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专题二    第二节    分类突破
一、记叙文
内容索引


                            真题感悟

                            名师点津

                           随堂限时练
真题感悟
(2018·江苏)
   Raynor Winn and her husband Moth became homeless due to their
wrong investment.Their savings had been 36 to pay lawyers’ fees.To
make matters worse,Moth was diagnosed(诊断) with a 37 disease.
There was no 38 ,only pain relief.
   Failing to find any other way out,they decided to make a 39 journey,
as they caught sight of an old hikers’(徒步旅行者) guide.
   This was a long journey of unaccustomed hardship and 40
recovery.When leaving home,Raynor and Moth had just £320 in the
bank.They planned to keep the 41 low by living on boiled noodles,
with the 42 hamburger shop treat.
   Wild camping is 43   in England.To avoid being caught,the
Winns had to get their tent up 44 and packed it away early in the
morning.The Winns soon discovered that daily hiking in their 50s is a lot
 45 than they remember it was in their 20s.Raynor 46 all over and
desired a bath.Moth,meanwhile,after an initial 47 ,found his
symptoms were strangely 48 by their daily tiring journey.
     49 ,the couple found that their bodies turned for the better,
with re-found strong muscles that they thought had 50 forever.“Our
hair was fried and falling out,nails broken,clothes 51 to a thread,
but we were alive.”
   During the journey,Raynor began a career as a nature writer.She
writes,“ 52 had taken every material thing from me and left me torn
bare,an empty page at the end of a(n) 53 written book.It had also
given me a 54 ,either to leave that page 55 or to keep writing the
story with hope.I chose hope.”

                                                   语篇解读
36.A.drawn up                 √B.used up
C.backed up                   D.kept up
解析   文章开头交代,夫妻俩因投资不当而变得无家可归。由此可推知,
为了支付律师费,他们的积蓄被用完(use            up)了。draw  up起草,(车辆)
停下;back  up支持;keep   up保持,继续。


   36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50 51 52 53 54 55 解析 答案
37.A.mild                     B.common
C.preventable                 √D.serious
解析   由空前的“to    make matters worse”(更糟糕的是)及后文的提示
“only pain relief”可知Moth被诊断出得了重(serious)病。mild温和的,
轻微的;common常见的;preventable可预防的。


   36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50 51 52 53 54 55 解析 答案
38√.A.cure                    B.luck
C.care                        D.promise

解析   由空后的“only    pain relief”可知,此处是说该病无法治愈(cure)。
luck运气,好运;care关怀,照料;promise许诺,答应。


   36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50 51 52 53 54 55 解析 答案
39.A.business                 √B.walking
C.bus                         D.rail

解析   由空后的hikers可知是徒步旅行,故选walking。business商业;
bus公共汽车;rail铁路。


   36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50 51 52 53 54 55 解析 答案
40.A.expected                 B.frightening
C.disappointing               √D.surprising
解析   由下文可知这次徒步旅行收到了惊人的(surprising)康复效果。
expected预期的;frightening吓人的;disappointing令人失望的。


   36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50 51 52 53 54 55 解析 答案
41√.A.budget                  B.revenue
C.compensation                D.allowance

解析   空前提到,他们只有320英镑,空后提到他们以煮面条为食,由
此可知他们计划保持低预算(budget)              。 revenue 税收,  收 益  ;
compensation补偿费,赔偿金;allowance津贴,零用钱。


   36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50 51 52 53 54 55 解析 答案
42.A.frequent                 √B.occasional
C.abundant                    D.constant

解析   因为预算低,他们只能靠煮面条过活,偶尔(occasional)去汉堡店
款待一下自己。空后的treat是名词,有“款待”之意。因为预算低,所
以去汉堡店不可能是frequent“频繁的”、abundant“充足的”或
constant“经常的”。


   36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50 51 52 53 54 55 解析 答案
43.A.unpopular                B.lawful
C.attractive                  √D.illegal
解析   由下文的“To    avoid being caught”(避免被抓)可知,在英国,野
外 宿 营 是 非 法 的  (illegal) 。 unpopular 不 流 行 的 ; lawful 合 法 的 ;
attractive吸引人的。


   36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50 51 52 53 54 55 解析 答案
 44.A.soon                     B.early
√C.late                        D.slowly
 解析   为了避免被抓,他们只好很晚(late)才撑起帐篷并且一早就把帐
 篷收起来。显然,该空与early相对,只能选late。soon快,不久;early
 早;slowly缓慢地。


    36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50 51 52 53 54 55 解析 答案
45√.A.harder                  B.easier
C.cheaper                     D.funnier

解析   根据常识及下文的Raynor浑身疼痛可知夫妻俩很快发现,他们
在50多岁时的徒步旅行比记忆中20多岁时的徒步旅行艰难多了(harder)。
easier更容易的;cheaper更便宜的;funnier更有趣的。


   36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50 51 52 53 54 55 解析 答案
 46.A.rolled                   B.bled
√C.ached                       D.trembled
 解析   通读上下文可知,夫妻俩都50多岁了,每天徒步旅行,Raynor浑
 身疼痛(ache  all over),想洗个澡。roll滚动;bleed流血;tremble颤抖。


    36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50 51 52 53 54 55 解析 答案
47√.A.struggle                B.progress
C.excitement                  D.research

解析   上文提到Moth得了重病,所以旅行开始时他一定是痛苦的,故
选struggle“挣扎”。progress进步;excitement兴奋;research研究,
调查。


   36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50 51 52 53 54 55 解析 答案
 48.A.developed                B.controlled
√C.reduced                     D.increased
解析    由空前的strangely(奇怪地)及下一段中的“their       bodies turned for
the better”(他们的身体好转了)可知Moth的症状减轻(reduce)了。
develop发展,成长;control控制;increase增加。


    36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50 51 52 53 54 55 解析 答案
49.A.Initially                √B.Eventually
C.Temporarily                 D.Consequently

解析   最后(eventually),夫妻俩发现他们的身体都有所好转。initially
最初;temporarily临时地;consequently因此,所以。


   36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50 51 52 53 54 55 解析 答案
50.A.gained                   B.kept
C.wounded                     √D.lost
解析   夫妻俩身体好转,发现本以为永远消失(lose)了的强壮肌肉重新
出现了。gain获得;keep保持;wound使受伤。


   36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50 51 52 53 54 55 解析 答案
 51.A.sewn                     B.washed
√C.worn                        D.ironed
 解析   由空前描述的“头发干枯脱落,指甲断裂”可知该空是说衣服被
 磨损(wear)成线。sew缝;wash洗;iron熨。


    36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50 51 52 53 54 55 解析 答案
52.A.Doctors                  B.Hiking
C.Lawyers                     √D.Homelessness
解析   通读上下文可知,把她所有物质的东西都带走的不可能是“医
生”“徒步旅行”或“律师”,而应是无家可归(homelessness)。


   36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50 51 52 53 54 55 解析 答案
53.A.well                     √B.partly
C.neatly                      D.originally
解析   句意为:无家可归带走了我所有物质的东西,我被撕得支离破碎,
在人生这本已经写完一部分的书的最后留下空白的一页。Raynor把自
己目前的人生比作已经写完一部分的书(partly               written book)。well
written写得好;neatly written写得整洁;originally written原创的。


   36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50 51 52 53 54 55 解析 答案
54√.A.choice                  B.reward
C.promise                     D.break

解析   由空后的either...or...及最后一句“I   chose hope.(我选择了希望)”
可知该处意为“它也给了我一个选择(choice)”。reward奖赏,报酬;
promise承诺;break间歇。


   36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50 51 52 53 54 55 解析 答案
 55.A.loose                    B.full
√C.blank                       D.missing
 解析   上文的“an    empty page”提示该空填blank(空白的)。给Raynor
 的选择是“或者留着那页空白或者带着希望继续写故事”。loose松的;
 full满的;missing丢失的。


    36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50 51 52 53 54 55 解析 答案
名师点津
一、题型解读
记叙文完形填空可分为叙事和记人两种形式,它们有几个显著的特点:以
一般过去时为主,其他时态为辅;大量使用动词;适当出现直接引语。
二、解题技巧
1.抓住文章中心。      中心思想是文章的灵魂和统帅,其他的写作要素都紧
紧围绕这一中心进行。        抓住中心有助于明确做题方向,提高针对性。
2.明确叙述角度。      通常记叙文有两大叙述角度:第一人称和第三人称。
第一人称就是从“自我参与”的角度进行叙述,考生可从字里行间读出
作者对人物、事件或景色的情感态度。              第三人称就是从“旁观者”的角
度客观地记人、叙事、状物。           在做题时考生可采用“角色渗透法”,即
假设自己就是文中的角色会有什么感受、做出怎样的选择等,这样有助
于走进作者的思维,深入理解文章的含义。
3.理清写作顺序。      根据写作的需要作者往往采用顺叙、倒叙或插叙等方
法进行叙述。      理清这些线索有助于了解事情发展的来龙去脉,从而更迅
速、准确地理解文意。
4.明确写作要素。      包括事情发生的时间(when)、地点(where)、事件的
内容(what)、人物(who)、原因(why)等。       弄清了这些要素也就基本上
抓住了文章的主体,理解了整篇文章。
5.洞悉写作目的。      同学们要知道就事论事绝不是记叙文的最终目的,
而最终目的是借助叙事来阐明一个道理,给人以启迪或教益。                       因此,
只有在分析具体情节的基础上认真体会文字背后的东西才能洞悉作者
的写作目的,抓住文章的主题。
随堂限时练
(2018·山东德州二模)
    A few days ago,I 6observed a teenager doing yardwork that his
dad had told him to do.Instead of doing the task 1 ,he wandered
around there for hours, 2 to himself and doing a bad job.
    The person he hurt the most was himself.His dad was trying to
teach him 3 and how to do a good job.As a result of his 4 attitude,
he spent the whole afternoon finishing a task that should have taken
one or two hours.And the yard 5 wasn’t clean enough when he got
through.
   He  6 his day because of his attitude.And his dad was 7 with him,
and the boy’ s bad mood ended up 8 the whole family that day.
   A sweet lady was working in a fast-food 9 .The minute I walked in,
she welcomed me 10 .She smiled as she took my 7order,and then as
we  11 for the food,she talked with me.As I walked off with my 1tray,
she said with a big 12 ,“I hope you have a 2blessed day!” I think
the food tasted better because of her 13 .There was a delay,during
which I sat there hearing her singing as she 14 her tasks behind the
counter.
    She wasn’t making a large salary,and she didn’t have a
powerful 15 ,either.In addition,she stood on her feet for a long shift
each day,often dealing with 16 customers.But she chose to be joyful.
    I want to 17  from her.I want to do my best,even when there’s 
no 18  or 3glory.Other people are watching me 19  I might not realize 
it at the time.I want to bring joy to all those around me.A(n) 20  can 
make a great difference.
语篇解读     本文是一篇记叙文,文章通过对比一个小男孩与一个餐厅女
服务员对自己做的事情的不同态度,以及所带来的不同结果,作者告诉
我们一种积极的态度可以给人带来很大的快乐。
                                                    语篇解读
1.A.gradually B√.happily
C.secretly  D.silently

解析   gradually渐渐地;happily高兴地;secretly秘密地;silently沉默
地。根据本段最后“doing       a bad job”可知,小男孩不是开心地做这项
工作,而是在那里逛了几个小时,自我抱怨,工作也干得不好。故选B。


   1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 解析 答案
2.A.responding B.applying
C.explaining D.complaining
           √
解析   respond回应;apply申请;explain解释;complain抱怨。解析参
见上题。故选D。


   1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 解析 答案
 3.A.goodness B.safety
√C.responsibility D.gardening
 解析   goodness善良;safety安全;responsibility责任;gardening园艺。
 根据“how   to do a good job”可知,此处指他的父亲教他要有责任。故
 选C。


    1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 解析 答案
4√.A.poor   B.positive
C.strange   D.efficient

解析    poor不好的,不佳的,恶劣的,贫穷的;positive积极的;
strange奇怪的;efficient有效率的。根据后半句“he          spent the whole
afternoon finishing a task that should have taken one or two hours”可
知,他做事的态度不好。故选A。


   1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 解析 答案
 5.A.almost  B.even
√C.still     D.ever
 解析   almost几乎;even甚至;still仍然;ever曾经。根据上文可知,
 当他完成任务的时候,院子还不够干净。故选C。


    1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 解析 答案
6.A.lost    B√.ruined
C.perfected D.changed

解析   lose失去;ruin毁掉;perfect使……完美;change改变。根据上
文“As  a result of his attitude”可知,他的不好的态度毁掉了这一
天。故选B。


   1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 解析 答案
7√.A.upset  B.pleased
C.impressed D.satisfied

解析    upset烦恼的;pleased感到高兴的;impressed印象深刻的;
satisfied感到满意的。他父亲对他很生气。be         upset with sb. 对某人生气。
故选A。


   1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 解析 答案
 8.A.breaking B.benefiting
√C.affecting D.controlling
 解析   break破坏;benefit有利于;affect影响;control控制。那天这个
 男孩的坏心情影响了整个家庭。故选C。


    1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 解析 答案
9.A.factory B.restaurant √
C.supermarket D.shop

解析   factory工厂;restaurant餐厅;supermarket超市;shop商店。由
下文“she  took my order”可知,此处指,一位甜美的女士在一家快餐
店工作。故选B。


   1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 解析 答案
10√.A.warmly B.proudly
C.seriously D.coldly

解析   warmly热情地;proudly自豪地;seriously严肃地;coldly冷淡地。
我一走进来,她热情地欢迎我。由后面的smiled也可知。故选A。


   1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 解析 答案
 11.A.looked B.asked
√C.waited    D.struggled
 解析   look看;ask问;wait等待;struggle挣扎。由常识可知,点完菜
 后,自然要等待食物上来,故可知此处指我们在等饭菜时她和我交谈。
 wait for等待……。故选C。


    1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 解析 答案
12.A.shout  B.smile    √
C.cheer     D.decision

解析   shout大喊;smile微笑;cheer欢呼;decision决定。当我拿着我
的托盘走的时候,她带着一个大的微笑说:“我希望你有一个幸福的日
子!”  with a simle微笑着。故选B。


   1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 解析 答案
13.A.experience B.trust
C.courage   D.kindness  √
解析   experience经验;trust信任;courage勇气;kindness善良。根据
上文“She  smiled as she took my order,and then as we for the food,
she talked with me.”可知,这个女服务员很善良。故选D。


   1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 解析 答案
14√.A.performed B.started
C.discovered D.planned

解析   perform做,履行,执行;start开始;discover发现;plan计划。
我在逗留期间,听见她在柜台后面边工作边唱歌。perform                 one’s task
执行任务,做工作。故选A。


   1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 解析 答案
 15.A.appearance B.4motivation
√C.position  D.effort
 解析   appearance外表;motivation动机,积极性,推动;position位置;
 effort努力。她没有高薪水,也没有强有力的职位。故选C。


    1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 解析 答案
16.A.ordinary B.painful
C.important √D.difficult
解析   ordinary普通的;painful痛苦的;important重要的;difficult困
难的。此外,她每天都站着做长时间的轮班,经常和难缠的顾客打交道。
但她选择了快乐。故选D。


   1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 解析 答案
17.A.escape √B.learn
C.hear      D.differ

解析   escape逃脱;learn学习;hear听见;differ不同。我想向她学习。
learn from向……学习。故选B。


   1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 解析 答案
18√.A.applause B.regret
C.sadness   D.forgiveness

解析   applause欢呼;regret遗憾;sadness伤心;forgiveness宽恕。即
使没有掌声和荣耀,我也要尽我最大的努力。故选A。


   1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 解析 答案
 19.A.5now that B.in case
√C.even though D.as if
 解析   now that既然;in  case万一;even though即使;as  if好像。其他
 人都在看着我,尽管我当时可能没有意识到这一点。由句意可知,此处
 是even though引导的让步状语从句。故选C。


    1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 解析 答案
20.A.lifestyle B.attitude √
C.habit     D.attempt

解析   lifestyle生活方式;attitude态度;habit习惯;attempt企图。由
全文语境可知,一种态度可以起很大的作用。故选B。


   1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 解析 答案
             做完以上完形后,巧妙运用语境,解决障碍词和长难句

                         素材提炼再拓展

Ⅰ.障碍词汇突破
(一)阅读下列句子,并根据句意猜测画线部分的意思
1. A tray is a flat piece of wood,plastic,or metal,which usually has raised edges and
which is used for carrying things,especially food and drinks.托盘____
2.I will be forever grateful for,and feel blessed by these treasures. ______幸福的
3.Glory is the fame and admiration that you gain by doing something impressive.
              光荣,荣耀__________
4.Your motivation for doing something is what causes you to want to do it.
                                                       _____动机
(二)同义词语替换
5.Now that we’re in Europe we ought to visit the Netherlands. _____since
(三)一词多义
6.observe庆祝;观察;遵守
(1)Someone who doesn’t observe traffic regulations will sweat. _____遵守
(2)Take some time and observe how you value yourself and what you do.____观察
(3)Tom has returned to his hometown where he will observe Thanksgiving
with family members. _____            庆祝
7.order n.命令;条理,顺序;规则;[贸易]订单;vt.命令;整理;定
购;点食物/饮料
(1)The general gave the order to advance. _____     命令
(2)Get your ideas into some sort of order before beginning to write.

                                             _________________条理,顺序
(3)The policeman ordered the drunken man out of the shop. _____命令
(4)He ordered a book from the publisher. _____      定购
(5)They got into a restaurant and asked for a menu to order their meal.

                                          _____________________点食物/饮料
Ⅱ.长难句理解
1.As a result of his poor attitude,he spent the whole afternoon finishing a
task that should have taken one or two hours.
[句式分析]      本句话是复合句,主句是he           spent the whole afternoon
finishing a task,为主谓宾 结构;that should have taken one or two hours
是 定语  从句,修饰     a task 。
[         由于他恶劣的态度精美译文,他花了一整个下午才完成本该一两个小]
____________________________________________________时就能完成的任务。
__________________
2.There was a delay,during which I sat there hearing her singing as she
performed her tasks behind the counter.
[句式分析]    本句话是复合句,主句是There         was a delay;during which
I sat there hearing her singing as she performed her tasks behind the
counter是“介词+关系代词”引导的          定语  从句,在从句中hearing...作
伴随状语,singing作宾补;as        she performed her tasks behind the
counter是 时间状语   从句。
[精美译文]    我在逗留期间____________________________________________,听到她在柜台后面边干活边唱歌。
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