(葱郁的), rolling land of a quiet volcano. [来源:学科网 ZXXK]

Disaster Preparedness(预案)

  When a volcano comes to life,  a few weeks may not be enough to avoid a 

tragedy.  Planning is the key to saving lives.  Well before the warning signs occur,  

people must be educated about volcanic dangers.  Escape plans must be in place.  

Communication between scientists,  officials,  the media,  and the general public 

should be practiced.  Emergency measures must be thought out and agreed upon. 

  If you doubt the importance of these efforts,  take another look at past volcanic 

tragedies,  such as the eruption of Nevado del Ruiz.  Communication failures left 

the town of Armero unprepared for escape.  When a deadly mudflow came down the 

slope(斜坡), 21, 000 people—90 percent of the town’s people—die d. 

【文章大意】本文主要讲述了要采取哪些行动来减少火山喷发对我们的影响和

伤害。

1. The passage is intended for ________.  

A. the general public   B. architects
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C. adventurers          D. geographers

【解析】选      A。推理判断题。根据第一段            We can try to change its path or reduce 

its impact on existing development. 和第三段 Protecting future development from 

volcanic dangers is a simple task.  Before building houses,  we should judge the 

risk.  本文主要告诉我们的是如何避开火山喷发的危险,                   写作的对象不是建筑

师,  不是冒险家也不是地理学家,            所以本文是写给大众的。故选            A。

2. When building houses,  people tend to ________.  

A. judge volcanic dangers carefully

B. take volcanic dangers seriously

C. live near a quiet volcano

D. find a safer place far away from a volcano

【解析】选      C。细节理解题。根据第三段            This type of planning is very effective,  

but all too often,  people are drawn to the lush, rolling land of a quiet volcano. , 可

知人们经常被葱郁的坡地所吸引,              实际上那里是火山经常存在的地方。故选

C。

3. The writer mentioned Nevado del Ruiz to prove ________.  

A. the failure to keep volcanic dangers from happening

B. the importance of preparing for a volcanic eruption

C. the bravery of the people in Armero Town

D. the uncertainty of volcano’s damage

【解析】选      B。推理判断题。根据第四段            Planning is the key to saving lives. 可

知在预防火山喷发时,         有计划性是很重要的;         再根据第五段      If you doubt the 
                  中国现代教育网  www.30edu.com  全国最大教师交流平台

importance of these efforts,  take another look at past volcanic tragedies,  such as 

the eruption of Nevado del Ruiz. 中作者列举 Nevado del Ruiz 的例子就是为了说

明有计划的重要性。故选           B。

Ⅱ. 语法填空


  阅读下面短文,        在空白处填入       1 个适当的单词或括号内单词的正确形式。                [来源:学


科网]

  It was a sunny day.  A little boy’s father was sitting on the couch,  drinking a 

beer while watching a basketball match.  Seeing this,  the boy rushed to 1. 

________(he) father and shouted,  “Daddy,  show me how to play catch! ”The 

father,  staring 2. ________ the television screen,  replied,  “Let me finish 

watching the match.  Play outside and come back in five minutes. ” “Okay, Daddy! 

” said the boy,  running out of the room.  Five minutes later,  the boy returned,  3. 

________(scream), “Daddy, let’s play catch now! ” 

  By this time,  the father had opened another cold beer and another match was 

beginning.  4. ________(patient) with the boy’s interruption,  the dad brought a 

magazine to his son.  On the cover of the magazine was a large picture of the world.  

The father,  who was angry and 5. ________(bother), began tearing magazine cover 

into small 6. ________(piece).  Then, the father turned to his boy and said,  “Son, 

once you put the picture back together,  we can play catch,  but do not interrupt me 

again 7. ________ you finish. ” 

  A few minutes later,  the boy returned and said, “I 8. ________(finish), Daddy!  

Can we play catch now? ”Surprised, the father glanced towards his child,  and there 
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lay the magazine with the world pieced 9. ________(perfect) together in his small 

hands.  The dad asked his child how he put the world together so quickly.  

  “10. ________ was simple, ” said the boy. “On the back of the world was the 

picture  of a person,  and once I put the person together,  that’s when the world 

came together. ” 

【文章大意】本文讲述了发生在一对父子身上的故事。


1. 【解析】his。考查物主代词。根据主语              the boy 应用 his。[来源:学。科。网]

2. 【解析】at。考查介词。stare at      是固定短语,     意为“盯着”。

3. 【解析】screaming。考查非谓语动词。本句的谓语动词是                   returned, 空白处

缺少非谓语动词,       和  the boy 之间是主动关系,     故用   v. -ing。

4. 【解析】Impatient。考查形容词。根据情境可知孩子想和                   父亲玩传球的游戏, 

但是父亲要看另一场球赛,           故很不耐烦,     用  impatient。

5. 【解析】bothered。考查非谓语动词。根据语境,               此处表示     父亲很生气,     很

恼火,   故用  bothered 烦恼的。

6. 【解析】pieces。考查名词的复数。piece          片, 张是可数名词,       此处指父亲把杂

志撕成碎片,      故用  pieces。

7. 【解析】until/before。考査连词。此处意为“在你把它们拼好                 之前不要打扰

我。”或“直到你把它们都拼好才能打扰我。”故用                   until 或者 before。

8. 【解析】have finished。考查时态。爸爸,         我已经拼好了,      我们能玩传球了吗? 

表示动作已经完成,        故用现在完成时。

9. 【解析】perfectly。副词修饰动词。
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10. 【解析】It/That/This。考查逻辑关系。用         It/That/This 指代把杂志拼好这件

事。

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