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2019版高考英语黄冈经典一轮(实用课件)全国通用版 素养提升模拟练 十一

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                   素养提升模拟练十一[来源:学科网]
                             世界与环境


  2017   年全国卷Ⅱ阅读理解        D 篇讲述了科学家最近的研究发现当植物受到攻

击时,   它们会释放出化学物质来保护自己并通知周围的植物。旨在培养考生树

 立生态意识,     热爱并尊重自然,       与自然和谐相处;       保护环境,    节约资源,     采取绿

色生活方式;      具有可持续发展理念和行动等。


                                                      (2017·全国卷Ⅱ)

  When a leafy plant is under attack, it doesn’t sit quietly. Back in 1983,  two 

scientists,  Jack Schultz and Ian Baldwin,  reported that young maple trees getting 

bitten by insects send out a particular smell that neighboring plants can get. These 

chemicals come from the injured parts of the plant and seem to be an alarm. What the 

plants pump through the air is a mixture of chemicals known as volatile organic 

compounds,  VOCs for short. 

  Scientists have found that all kinds of plants give out VOCs when being attacked. 

It’s a plant’s way of crying out. But is anyone listening?  Apparently. Because we 

can watch the neighbors react. 
                  中国现代教育网  www.30edu.com  全国最大教师交流平台

  Some plants pump out smelly chemicals to keep insects away. But others do 

double duty. They pump out perfumes designed to attract different insects who are 

natural enemies to the attackers. Once they arrive,  the tables are turned. The 


attacker who was lunching now becomes lunch.  [来源:Z.xx.k.Com]

  In study after study,  it appears that these chemical conversations help the 

neighbors. The damage is usually more serious on the first plant,  but the neighbors,  

relatively speaking,  stay safer because they heard the alarm and knew what to do. 

  Does this mean that plants talk to each other?  Scientists don’t know. Maybe 

the first plant just made a cry of pain or was sending a message to its own branches,  

and so,  in effect,  was talking to itself. Perhaps the neighbors just happened to 

“overhear” the cry. So information was exchanged,  but it wasn’t a true,  

intentional back and forth. 

  Charles Darwin,  over 150 years ago,  imagined a world far busier,  noisier 

and more intimate(亲密的) than the world we can see and hear. Our senses are weak. 

There’s a whole lot going on. 

【文章大意】当植物受到攻击时,              它们不是坐以待毙,        而是释放出化学物质来

保护自己并通知周围的植物。

1. What does a plant do when it is under attack? 

A. It makes noises. 

B. It gets help from other plants. 

C. It stands quietly. 

D. It sends out certain chemicals. 
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【解析】选      D。细节理解题。根据第一段的内容可知当植物受到攻击时,                        它们

不是坐以待毙,       而是释放出一种化学物质来保护自己并通知周围的植物。故选

D。

2. What does the author mean by “the tables are turned” in Paragraph 3? 

A. The attackers get attacked. 

B. The insects gather under the table. 

C. The plants get ready to fight back. 

D. The perfumes attract natural enemies. 

【解析】选      A。词义猜测题。根据画线句            子后面的    The attacker who was 

lunching now becomes lunch. (要吃午餐的攻击者现在变成他人的午餐。)可知, 

此处指攻击者遭到攻击。the tables are turned      表示“局面扭转过来了”。故选

A。

3. Scientists find from their studies that plants can________.  

A. predict natural disasters

B. protect themselves against insects

C. talk to one another intentionally

D. help their neighbors when necessary

【解析】选      B。细节理解题。根据第三段的             Some plants pump out smelly 

chemicals to keep insects away. But others do double duty. . . natural enemies to the 

attackers. 可知植物可以保护自己不受昆虫的袭击。

4. What can we infer from the last paragraph? 

A. The world is changing faster than ever. 
                  中国现代教育网  www.30edu.com  全国最大教师交流平台

B. People have stronger senses than before. 


C. The world is more complex than it seems. [来源:学+科+网]

D. People in Darwin’s time were more imaginative. 

【解析】选      C。推理判断题。根据最后一段的内容可知,                 我们的感官很弱,       这说

明我们看到和听到的只是世界的一小部分,                  还有很多我们不了解的事情在发生。

由此可以推断出世界实际上复杂得多。故选                   C。


1. 通读文章,    根据框架写出关键词


答案:①chemicals     ②drive   ③duty  ④help   ⑤talk ⑥complicated

2. 难句剖析

The damage is usually more serious on the first plant,  but the neighbors,  relatively 


speaking,  stay safer because they heard the alarm and knew what to do. [来源:学_科_网]

分析: but 连接两个并列分句。后面的分句中, relatively speaking          是插入语, 

because they heard the alarm and knew what to do 是原因状语从句。
                  中国现代教育网  www.30edu.com  全国最大教师交流平台

翻译: ___________________________________________________________

答案:通常对第一株植物的伤害更严重, 但是相对来说, 邻居们会更安全, 因

为它们听到了警报并知道做什么。


Ⅰ. 阅读理解

  Our world has been greatly affected by climate change and it is important that 

people,  young and old,  work together to fight it.  Perhaps the biggest factor is 

the action of our children.  That is why I think it is important that children today 

learn to be eco-friendly at a young age. 

  I believe the nation should require school s to have a class about being 

“green”—Green Living could be its name.  Every school would teach students about 

global warming,  its effects,  and what they can do to reduce their carbon footprint. 

  In the classes,  students could be assigned(分配) to find solutions to everyday 

energy problems,  while learning about their effects on the earth and how we all can 

help.  Students would be encouraged to use what they learned in class at home,  

where it would affect the whole family. 

  Too many think that global warming is not a threat,  but it is one of our biggest 

problems.  How are children supposed to prevent global warming if they grow up 

not knowing about its dangers?  Children should be exposed to ways they can help 

in elementary school,  which is why it is important that more schools offer 

environmental education classes. 
                  中国现代教育网  www.30edu.com  全国最大教师交流平台

  However,    to be effective,  schools must take steps to be “green” too.  What 

would children be learning if the school’s lights were always left on and there were 

no recycling bins?  When schools are rebuilt or new ones are built,  towns should 

support an eco-friendly design that would save energy and reduce power bills. 

  Green living and green schools are part of a new wave that should be sweeping 

 the nation,  but is not.  How will our future leaders respond after years of living in 

a community where preserving our world’s natural integrity(完整性) just isn’t 

considered important?  Schools and the government should be responsible for 

teaching young people about global warming quickly.  Seriously,  how many 

people does it take to screw in a fluorescent(荧光灯) light bulb? 

【文章大意】本文主要介绍了学校应该怎样教育孩子们从小了解绿色生活、气

候变暖的知识。

1. In “green living” class,  children will ________.  


A. learn the ways to save energy[来源:学科网]

B. be asked to find solutions to global warming

C. be encouraged to experiment with their effects on the earth

D. help reduce the carbon footprint of their friends

【解析】选      A。细节理解题。根据第二段的最后一句可知,                  学生可以学到减少

碳排放和节能的方法。

2. More schools offer environmental education classes to make children ________.  

A. realize that global warming is not a threat

B. help to solve global warming from an early age
                  中国现代教育网  www.30edu.com  全国最大教师交流平台

C. treat global warming as one of the biggest problems

D. know about the danger of preventing global warming

【解析】选      B。细节理解题。结合第四段的最后一句可知学校提供环境教育课

的原因是使孩子们在很早就可以接触到解决气候变暖的方法。

3. What steps can be considered to be green? 

A. The towns should be designed in an eco-friendly way. 

B. Schools should be enlarged to save energy. 

C. Turn off the school’s lights when everyone leaves. 

D. Recycling bins should be new ones at school. 

【解析】选      C。细节理解题。从第五段的            What would children be learning if the 

school’s lights were always left on and there were no recycling bins? 可知把教室的

灯关掉就是使学校“绿色化”的举措之一。

4. What might be the most suitable title for the passage? 

A. Green living         B. Online living

C. Modern living        D. School living

【解析】选      A。主旨大意题。本文主要介绍了学校应该怎样教育孩子们从很小

就了解绿色生活、气候变暖方面的知识,                  从而在将来可以更好地解决气候变暖

的问题。

Ⅱ. 阅读填句

  根据短文内容,         从短文后的选项中选出能填入空白处的最佳选项。选项中

有两项为多余选项。
                  中国现代教育网  www.30edu.com  全国最大教师交流平台

  Around the world there is an increase in the demand for reforestation(再造林).  

This is because the consumption of the forests has affected not only the animals 

living in the area but also the people.  And reforestation is about the rebuilding of 

the forests that have been severely destroyed.  It can offer a lot of benefits when the 

recreation is successful. 

   1  This includes collecting seedlings(幼苗) that are native in the area to 

make sure that there is a natural reconstruction of the area.  Some additional trees 

which are not native in the area also need to be planted.   2  The importance of 

having multiple species of trees is considered to make sure that the needs of other 

species that will live and grow in the area are met.  

  Destroying a forest is easy but rebuilding it is really har d. 

   3  The plan must include accurate spacing on plants and trees.  This is to 

ensure that they won’t cover each other while they grow.   4  

  The forest greatly helps in the reduction of the air pollution.  Trees are 

responsible for the production of oxygen and absorption of carbon dioxide.   5  It 

is there for a reason just like everyone else on this planet.  

  There can’t be a better way to restore the balance of nature than to increase the 

forest area.  We must remember that the forest is a natural habitat of a wide variety 

of animals and plants.  In this manner,  there is no substitute for reforestation. 

A. And global warming will speed up the destruction of forests. 

B. There are many things to be done when it comes to this type of effort. 

C. Keep in mind that you can’t just plant the seedlings everywhere. 
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 D. It is important to make sure that they are suited to the climate and the type of soil. 

E. Recreations won’t work until all these details have been considered. 

F. So a good plan is needed to make the reforestation a successful one. 

G. The forest also protects us from typhoons and other natural disasters. 

1. 【解析】选     B。作为第一句,      此空格应该是总述此段的内容,              同时也起到承

接上一段内容的作用。结合各个选项的意思,                   可知  B 正确。

2. 【解析】选     D。承接上一句所讲的内容,            此句应该讲植物对气候及土壤的适

应。结合各个选项,        可知选    D。

3. 【解析】选     F。根据空格后一句中的关键词            plan, 可知  F 项为正确答案。

4. 【解析】选     C。此空格是本段的总结句。分析本段的上文内容,                    可知  C 选项

的内容与之相符。

5. 【解析】选     G。根据此段的内容,         里面讲述的都是植物的好处,            故可知   G 项

为正确选项。

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