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PresentPresent  PerfectPerfect  
TenseTense
PresentPresent  perfectperfect  tensetense 现在完成时

vv构成构成:: have/has + 过去分词
         表示过去发生的某一动作
         对现在造成的影响或产生
         的结果.现在完成时这一时
vv用法一:用法一: 态强调是过去动作与现在
         的联系,也就是强调现在的
         影响和结果.
   II  livedlived  therethere  22  yearsyears  agoago
              past                 present

              II  havehave  livedlived  herehere  forfor  twotwo  yearsyears
v 1.都表示过去发生的事
v 2.现在完成时强调过去和现在的联系,不能和具
  体的时间状语连用;
v 3.一般过去时强调过去发生的事或状态与表示过
  去的具体时间连用(last, ago, yesterday, etc. )
eg.1. He had his breakfast at 6:00
         
         He has had his breakfast.

     2. When did you come here?
        
         I watched the football match on TV at 9:00.
      
      
      
AdverbsAdverbs  ofof  timetime
           before, 
      by now (so far), 
      once, twice…,                   
      just,
      recently
      yet(否/疑), already(肯), 
      ever, never, 
      all one’s life ,
      in /during the past /last 5 years,
       
      


  
ExercisesExercises

 v 1. I have________(have) had  lunch already..
 v 2. Has the train_______arrived  (arrive), yet?
 v 3.Tome ____has  never_______been to (be to ) 
  China.     has     seen
 v 4. The twin ______just _____(see) my 
  father.   saw
 v 5. The twins ____(see)have my  beenfather built just now.
 v 6. Many tall buildings 
  ____________(build) in the past 5 years.
          表示过去某个时间开始的动作
v 用法二:    或存在的状态,一直持续到现
          在并可能还将持续下去。动词
          使用延续性动词。常与for或
          since引导的时间连用
      for+段时间
     since+点时间
     since+句子(过去时)
E.g. Kate has lived here for 3 years.
      Kate has lived here since 3 years ago.
      Kate has lived here since she came to China.
  常见非延续性动词和延续性动词的转变常见非延续性动词和延续性动词的转变
v arrive/come/go to     be       in             die      be dead
v become a               be      a         borrow keep
v Leave/ move     be away / be out 
v buy                     have              open be open
v join     be in/a member of
v start/begin         be      on           finish/ end be over
v catch a cold            have           a    cold           get up be up
v get to know          know             get out be out
v close          be      closed                  wake up be awake
v go to sleep     be asleep/ sleep
v become interested in  be interested in
ExercisesExercises  
v His father has died. (for 2 years)
     His father has been dead for 2 years.

v The football match has begun.(since9:00a.m)
    The football match has been on since 9:00 
    a.m.
v The twins have joined the army. (since they are 
 18years old)
    The twins have been soldiers/ been in the 
    army since they are 18years old. 
v My teacher has just left Nanjing. (for 3 days)
    My teacher has been away from Nanjing 
    for 3 days
重点句型重点句型::
ItIt  is/is/  hashas  been+been+段时间段时间+since+since从句从句  
段时间段时间+has+has  passed+passed+  sincesince从句从句
eg. 他死了两年了:
He died two years ago.
He has been dead for 
 two years /since two 
 years ago 
It is/ has been two years 
 since he died.
Two years has passed 
 since he died.

                             
v 1. 这本书我借了一个月了。
       I borrowed this book a month  ago.

       I have kept the book for a month. /since a 
       month ago.
       It is/ has been a month since I borrowed 
       the book.
        A month has passed since I borrowed 
        the book.
Have/hasHave/has  gonegone  toto
have/hashave/has  beenbeen  toto  
have/hashave/has  beenbeen  inin

 v have/has gone to:已经去了或在途中,还
  没有返回;
 v have/has been to:曾今去过某地,现在已
  经回来了,后面可接表示“次数”的状语; 
 v have/has been in:表示某人“已在某地停留
  一段时间,现仍在那里”,其后常带表示一
  段时间的状语。 
ExercisesExercises  
v Tom 在哪儿? 他去书店买书了。
    -Where is Tom?
    -He has gone to the bookshop to buy 
    some books.
v 我在北京待了5年了。
    I have been in Beijing for 5 years.
v Jack 去过上海两次了
    Jack has been to Shanghai twice.
  Correcting 

v 1. I have borrowed the book for 3 months.
        have kept
v 2. My bother has joined the army since he was 
  18. has been in/ been a member of the army

v 3. Jack and Tom havesince lived 5 years here ago/ since for 5years. 5 years

v 4.  The film has been on since I havecame come  to the 
  cinema.

v 5. When hasdid Mr. Li  caughtcatch  a bad cold?
 
 
v 6. Ten years have passed since they got 
  married.  has
v 7. Jim has gone to Beijing for 2 years.
       has been in

v 8.What time have the factory opened?
            did           open

v 9.I have gone to Chunhua Middle School 
  twice been to
   ExercisesExercises  
v I am an American boy I came to China two 
 years ago. I have       studied_____  (study) here for two 
 years. My father often takes      (take) me_____to play         
 (play) football on the playground.
   Last week I Was       taken___ (take) to the park by him. 
 We saw a lot of monkeys  jump      (jump) in the tree. 
 I heard a voice from behind When I  waked       (walk  ) 
 along the river. I thought myself. “It must_____be      
 (be) Mr. Brown. He is   taking      __(take) photos.” 
 We___enjoyed       (enjoy) that day. We  ____will go    (go) 
 back to America next week.
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