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18-19 人教版 必修一 Unit 4 Section Ⅲ Grammar——定语从句(Ⅰ)

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   Section Ⅲ Grammar——定语从句(Ⅰ)

                           [语  境  自  主  领  悟]
              先观察原句                             后自主感悟
                                      1.第 1、3、4   句中的定语从句使用
1.The number of people who were killed or 了关系代词  who,在定语从句中
seriously injured reached more than 400,
                                      作主语。
000.
                                      2.第 2、7  句中的定语从句使用了
2.Then,later that afternoon,another big 
                                      关系代词     which,在定语从句中作
quake which was almost as strong as the 
                                      主语。
first one shook Tangshan.
                                      3.第 4、7  句中的定语从句使用了
3.The army organized teams to dig out those 
who were trapped and to bury the dead. 关系代词    that,在定语从句中作主
4.Yesterday I helped an old man who/that 语。
lost his way.                         4.关系代词    who 常用来指代人;
5.The boy whose father is a teacher is a new 关系代词 which 常用来指代物;关
classmate of mine.
                                      系代词    that 既可以指人也可以指
6.My daughter bought a useful dictionary 
                                      物。
whose cover was printed“Oxford 
                                      5.第 5、6  句中的定语从句使用了
University”.
                                      关系代词     whose,在定语从句中作
7.China is a country that/which has a long 
history.                              定语,它既可以指人也可以指物。

                           [语  法  精  要  点  拨]
    who(whom),which,that,whose    引导的定语从句  
    在复合句中,修饰某一名词、代词或整个主句的从句叫作定语从句。被定
语从句修饰的名词或代词叫作先行词,连接先行词和定语从句的词叫关系词。
关系词的主要作用是连接主句和从句,同时指代先行词,并在从句中充当一定

的句子成分。关系词分为关系代词和关系副词两种,关系代词有                            that,which,
who,whom,whose    等;关系副词有       when,where,why。
    一、关系代词的基本用法

    1.who 指人,在从句中作主语或宾语,作宾语时可省略。
                中国现代教育网    www.30edu.com  全国最大教师交流平台

     The man who is talking with my father is a teacher.
     正在和我父亲说话的那个人是个教师。
     The girl (who) I met yesterday was his sister.
     我昨天见到的那个女孩是他的妹妹。

     2.whom  指人,在从句中作宾语,常可省略,不能作主语。
     The boy(whom)the teacher often praises is their monitor.
     老师经常表扬的那个男孩是他们的班长。

     注意:(1)关系代词      whom  在口语或非正式文体中常可用             who 来代替。

     The boy(who/whom/that)we saw yesterday was John's brother.
     昨天我们看到的那个男孩是约翰的哥哥。

     (2)在从句中作介词的宾语且直接跟在介词后时,用                    whom,不用     who。
     He is a man from whom we are all ready to learn.
     他是我们大家都愿意向他学习的人。

     3.which 只指物,不指人,可作主语或宾语,作宾语时可省略。
     Guilin is a city which has a history of 2,000 years.
     桂林是一个有      2 000 年历史的城市。
     The young man was very happy to get back the gold ring(which) he had lost on 
 the train.
     那个年轻人找回了在火车上丢失的金戒指,非常高兴。

     4.whose 既可指人,也可指物。其后接名词,与先行词构成从属关系,在
从句中作定语。
     This is the scientist whose name is known all over the country.
     这就是那位闻名全国的科学家。
     Nobody wants the house whose roof has fallen in.
     没有人想要这个屋顶已坍塌的房子。

     5.that 指人时,相当于      who 或  whom;指物时,相当于         which。在定语从
句中作主语或宾语,作宾语时可省略。

     ①The woman(that)I read about in the newspaper has just won a gold medal.我
在报纸上读过那位妇女的相关报道,她刚刚夺得一枚金牌。

     ②The report(that)Mr.Turner handed in was about the motor race.
     特纳先生递交的报告是关于摩托车比赛的。
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    二、用   that 不用 which 的情况。
    1.当先行词为      all,everything,nothing,anything little,much 等不定代词
或先行词被这些词修饰时。
    All that can be done has been done.
    一切能做的都已经做了。

    2.当先行词是序数词、形容词最高级或先行词被序数词或形容词最高级修
饰时。
    This is the most beautiful park that I have visited.
    这是我参观过的最漂亮的公园。

    3.当先行词被      the only,the very,the last 修饰时。
    Chatting was the only thing that interested her most.聊天是她唯一感兴趣的事。

    4.当先行词既指人,又指物时。
    She took photographs of the things and people that she was interested in.
    她把她感兴趣的人和物都拍摄了下来。

    5.当主语是以      who 或 which 开头的疑问句时,为避免重复而用               that。
    Who is the person that is standing at the gate? 
    站在门口的那个人是谁?

    6.当先行词在定语从句中作表语时。
    Shanghai is no longer the city that it used to be.
    上海已不是过去那个样子了。

    三、用   which 不用  that 的情况
    1.在定语从句中作介词的宾语,且介词位于关系代词前时。
    This is the room in which he lives.
    这是他住的房间。

    2.引导非限制性定语从句时。
    Tom came back,which made us very happy.
    汤姆回来了,这使我们很高兴。

    3.在限制性定语从句中,如果有两个定语从句,其中前一句的关系代词是
that,那么后一句的关系代词就要用             which。
    Let me show you the novel that I borrowed from the library which was newly 
                中国现代教育网    www.30edu.com  全国最大教师交流平台

 open.
     我给你看这本从新开放的图书馆借来的小说。

     [即时演练    1]
     语法填空

     ①The girl who/whom/that I met is Lucy.

     ②The child whose parents are dead is called Tom.

     ③I like the book that/which/不填 you bought yesterday.
     四、使用定语从句的注意事项

     1.关系代词在定语从句中作主语时,定语从句的谓语动词要和先行词的数
 保持一致。“one       of+复数名词”作先行词,谓语动词用复数形式;“the                      only 
 one of+复数名词”作先行词,谓语动词用单数形式。

     ①This is one of the books which were written by Charles Dickens.
     这是查理斯·狄更斯所写的书其中一本。

     ②He is the only one of the boys in our class who has learned French.
     他是我们班里唯一一个学过法语的男孩。

     注意:which   引导非限制性定语从句时,往往代表前面所说的整个情况。
 这时  which 被看作单数,其后的谓语动词应用单数形式。

     ③He said he was a Frenchman,which was not true.他说他是一个法国人,这
不是真的。

     2.为避免关系词的重复,被关系代词所代替的成分不可在从句中重复出现。

     This is the factory which we visited last Sunday.(visited 后不可加 it)
     这就是我们上星期天参观过的工厂。

     3.关系代词的省略。
     (1)关系代词作主语时不能省略。
     (2)作动词宾语的关系代词,可以省略;作介词宾语的关系代词,如果不直
 接位于介词后,可省略,如果直接作介词的宾语,不能省略。

     (3)关系代词   which 在非限制性定语从句中不能省略。
     [即时演练    2]
     语法填空
               中国现代教育网    www.30edu.com  全国最大教师交流平台

    ①All things can be done has (have) been done.

    ②The student you should learn from is the one who works hard and studies hard. 
                                                 【导学号:11132045】

    ③He is one of the students who know French.
                           [语  法  应  用  落  实]

    Ⅰ.用适当的关系代词填空
    1.The boy who/that broke the window is called Tom.

    2.The most interesting book that I want to read is Howl's moving castle.
    3.The author whom you criticized in your review has written a reply.
    4.They talked about their classmates and things that they still remember in 
middle school.
    5.The most important thing that we should consider is the first idea that he has 
mentioned in his speech.
    6.The tiny insect whose eyes are fixed on the cabbage shows great interest in 
the vegetable.
    7.Do  you still remember the chicken farm that/which/不填 we visited three 
months ago?
    8.Women who drink more than two cups of coffee a day have a greater chance 

of having heart disease than those who don't.
    9.This is the building whose windows were all painted green. 
                                                 【导学号:11132046】

    10.That is one of the most interesting books that are sold in the bookshop.

    Ⅱ.完成句子(使用定语从句)
    1.This girl is familiar to me;maybe she is the girl
    (who/whom/that)I met in the street (我在大街上见到的)yesterday.
    2.This is the very plan for the holidays that was suggested by his brother(由他
哥哥建议的).
    3.Those who bring us happiness (带给我们快乐的)should be loved.
    4.This is one of the most interesting films that were shown last week(上周放映
的).
               中国现代教育网    www.30edu.com  全国最大教师交流平台

    5.She thought highly of the way (that/in which)we treated the difficulty(我们
对待困难).
    6.I wish to thank Professor Smith,without whose help(没有他的帮助)I 
would never have got this far.
    7.We are leaving tomorrow and I really appreciate all that you have done(你所
做的)during our stay.
    8.The engineer who/whom my father works with(和爸爸一起工作的)is about 
50 years old.
    9.The  exact year that/which Angela and her family spent together in 
China(Angela 和她的家人一起在中国度过的)was 2008.
    10.Alice is the most clever student that I have ever known(我所认识的).
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