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高考英语专题之直接引语变间接引语

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               高考英语专题之直接引语变间接引语

                                 状元必读

    1. 本讲课程涉及的知识点在高考考试大纲中对应的考点为宾语从句;

    2. 该考点具体到考核目标与要求为五级知识点;

    3. 该考点常出现在单项选择题和完形填空中,大体分值为                       2—3 分。

                                 专家点拨

一、知识精讲

(一)句型变化

  1. 直接引语是陈述句,变为间接引语时:

    在多数情况下,都构成一个由             that 引导的宾语从句(that      在口语中常省略),引述动
词通常是    say 和 tell。

【例句】

    “I’ll go to meet my mother at the airport,” Tom said.

    →Tom told me that he would meet his mother at the airport.

    “I haven’t finished reading this book,” Tom said.

    →Tom said that he hadn’t finished reading that book.

  2. 直接引语是疑问句,变为间接引语时:

    (1)直接引语是一般疑问句,变为间接引语时,常将它变为由                          if 或 whether 引导的
宾语从句,其主句动词常用            ask。

【例句】

    “Do you go to school by bike?” Tom asked Mary.

    →Tom asked Mary if/whether she went to school by bike.

    Tom said, “Have you been to Japan before, Mary?”

    →Tom asked Mary if/ whether she had been to Japan before.

状元典例
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    He asked _______ I had any difficulty with my pronunciation.  

    A. if    B. how     C. what      D. that 

    答案:A

    思路分析:考查宾语从句的关系词。由于主句动词是                      asked,则从句一定是问句,根
据句意“他问我发音上是否有困难”可知选                   A。

    (2)直接引语是选择疑问句,变为间接引语时,常将它变为由                          if 或 whether…or 引导
的宾语从句。

【例句】

    She asked me, “Would you like some tea or coffee?”

    →She asked me if / whether I would like some tea or coffee.

状元典例

    I asked him _______ he would take a bus ____ take a train. 

    A. that; or     B. if; and    C. whether; or    D. whether; and 

    答案:C

    思路分析:根据句意“我问他是乘公共汽车还是乘火车”,可知选择疑问句要用
whether…or…表达,不能用      and。

    (3)直接引语是反意疑问句,变为间接引语时,常将它变为由                          if 和 whether 引导的
宾语从句。

【例句】

    Tom asked me, “You have seen the film, haven’t you?”

    →Tom asked me if / whether I had seen the film.

    (4)直接引语是特殊疑问句,变为间接引语时,将它变为由原来的疑问词引导的宾语
从句。

【例句】

    He said, “Where have you been?”

    →He asked me where I had been.

    He asked, “How are you getting along?”

    →He asked us how we were getting along.

状元典例
                 中国现代教育网      www.30edu.com  全国最大教师交流平台

    He wondered ________ the meeting would be held tomorrow.

    A. what    B. that     C. where    D. who

    答案:C

    思路分析:考查宾语从句的关系词。由于主句动词是                      wondered,则从句一定是问句,
从句的意思是明天要开会,由此可以看出是在问开会的地点。故选                            C。

    注意:所有的疑问句在变为间接引语时都要用陈述句语序。

  3. 直接引语是祈使句,变为间接引语时:

    (1)直接引语变间接引语转述祈使句时,常用的引述动词有                         ask, tell, warn, order 等。
通常采用“动词+宾语+不定式”结构:told /asked /ordered sb. (n          ot) to do sth.

    ①改:表命令时动词         said 改为______或_______;表请求时常用______,don’t        变为
_______。

    ②变:said to  的宾语或呼语变为         ______等的宾语。

    ③加:即在动词原形前加________,使其成为动词不定式。

    ④去:去掉________。

【例句】

    Mother said, “Tom, get up early, please.”

    →Mother asked Tom to get up early.

    The teacher said to the students, “Don’t waste your time.” 

    →The teacher told the students not to waste their time.

状元典例

    The policeman told the children __________ football in the street.

    A. not playing     B. not to play    C. not play    D. don't play

    答案:B

    思路分析:考查祈使句变为间接引语的否定形式。固定表达应为                           tell sb. to do sth.,其
否定形式为     tell sb. not to do sth.,故选 B。

    (2)直接引语如果是以“Let’s”开头的祈使句,变为间接引语时,常用结构为“suggest 
+doing(或从句)。”

【例句】

    He said, “Let’s go to the film.”
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    →He suggested going to the film. 或 He suggest ed that they should go to the film.

  4. 直接引语是感叹句,变为间接引语时,               常以   what, how 或 that 为引导词。

【例句】

    He said, “How beautiful the flower is!”

    →He said how beautiful the flower was.

    She said, “What a clever boy he is!”

    →She said what a clever boy he was.

状元典例

    “What a beautiful house it is!” he said to me.

    →He told me ________a beautiful house it was.

    →He told me _________ it was a beautiful house.

    →He told me _________ beautiful the house was.

    答案:what; that; how


(二)时态变化

    直接引语变为间接引语时,如果主句的谓语动词是现在时,从句动词的时态则无需变
化。

【例句】

    She often says, “All men and women are equal under the law.”

    →She often says that all men and women are equal under the law.

    如主句的谓语动词是一般过去时,从句的谓语动词在时态上要作相应的变化,请看下
面直接引语变间接引语时时态发生变化的例句:

     一般现在时                She said, “I want some new She said that she wanted 
                          books.”                    some new books.
     →一般过去时

     现在进行时                “I’m making coffee for you She said she was  making 
                          all,” she said.            coffee for us all.
     →过去进行时

     现在完成时                “I have seen her before,” said He said he had seen her 
                 中国现代教育网      www.30edu.com  全国最大教师交流平台

     →过去完成时               he.                        before.

     一般过去时                “I saw her last Monday,” he He said he had seen her the 
                          said.                      previous Monday.
     →过去完成时


     一般将来时                Kate said, “I’ll call him again Kate said that she would call 
                          after supper.”             him again after supper.
     →过去将来时

     过去完成时不变              “Do you know Rick had been Jack asked if I knew Rick had 
                          in  France for many  years been in  France for many years 

                           before he came back?” Jack before he came back.[来源:学科网 ZXXK]
                          asked.


(三)人称变化

    记忆口诀:

    一随主、二随宾、三不变

  1. “一随主”就是把直接引语中的第一人称变为与主句的主语相一致的人称。

【例句】

    “I  am leaving for Shanghai with her,” Tom said.

    →Tom said th at he was leaving for Shanghai with her.

  2. “二随宾”就是把直接引语中的第二人称变为和间接引语(即听话人)相一致的人称。

【例句】

    “You should do your homework now,” my mother said to me.

    →My mother told me that I should do my homework at once.

  3.“三不变”就是直接引语中的第三人称变为间接引语时,人称不变。

【例句】

    “She is leaving for Shanghai tomorrow,” Tom said.

    →Tom said that she was leaving for Shanghai the next day.
                 中国现代教育网      www.30edu.com  全国最大教师交流平台

(四)指示代词、时间状语、地点状语和动词的变化

                   直接引语                       间接引语

        this                            that/this

        these                           those/these

        now                             then

        today                           that day/today/yesterday

        ago                             before


        tomorrow[来源:学,科,网 Z,X,X,K]      (the) next day


        the day after tomorrow          in two days’ time[来源:Zxxk.Com]

        yesterday                       the day before

        last night                      the night before

        the day before yesterday        two days before

        go                              come/go

        bring                           bring/take

        here                            there/here


二、难点聚焦

(一)在日常口语中,某些话虽是过去说的,但谓语动词仍可用一般现在时。

【例句】

    Tom says he likes playing basketball very much.

(二)谓语动词为过去时态时,在下列情况中,间接引语中的动词时态可以不变。

  1. 直接引语如果是客观真理,变为间接引语时,时态不变。

【例句】

    “The moon travels round the earth,” the teacher said to the children.

   →The teacher told the children that the moon travels round the earth.

  2. 直接引语中由具体的过去某年、某月、某日作状语,变为间接引语时,                            时态不变。
                 中国现代教育网      www.30edu.com  全国最大教师交流平台

【例句】

    Xiao Wang said. “I was born on April 20, 1980.” 

    →Xiao Wang said he was born on April 20, 1980.

  3. 直接引语中被引述的部分是反复出现的,习惯性的动作或说话时情况仍然存在的,变为
间接引语时,时态保持不变。

【例句】

    The boy said to us, “I usually get up at six every day.”

    →The boy told us he usually gets up at six every day. 

  4. 若直接引语中含由        when, since, while 等引导的表示过去的时间状语从句,变为间接引
语时,从句时态不变。

【例句】

    She said, “I went there when I was six years old.” 

    →She said she had gone there when she was six years old. 

  5. 若直接引语中含       would, should, might, must, used to, ought to, had better 等动词,变为
间接引语时,时态保持不变。

【例句】

    She said, “We should help each other.” 

    →She said we should help each other. 


三、状元笔记

    解变直接引语为间接引语题的关键点:

  1. 推时态

  2. 改人称

  3. 变句式

                                 状元必练

  1. ( )The teacher asked us ______ so much noise. 

    A. don’t make       B. not make      C. not making     D. not to make 
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    答案:D

    思路分析:这是否定祈使句,应用               ask sb. not to do sth. 的结构,故选 D。

  2. (  )Population experts predict that most people ______ in cities in the near future.

    A. live                B. would live         C. will live           D. have lived

    答案:C

    思路分析:句意为:人口专家预测在不久的将来大多数人都将生活在城市。主句的谓
语动词   predict 为现在时,从句的时态一般不作变化,从句中还有                    in the near future 这个时
间状语,故应用一般将来时。

  3. (  )Mr. Alcott told me that four fifths of the houses __________.


    A. have been sold out    B. had been sold out     C. were sold out    D. was sold out[来源:学_科


_网 Z_X_X_K]

    答案:B

    思路分析:句意为:Alcott        先生跟我说五分之四的房子都已售出。主句的谓语动词
told 为过去时,房子应该在此之前售出,故应用过去完成时。

  4. (  )I asked which of the books ________published in Hong Kong.

    A. that was       B. was               C. that were       D. were

    答案:B

    思路分析:句意为:我问哪本书是在香港出版的。主句的谓语动词                            asked 为过去时,
从句的主语     which of the books 是单数,故应选    B。

  5. (   )When she realized I _____ her, she quickly made a pose, smiling.

    A. photographed   B. had photographed   C. was photographing    D. will photograph

    答案:C

    思路分析:句意为:当她意识到我在给她拍照时,她马上摆了个姿势,笑了。句中的
谓语动词    realized 为过去时,她意识到时,我应该正在拍照,故应用过去进行时。

  6.   )We first met on a train in 2000. We both felt immediately that we ____ each other for 
years.

    A. knew           B. have known         C. had known   D. know

    答案:C

    思路分析:句意为:我们最初相识于                2000 年的火车上,我们俩都马上觉得我们彼此已
认识多年。主句的谓语动词            felt 为过去时,“认识多年”应为完成时,所以要用过去完成
                 中国现代教育网      www.30edu.com  全国最大教师交流平台

时。

  7.   )The moment I got home, I found I         my jacket on the playground.

    A. had left          B. left         C. have left        D. was leaving

    答案:A

    思路分析:句意为:我刚一到家,就发现我把夹克落在操场上了。主句的谓语动词
found 为过去时,而把夹克落在操场是先发生的,故选                    A。

  8. (  )—I wonder how long you ______ in Hawaii.

    —Just for the weekend, then I had to attend a conference in Los Angeles.

    A. will stay    B. stayed    C. have stayed    D. were staying

    答案:B

    思路分析:答语中说“我”必须去洛杉矶开会,讲述的是过去的事情,所以“我”问
的应是“你”在过去的时间里在夏威夷待了多久,要用过去时。
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