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18-19 人教版 必修一 Unit 4 Section Ⅱ Language Points(Ⅰ)(Reading & Comprehending)

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Section Ⅱ Language Points(Ⅰ)(Warming 
          Up,Pre­reading,Reading & 
                     Comprehending)

                           [语  言  基  础  自  测]

    Ⅰ.单词拼写
    根据汉语或首字母提示,写出下列单词

    1.Heat gradually destroys(破坏)vitamin C.
    2.We followed his tracks(足迹)through the snow.
    3.His parents and his little brother lost their lives in the disaster(灾难).
    4.The reporter's words have shocked(使震惊)all of the scientists.
    5.They built a rough shelter(庇护处)from pieces of old wood.
    6.It was quite an event when a woman first became prime minister.
    7.Our country is a developing nation.
    8.Even if earthquakes often happen in that country,they seldom cause serious 
damages.
    9.They don't have enough electricity,so the villagers go to bed early.
    10.Luckily,the little girl was rescued by a kind­hearted man.

    Ⅱ.拓展词汇
    根据词性和汉语提示,写出下列单词

    1.use n.用途    vt.使用→ useful adj.有用的;有益的→useless adj.无用的;
无效的;无益的

    2.injure vt.损害;伤害→injury n.(身体上的)伤,损害→injured adj.受伤的
    3.destroy vt.毁坏;破坏;消灭→destruction n.破坏;毁坏
    4.shock vt.&vi.(使)震惊;震动      n.震惊;打击;休克→shocked           adj.震惊
的

    5.nation n.民族;国家;国民→national adj.国内的;国家的;国立的

    [寻规律、巧记忆]
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           n.+­less→adj.          n.+“­al”→adj.
       hopeless 没有希望的         agricultural 农业的
       homeless 无家可归的         musical 音乐的
       helpless 无助的           educational 教育的

Ⅲ.补全短语
根据提示补全下列短语

1.right away                  立刻;马上
2.in ruins                    严重受损;破败不堪
3.at an end                   终结;结束
4.cut across                  横穿,横跨
5.as if                       仿佛;好像
6.soon after                  在……之后不久
7.dig out                     掘出;发现
8.a great number of           许多;大量的

Ⅳ.选词填空
选用上述短语的适当形式填空

1.He behaved as if nothing had happened.
2.My holiday is at an end and I must go back to work tomorrow.
3.He was dug out from under the snow.
4.A number of soldiers were sent to guard the building.
5.Mick wants to see you in his office right away.

[寻规律、巧记忆]
       prep.+冠词+名词→介词                in+n.→介词短语
     at a loss 困惑                in peace 和平
     by the way 顺便说下             in silence 默不出声
     on the air 正在传播             in turn 依次

Ⅴ.经典句式仿写
1.You have time to take only one thing.你只有时间带走一件东西。
[记句式结构]不定式作定语

[仿写促落实]She     didn't get the opportunity to study abroad.她没有得到出国
                中国现代教育网    www.30edu.com  全国最大教师交流平台

 学习的机会。

     2.In the farmyards,the chickens and even the pigs were too nervous to eat.农
家大院里的鸡,甚至猪都紧张得不吃东西。

     [记句式结构]too...to...结构
     [仿写促落实]The hat is too large to wear.这顶帽子太大,没法戴。
     3.Mice ran out of the fields looking for places to hide.老鼠从田地里跑出来
 找地方藏身。

     [记句式结构]v.­ing    作伴随状语
     [仿写促落实]He      sat at the table reading China Daily.他坐在桌子旁看《中国
 日报》。

     4.It seemed as if the world was at an end!仿佛到了世界末日!
     [记句式结构]as if   引导状语从句
     [仿写促落实]She looks as if she were ten years younger.她看起来好像年轻了
 10 岁。
     5.①One­third of the nation felt it.全国三分之一的地方都有震感。

     ②All of the city's hospitals,75% of its factories and buildings and 90% of its 
homes  were gone.市内所有的医院、75%的工厂和建筑以及                90%的住宅都不复存
 在了。

     [记句式结构]“分数/百分数+of+名词”作主语
     [仿写促落实]About one third of the books are worth reading.这些书中大约有
 1/3 值得一读。
                            [核  心  要  点  探  究]

       burst vi.爆裂;爆发   n.突然破裂;爆发

     (教材  P26)In the city,the water pipes in some buildings cracked and burst.
     在市内,有些建筑物里的水管爆裂开来。

        burst out crying/laughing
     (1){ burst into tears/laughter ) 突然哭起来/笑起来
     burst with anger/joy          勃然大怒/乐不可支
     (2)burst in/into              闯进;突然破门而入

     ①There was a burst of laughter in the room when I passed by.我经过时,房
                中国现代教育网    www.30edu.com  全国最大教师交流平台

 间里传来一阵笑声。

     ②On  hearing the news,Mary burst into laughter(laugh) while Lucy burst out 
 crying.一听到这则消息,玛丽突然大笑起来,而露西则突然大哭起来。

     ③I felt as if my heart would burst with joy.
     我觉得自己高兴得心花怒放。              【导学号:11132041】

     [图形助记] 


                爆裂   突然(大笑……)  冲,闯进,突然出现

       think little of 不在意,看轻

     (教材  P26)But the one million people of the city,who thought little of these 
 events,were asleep as usual that night.但是这座城市的一百万居民几乎都没有把
 这些情况当回事,那天晚上照常睡觉了。

     think highly/well/much of...  对……高度评价/重视
     think poorly/little/nothing of... 轻视/认为……无所谓
     think ill/badly of...         认为……不好

     ①I don't think much of his idea.
     我认为他的主意不怎么样。

     ②She thinks nothing of walking thirty miles a day.
     她认为一天步行三十英里不足为奇。
     [特别提醒] 

     当 think highly/well/much of 用于被动语态时,副词应放在其修饰的动词前,
 且 of 不能遗漏,即      be highly/well/much thought of。
     What he said was well/highly/much thought of.
     他的话受到高度评价。

       (教材  P26)It seemed as if the world was at an end!仿佛到了世界
 末日!

     (1)【要点提炼】 as      if =as though“仿佛;好像”,在句中引导
表语从句,常跟在特定动词后面,如                 seem,appear,look,taste,sound,
                中国现代教育网    www.30edu.com  全国最大教师交流平台

 feel 等。

     (1)当说话者认为句子所述的是真实的、极有可能发生或存在的事实时,as 
 if 从句要用陈述语气。
     (2)当说话人认为句子所述的是不真实的、极少有可能发生或存在的情况时,
 从句要用虚拟语气。
     ①如果从句表示与现在事实相反,谓语动词用一般过去时。

     ②从句表示与过去事实相反,谓语动词用“had+过去分词”。
     ③从句表示与将来事实相反,谓语动词用“would/could/might+动词原形”
 。

     ①Look at the clouds in the sky!It looks as if it is going to rain.Let's hurry up.
     看看天上的云彩!看起来要下雨。咱们快一点。

     ②He opened his mouth as if he would say something.
     他张开嘴好像要说什么。(与将来事实相反)

     ③It looks as if she were(be) an angel.
     她看上去像一位天使。(与现在事实相反)

     ④He talks about Rome as if he had been(be)there before.他说起罗马来好像他
 以前去过那里似的。(与过去事实相反)
     (2)at an end 结束;终结

     (1)at the end of              在……末端
     by the end of                 到……为止(用于完成时)
     in the end                    最后;终于

     (2)Error!                     (使)结束;终结
     come to an end                结束

     ⑤All reports must be sent in by the end of this week.所有的报告必须在本星
期以前交齐。

     ⑥The meeting was nearly at an end when I got to the meeting room.
     当我到达会议室时,会议快要结束了。

     ⑦Freedom may come to an end in the digital age.
     在数字时代,自由或许会终结。
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     ⑧The time has come to put an end to the conflict.
     结束冲突的时候到了。

       ruin n.废墟;毁灭     vt.毁灭;使破产

     (教材  P26)In fifteen terrible seconds a large city lay in ruins.在可怕的 15 秒钟
 内,一座大城市沦为了废墟。

     (1)be/lie in ruins            成为废墟;毁灭
     fall into ruin                成为废墟;毁了

     (2)ruin one's hope/chance     使某人的希望破灭/机会失去
     ruin oneself                  自我毁灭

     ①That mistake ruined his chance of getting the job.
     那个错误使他失去了得到那份工作的机会。

     ②The ancient temple has fallen into ruins and needs repairing.
     这座古老的庙宇已经破败不堪,需要修理。

       injure vt.损害;伤害

     (教材  P26)Two­thirds of them died or were injured during the earthquake.
     三分之二的人在地震中死去或受伤。

     (1)injured adj.               受伤的;受委屈的
     the injured                   伤员(作主语时,谓语用复数)
     (2)injury n.                  伤;伤口;伤害
     do an injury to sb.           伤害某人

     ①Jack injured his leg when he was playing basketball yesterday.昨天杰克打篮
 球时把腿弄伤了。

     ②You  should stretch at least ten minutes before each run to prevent 
injuries(injure).为了避免伤害,每次跑步之前你应该至少热身十分钟。

     ③If you try and lift that suitcase you'll do yourself an injury(injure).
     如果你试图提起那只箱子,你就要受伤了。

     [易混辨析] wound/injure/hurt/harm
                       指外伤,如枪伤、刀伤、剑伤,尤指在战斗中受
                       伤。
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                      “损害;受伤”,指由于意外或事故而受伤,着
                      重指容貌、机能的损坏。

                      指肉体上,也可指精神上的伤害。也可为“疼痛;
                      痛苦;伤心”。

                      指身体或精神上的损害或对周围事物的危害。常

                      用短语    do harm to 意为“对……有害”。

              (wound/injure/hurt/harm)
    ①The soldier was wounded in the arm in the war.

    ②She was slightly injured in an accident during the work.

    ③I was very much hurt at his words.

    ④This bright light will do great harm to your eyes.
      shock vt.& vi.(使)震惊;震动
    n.休克;打击;震惊

    (教材  P26)People were shocked.
    人们震惊了。

    (1)be a shock to...           使……吃惊
    (2)shocked adj.               震惊的;惊讶的
    be shocked at/by              对……吃惊
    be shocked to do sth.         做某事很吃惊
    (3)shocking adj.              令人震惊的

    ①It was quite a shock to see my face on that screen!
    从那个屏幕上看到我的脸,真让人惊愕不已!

    ②Rescue workers were shocked(shock) by what they saw.
    救援人员被眼前的景象惊呆了。
    [语境助记] 

    People were shocked to see that the UFO was flying over the city.The shocking 
news shocked all the people around,which was also a great shock to people all 
over the country.
    人们十分吃惊地发现不明飞行物在这座城市的上空飞行,这个让人震惊的
                中国现代教育网    www.30edu.com  全国最大教师交流平台

 消息震惊了周围的人们,也震惊了全国各地的人们。

       (教材  P26)Some of the rescue workers and doctors were trapped under the 
 ruins.
     有些救援人员和医生被困在废墟下面。

     (1)rescue n.& vt.援救;营救

     rescue sb./sth.from...        把……从……营救出来

     come/go to one's rescue       来/去营救某人
     come/go to the rescue         来/去援救
     a rescue team                 救援队

     ①The police came to his rescue and sent him home.
     警察救了他,并把他送回了家。

     ②Tom rescued a boy from the river on his way home.汤姆在回家的路上从河
 里救了一个男孩。
     [语境助记] 

     As soon  as  the accident happened,the  rescue team  came  to the 

victims'rescue,and they didn't give up any hope of rescuing them from danger.事
 故一发生,救援队就来营救受害者了,并且他们没有放弃使他们脱离危险的任
 何希望。

     (2)trap vt.使陷入困境  n.陷阱;困境

     (1)be trapped                 使陷入困境
     trap sb.into(doing)sth.       诱骗某人做某事
     (2)set a trap                 设置陷阱;布下圈套
     fall/walk into a trap         落入圈套

     ③The politician tried to set a trap for his opponent by talking about the war.
     这个政客想通过谈论战争使他的对手落入圈套。

     ④The car was trapped(trap) in the deep snow.
     汽车陷入了厚厚的积雪中。

     ⑤They trapped her into marrying him.
     他们诱骗她嫁给他。          【导学号:11132042】
                中国现代教育网    www.30edu.com  全国最大教师交流平台


       (教材  P26)All hope was not lost.
     不是所有的希望都破灭了。

     【要点提炼】 该句是表示部分否定的句型。all...not...=not 
 all...,意为“并非所有的……都……”。

     (1)当 not 与 all,both,everyone,everything,everywhere 等词连用时为部
分否定,意为“并不都……”。

     (2)当 not 与 any,anyone,anywhere,anything 连用或出现     no,nothing,
nobody,nowhere,none   时是完全否定。

     ①Nothing in my life impressed me so deeply as my first visit to the Palace 
 Museum.我的一生中,印象最深的就是第一次参观故宫博物馆。

     ②Every boy is not interested in sports.
     =Not every boy is interested in sports.
     并非所有的男孩都喜欢运动。

     ③None of the answers is right.
     答案都不对。

       bury vt.埋藏;掩埋;隐藏

     (教材  P26)The army organized teams to dig out those who were trapped and to 
 bury the dead.
     解放军组成小分队,将受困的人们挖出来,将死者掩埋。

     (1)bury...in...               把……埋到……里;使……沉浸于……

     bury one's face in hands      双手掩面
     (2)be buried in               埋头于;专心于;沉浸于
     bury oneself in               埋头于;专心于;沉浸于

     ①He buried his face in his hands.他双手掩面。

     ②Buried (bury)in his study,he didn't know that the others had left.
     他埋头学习,不知道其他人已经离开了。

     ③Since his wife left,he buried himself (he) in his work.自从妻子离开以后,
 他就埋头于工作。

     [图形助记] 
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                             一词多义的“bury”


                         bury        bury oneself in study
                        掩埋               专心学习

                              [解构长句难句]

     1.(教材   P26)Thousands of families were killed and many children were left 
 without parents.
     【分析】 本句是        and 连接的并列句,many         children were left without 
 parents 是 left many children without parents 的被动形式。without parents 是介宾
 短语,在第二个分句中作主语补足语,表示主语所处的状态。
     【翻译】 成千上万个家庭遇难,许多孩子变成了孤儿。

     2.(教材   P26)But the one million people of the city,who thought little of these 
 events,were asleep as usual that night.
     【分析】 本句是一个主从复合句。who                引导的是非限制性定语从句,
 people 是先行词,在从句中作主语。
     【译文】 但是,这座城市的一百万居民几乎都没有把这些情况当回事,
 那天晚上照常睡觉了。

     3.(教材   P26)A huge crack that was eight kilometres long and thirty metres wide 
cut across houses,roads and canals.
     【分析】 本句是一个复合句。that             引导的是定语从句,crack         是先行词,
 在从句中作主语。

     【译文】 一条       8 千米长   30 米宽的巨大裂缝横穿房屋、马路和水道。
                            [随  堂  效  果  落  实]

     Ⅰ.单句语法填空
     1.Hearing the words,she got angry and burst out         (cry).
     2.People present at the meeting felt        (shock)at the news.
     3.A number of people were trapped          the ruins when the earthquake 
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 happened.
     4.He spoke English perfectly as if he        (live)in England for many years.
     5.My brother majored in         (electricity)engineering in the university.
     6.An old house gave shelter        the storm.
     7.Two­fifths of the land in that district         (be)covered with trees and 
 grass.
     8.He  was a very warm­hearted and hard­working man,and was  highly     
 (think) of by his leader.
     9.The student        is answering the question is John.
     10.The church is situated one or two miles        the west of the village. 
                                                  【导学号:11132043】
     【答案】 
     1.crying [考查固定搭配。句意:听到这些话,她生气了,并突然大哭起

 来。burst  out  doing sth.=burst into sth.意为“突然……起来”,故此处用

crying,表示突然大哭起来。]

     2.shocked [考查词形转换。句意:出席会议的人对这则消息感到震惊。

 shocked 和 shocking 是分词化的形容词。shocked       一般修饰人,用来说明人内心

 的感受,意为“震惊的”;shocking           一般修饰物,用来说明某物使某人产生的

 感受,意为“令人难以置信的”。]

     3.in [考查介词。be trapped in sth.意为“被困于……”,为固定短语。]

     4.had   lived [考查虚拟语气。句意:他英语讲得非常好,好像他曾在英

 国生活了很多年似的。此处            as if 引导的从句中应使用虚拟语气,当句子所述的

 情况与过去事实相反,从句中的谓语动词用“had+过去分词”。]

     5.electrical [考查词形转换。句意:我哥哥在大学学习电气工程专业。

 electrical 表示“与电有关的”,如        an electrical engineer“电气工程师”。]

     6.from [考查固定搭配。句意:一间旧屋子成了躲避暴风雨的地方。

 shelter 作名词有“遮蔽,庇护”之意,也可作动词,意为“为……提供庇护处”

 ,都和   from 连用。]

     7.is [考查主谓一致。句意:那个地区五分之二的土地被树和草覆盖。

 “分数+of+名词”结构作主语时,谓语动词的单复数由                        of 后的名词决定。
                中国现代教育网    www.30edu.com  全国最大教师交流平台

 land“土地”为不可数名词,故谓语动词用单数形式。]
     8.thought [考查固定搭配。句意:他是一个很热心和工作努力的人,受
 到了他的领导的高度评价。think highly of sb.“对某人评价很高”。根据空前的

was 可知,本题考查本结构的被动形式。]

     9.who/that [考查定语从句。句意:正在回答问题的那个学生是                       John。
 分析句子结构可知,空处引导定语从句,并在从句中作主语,指人,故用
 who/that。]

     10.to [考查介词。句意:这座教堂坐落在那个村庄以西一两英里处。to 

the west(of sth.)为固定搭配,意为“……以西”。]

     Ⅱ.单句改错(每个句子仅有          1 处错误)
     1.After the wave came,the sand castle on the beach lay in ruin.ruin→ruins
     2.The great number of children whose parents had died in the earthquake were 
sent to live with families in other cities.第一个 The→A
     3.He loves reading,and two thirds of his money are spent on books.are→is
     4.Burying in his scientific study,the scientist knows nothing about the 

 matter.Burying→Buried 或 Burying 后加 himself
     5.When a pencil is partly in a glass of water,it looks as if it is broken.第二个

 is→were

     Ⅲ.完成句子
     1.当他说出这句话时,听到的人都大笑起来。
     Everyone who heard it just burst out laughing/burst into laughter when he came 
 out with it.
     2.自从她走后,他全心扑在工作上。
     Since she left,he has been buried in/buried himself in his work. 
                                                  【导学号:11132044】

     3.她好像一个天使。
     It seems as if she were an angel.
     4.在过去的五年里很多问题被解决了。
     A great number of problems have been solved in the past five years.
     5.据我所知,他们俩都不抽烟。
           中国现代教育网    www.30edu.com  全国最大教师交流平台

As far as I know,both of them don't smoke.
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