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人教版新课标 英语 2019年高考第一轮复习 教案——语法复习—虚拟语气

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中国现代教育网
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                  中国现代教育网     www.30edu.com  全国最大教师交流平台

                                   虚拟语气


【本讲教育信息】[来源:Zxxk.Com]


一.  教学内容:[来源:学.科.网 Z.X.X.K]
    虚拟语气
    虚拟语气是英语中一种重要的语气形式,也是英语语法中一个重要的语法点。由于虚
拟语气所涉及的内        容比较广,一些语法书对其的阐述也很繁杂,所以同学们在学习过程中
很难掌握其用法,在使用过程中或考试时也很容易出错。为了便于大家理解和记忆,我对
虚拟语气作了一个“新”归纳,供大家参考。
     虚拟语气的使用主要体现在三个方面:虚拟条件句、虚拟语气在某些从句中的运用,
以及虚拟语气的一些特殊用法。

[教学过程]
一、虚拟条件句
  虚拟条件句就是对现实条件的一种虚拟假设,所假设的条件一般不符合事实或与事实
相反或在现实中发生的可能性极小。根据时间的不同,虚拟条件句可分为三种,即与现在
事实相反的虚拟条件句、与过去事实相反的虚拟条件句及与将来事实相反的虚拟条件句。
具体情况请看下表:
                       条件状语从句                       主        句
    与过去事实相                                should /would/could/might + have + 过
                  had + 过去分词
    反                                     去分词
    与现在事实相
                  一般过去时(be    用  were)    would/should/could/might + 动词原形
    反
    与将来事实相        一般过去时或      should(were 
                                          would/should/could/might + 动词原形
    反             to) + 动词原形
  例句:
    (1)表示与现在事实相反
  If I had enough money now, I would lend it to you.
  If I were you, I would go to tell him the real feeling upon him.
    (2)表示与过去事实相反
  If he had taken your advice, he wouldn’t have made such a bad mistake.
  She would  have come to enjoy the party if she hadn’t been very busy.
    (3)表示与将来事实相反
  I would go shopping with you if it were to be Sunday tomorrow.
  If he were to be given another chance to do it again, he could certainly achieve more.

 1.  虚拟条件句的倒装
  在虚拟条件句中,为了强调所假设条件的虚拟性,或突出说话人的一种主观愿望,虚
拟条件句可用倒装结构。虚拟条件句的倒装是通过去掉                       if,把条件从句谓语中的助动词、
情态动词或系动词放在句首实现的。例如:
  Had I been(= If I had been ) in that situation, I would not have let the thief escape 
away with so much money.
  Should there be (= If there should be) a drought, what should we do at that time ?

 2.  错综时间条件句
                  中国现代教育网     www.30edu.com  全国最大教师交流平台

  有时条件从句的动作和主句的动作发生的时间并不一致,这时谓语动词的形式应根据
它所要表示的具体时间来确定。例如:
  If we hadn’t been working hard in the pa st few years , things wouldn’t be going so 
smoothly.
  If the Party hadn’t led the Chinese people to liberate the country,Chinese people would 
st ill live a life in pain and poverty.

 3.  含蓄条件句
  有时假设的情况并不以条件从句的形式表现出来,而是通过某个介词或介词短语(如:
with,otherwise,without,but for,in that position)、上下文或其它方式表现出来。这种句
子称为含蓄条件句。例如:
  But for the help from you , I would not have had the chance to go to college.
  I would never mind you making such loud noises, but, you see, my baby is in a deep 
sleep.
  It was so quiet ; you could have heard a pin drop.

二、虚拟语气在某些从句中的运用
  在某些词或短语后接的从句中要使用虚拟语气,表示愿望、建议或命令等。根据虚拟
语气的形式不同,虚拟语气可以分为“should               类”和“过去时态类”。
(一)should   类
  这一类的虚拟语气是通过从句中的谓语动词使用“should +动词原形”体现出来的,
should 可以省略。其具体运用体现在:
 1.  在 suggest , order, demand ,  propose, command,  request, desire,insist 等表
示建议、命令、要求、意见的动词后接的宾语从句中要使用虚拟语气。
  如:
  He suggests that she should leave the house at once.
  The leader ordered that the task(should) be finished as soon as possible.
  He proposed that we (should)deal with the problem by the view of development.
 2.  与 suggest,order,demand,propose,command,request,desire,insist 等动词相对应
的名词   suggestion,order,demand,proposal 等后的表语从句或同位语从句中要使用虚拟
语气。如:
  The general sent the order that the battle(should)be held on until the complete failure of 
the enemy.
  My proposal is that we(should) set a deadline for handing in the plan.
 3.  在 It is/was suggested (ordered,demanded,proposed,etc.)结构以及 necessary,
essential,important,strange,natural 等形容词后的主语从句中要使用虚拟语气。如:
  It’s requested that we (should)keep the stability of the society for the people’s peaceful 
life.
  It is necessary that the badly wounded man(should) be treated immediately.

(二)过去时态类
  英语中,还有一些词或短语后接的从句或句子,也要使用虚拟语气,虚拟语气是通过
句中的谓语使用过去的某种时态(如:一般过去时、过去完成时等)来体现的。
 1. wish,would rather 后的宾语从句。如:
                  中国现代教育网     www.30edu.com  全国最大教师交流平台

  He wished he had never been involved in such affairs.
  I would rather you could teach me again.

 2. as if,as though 引导的从句。如:
  The little boy knows so many things as if he was a man.
  He acted as usual as though nothing had happened.

 3.  由 if only (要是……,那该多好啊!)引导的惊叹句。如:


  If only I had passed the test![来源:学,科,网]
  If only it stopped raining!

 4. It is(about/high) time 后的定语从句。如:
  It is time we went out for a walk.
  It was high time they had begun to prepare the experiment.

三、虚拟语气的其它用法
  在英语中,一些表示建议、请求、劝告、愿望、祈祷、祝福或诅咒的句子,也需要使


用虚拟语气。如:[来源:学科网]
  Would you mind smoking here?
  May you be lucky!
  Long live the people of China!
  God save m  e.

【典型例题】


  1. When a pencil is partly in a glass of water, it looks as if it ___ ____.[来源:学,科,网]
    A. breaks     B. has broken     C. were broken      D. had been  broken 
    解析:答案为      C。本题考查的是        as if 引导的让步状语从句中的语气问题,as if            引导的
状语从句如果与事实一致,不用虚拟语气,如果与事实相反,应用虚拟语气。题中“当铅
笔的一部分浸在水中,铅笔看上去好像断了”。而实际上铅笔并未断,与事实相反,前半
部分陈述是一般现在时,因而本句是对一般现在时的虚拟,用                          were broken。

  2. I didn’t see your sister at the meeting. If she ___________, she would have met my brother. 
    A. has come      B. did come      C. came      D. had come
    解析:答案为      D。本题考查的是        if 条件句中的虚拟语气。题意是:我在会议上没看到
你姐姐,故你姐姐没来。           因此如果“她来了”与事实相反,前面一句交代了虚拟语气的时
态是一般过去时的虚拟,所以             if 从句中用   had+过去分词。
  3. —If he ___________, he ________that food.
    —Luckily he was sent to the hospital immediately. 
    A. was warned; would not take
    B. had been warned; would not have taken
    C. would be warned; had not taken
    D. would have been warned; had not taken
    解析:答案为      B。本题考查的是条件状语从句与主句表示与事实相反时虚拟语气的用
法。根据下一句语境可知,他事先并没有得到警告,表示过去时间的虚拟语气,故选                                    B。
                  中国现代教育网     www.30edu.com  全国最大教师交流平台

【模拟试题】(答题时间:20                分钟)
  1. I’d just as soon ____ rudely to her. 


    A. you not speak           B. your not speaking [来源:学科网 ZXXK]
  C. you didn’t speak          D. you hadn’t spoken
 2. _________, I’d have done it myself. 
  A. If I would have known it  B. If I had have known it
  C. Had I known it            D. Should I known it
 3. We prefer that the plan ____________ before being put into execution.
  A. will be fully discussed   B. be fully discussed
  C. must be fully discussed   D. would be fully discussed
 4. If only we ____ then the disease was curable.
  A. knew       B. could know       C. had known   D. would have known
 5. If you _________ my advice, you ________ your failure now. You _________ your victory.
  A. took ... wouldn’t cry over ... would celebrate


  B. had taken ... wouldn’t have cried over ... would  have celebrated[来源:学科网 ZXXK]
  C. had taken ... aren’t crying over ... are celebrating
  D. had taken ... would n’t be crying over ... would be celebrating
 6. It was urgent that he _________ her immediately.
  A. calls      B. called  C. call     D. would call
 7. It’s high time that something _________ to prohibit selling fake commodities. 
  A. must be done      B. was done     C. be done      D. were done
 8. He insisted that we all ____ in his office at one o’clock. 
  A. be     B. to be   C. would be     D. shall be 
 9. ____________, I’d have done it myself. 
  A. If I would have known it  B. If I had have known it
  C. Had I known it            D. Should I known it 
 10. There was a traff ic jam; otherwise I ____ here on time.
  A. would be                  B. had been 
  C. should be                 D. would have been
                  中国现代教育网     www.30edu.com  全国最大教师交流平台

【试题答案】
 1. 【答案】C。
  【解析】would just as soon (=would rather, had rather 或 had just as soon)意为“宁愿”,
后接从句时,其从句谓语动词要用一般过去时表示虚拟语气。


 2. 【答案】C     。  [来源:学科网 ZXXK]
  【解析】if      条件句中包含有        should, had, were 则可省去  if 并把  should, had, were 移


到句首,构成倒装句式,而意思不变。[来源:Zxxk.Com]
 3. 【答案】B
  【解析】此句考点是虚拟语气。及物动词                    advise, agree, ask, beg, command, decide, 
demand, determine, dictate 等后面的宾语从句须用虚拟语气。虚拟语气的形式是                 should+动词
原形,should   可以省去,因此选        B。
 4. 【答案】C
  【解析】if      only 引导的句子用虚拟语气,          表示与过去的事实相反时,动词用过去完成
时。
 5. 【答案】D。
  【解析】当主句与从句时态不一致时,主句与从句分别使用与各自时态相应的虚拟语
气。此句中从句与过去事实相反,主句与现在事实相反,因而选项                            D 正确。
 6. 【答案】C。
  【解析】在       It is/was urgent that…句型中,that 引导的从句谓语动词应用“should+动词


原形”形式,should     可以省略。类似的形容词还有             necessary, advisable, desirable, vital 等。[来源:


Zxxk.Com]
 7. 【答案】B。
  【解析】It's high time...结构后应使用虚拟语气,something           在这里应接过去时态单数谓
语动词   was。故选B。
 8. 【答案】A。 
  【解析】“insist”一词意思是“坚决要求”时,后面的句子用虚拟语气,即宾语从句
的谓语用(should)+动词原形。
 9. 【答案】C。 
  【解析】if      条件句中包含有        should, had, were 则可省去 if,并把   should, had, were 移
到句首,构成倒装句式,而意思不变。
 10. 【答案】D。
  【解析】此题中前半句是一个陈述句,后半句中                      otherwise 相当于一个虚拟的条件从句
“If the traffic had not been very busy”,是对过去的情况的一个假设,因此主句中的谓语要用
“would have done”的形式。 
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