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中国现代教育网
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                                                  二、转换词汇类


(2015·江苏)

    People select news in expectation of a reward.This reward may be either of 

two kinds.One is related to what Freud calls the Pleasure Principle,the other 

to what he calls the Reality Principle.For want of better names,we shall call 

these two classes immediate reward and delayed reward.

    In general,the kind of news which may be expected to give immediate reward 

are  news of  crime  and  corruption,accidents  and  disasters,sports,social 

events,and  human interest.Delayed reward may be expected from news of  public 

affairs,economic matters,social problems,science,education,and health.

    News of the  first kind  pays its rewards  at once.A reader  can enjoy  an 

indirect experience without  any of  the dangers  or stresses involved.He  can 

tremble wildly at an axe-murder,shake his head sympathetically and safely at a 

hurricane,identify  himself with the winning team,laugh  understandingly at  a 

warm little story of children or dogs.

    News of  the  second  kind,however,pays   its  rewards later.It  sometimes 

requires the reader to tolerate unpleasantness or annoyance—as,for   example,

when he reads of the threatening foreign situation,the mounting national debt,

rising taxes,falling   market,scarce  housing,and   cancer.It has  a  kind  of 
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“threat   value”.It   is   read  so  that  the  reader  may  be  informed  and 

prepared.When a reader selects delayed reward news,he  pulls himself into  the 

world of  surrounding reality  to which  he  can adapt  himself only  by  hard 

work.When he selects news of the other kind,he usually withdraws from the world 

of threatening reality toward the dream world.

    For any individual,of course,the boundaries of these two classes are not 

stable.For example,a sociologist may read news of crime as a social problem,

rather than for its immediate reward.A coach  may read a sports story for  its 

threat value:he may have to play that team next week.A politician may read an 

account of his latest successful public meeting,not for its delayed reward,but 

very much  as his  wife reads  an account  of a  party.In any  given story  of 

corruption or disaster,a thoughtful reader may receive  not only the immediate 

reward of indirect experience,but  also the delayed reward of  information and 

preparedness.Therefore,while the  division of categories holds in  general,an 

individual’s  tendency may  transfer any  story from  one kind  of reading  to 

another,or divide the experience between the two kinds of reward.

                        What News Stories Do You Read?

                ·People expect to get 71.rewards/rewarded from reading 

                news.
   Division of 
                ·News stories are roughly divided into two classes.
   news stories
                ·Some news will excite their readers instantly while others 

                won’t.

                ·News of immediate reward will seemingly take their readers 

                to the very frightening scene without actual 73.involvement.

   72.Explanati ·Readers will associate themselves closely with what 

    ons of the  happens in the news stories and 74.share similar feelings 

   two classes  with those involved.

                ·News of delayed reward will make readers suffer,or 

                present a 75.threat to them.
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                ·News of delayed reward will induce the reader to 

                76.prepare for the reality while news of immediate reward 

                will lead the reader to 77.withdraw from the reality.

                ·What readers expect from news stories are largely shaped 
    Unstable 
                by their 78.profession(s)/intention.
    boundaries 
                ·Serious readers will both get excited over what happens in 
    of the two 
                some news stories and 79.adapt themselves to the reality.
     classes
                ·Thus,the division,on the whole,80.depends on the reader.


考场思维模式

第一步:读表格,填出较简单的概括词汇题

    文章标题是“你读什么样的新闻故事?”,然后分三部分进行了分析。其中第                                72 题是

概括性词汇,根据其右表信息可知是“两类新闻故事的解释(说明)”,故第                              72 题填

Explanations。注意首字母要大写。

第二步:定位、定词、定性、定形

    任务型阅读表格高度概括了原文信息,为了节约时间并且提高解题的针对性,先读表格

内容,然后在原文中进行定位。定位后进行定词。定词后要定性(如名词、动词、形容词、

副词),最后定形(如单复数、非谓语形式、大小写等)。

1.原文词汇类

75.根据原文第四段中的“It has a kind of ‘threat value.’”可知应填                threat。

77.根据原文第四段中的“When            he selects  news of  the  other kind,he   usually 

withdraws from the world of threatening reality toward the dream world.”可得到

暗示,应填     withdraw。

79.此句是对最后一段倒数第二句的转换。这可从第四段中的“he                           pulls  himself  into 

the world of surrounding  reality to which he can  adapt himself only by  hard 

work”得到暗示,填       adapt。

2.转换词汇类

71.原文   reward 出现了多次。第一段有         a      reward,第三段有     rewards,因此可以知道

reward 是可数名词。此空只能填一个词,因此填                 rewards。另外   reward 也可用作动词,还
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可填  rewarded,表示被动,意思是“获得奖赏”。

73.根据表格内容可以将信息定位在原文第三段中的“A                       reader can enjoy an  indirect 

experience without any of the dangers or  stresses involved.”。其中关键信息是

without  any  of  the  dangers  or  stresses involved,关键词是     involved。原文

involved 作后置定语,而此空前面是           without actual,后面要填名词形式        involvement。

74.此题是将原文第三段中“He can tremble wildly at an axe-murder,shake his head 

sympathetically and safely at  a hurricane,identify  himself with the  winning 

team,laugh understandingly at a warm little story of children or dogs.”信息转

换成题目中的“share similar feelings with those involved”。

76.根据原文第四段中的“It            is read  so that  the  reader may  be informed  and 

prepared.”可得到暗示,填        prepare。

80.最后一段主要讲了这两种分类不是一成不变的,也就是说这取决于读者,故填

depends。

3.概括词汇类

78.文章最后一段提到的          sociologist,coach,politician 都是不同的职业,或者说不同

的划分取决于不同的目的,故填             profession(s)/intention。

第三步:复查并将答案填在答题卡上

复查完确认没有修改之后,将试卷上所写答案填在答题卡规定区域,注意要认真书写,不能

潦草。


转换词汇类是典型的二次加工题型,需要考生有基本的构词法知识,对句子成分和词性的对

应关系要明确。做题时,不但要找到与试题相关的句子信息,还要根据词法和句法知识以及

上下文的逻辑关系进行加工,从而提炼出新词。要求考生对已锁定的关键句进行知识重组,

运用多种表达方式,考查考生是否具有遣词造句的能力。常见的转换词汇题可分为:词形转

换、同义(反义)表达、句型转换等。

1.词形转换

词形转换题即用不同的方式表达文中的意义,由于表达的方法不同,被考查单词在原文和试

题中充当的句子成分不同。有时所采用的词性会有所变化。如,动词与名词的转换、动词与

动名词的转换、形容词与副词的转换、名词与形容词的转换等,有时还涉及短语搭配的考查。
                  中国现代教育网     www.30edu.com  全国最大教师交流平台


(1)Social isolation  is an  objective condition  in which  people have  little 

communication with others.

=Social  isolation means that  people hardly communicate  with others or  stay 

alone.

(2)It’s also important for every student to set high academic goals so as to be 

able to build a good career.

=Students who want to build a good career should attach importance to setting 

high academic goals.

2.同义(反义)表达

同义(反义)表达是指用不同的词组表达同一个意思或是相反的意思。这主要考查考生灵活运

用英语的能力。此项考查要求我们对同义/反义词(组)互换,单个动词与动词短语的互换,

单个副词与短语的互换等。

(1)The use of these resources cannot go on indefinitely—we would run out.

=The vast majority of resources can’t be replaced and they would be used up.

(2)But they say it’s far  from clear that social isolation,not loneliness,is 

always the real cause of increased death rate.

=It   was still  unclear/vague/ambiguous  that social  isolation  rather  than 

loneliness is the real cause of higher death rate.

(3)You are expected to know that every step counts and that setting up goals is 

easy,but following them on a consistent basis is difficult.

=You  should  be aware/conscious  that it’s   difficult to  follow your  goals 

consistently.

3.句型转换

句型转换题指的是用不同的句式表达同一意思。有时是主动语态与被动语态的互换,有时是

采用另外一种句式表达。答题时要抓住核心词汇,对这些词汇表达进行句式转换,一般为高

中阶段常用句式。

(1)When something is thrown away,we lose the natural resources,the energy and 

the time which have been used to make the product.

=The natural resources,the energy and the time used to make the product become 
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lost when something is thrown away.

(2)Researchers have found that older people with fewer human contacts are more 

likely to die.

=Social isolation may increase/raise older people’s risk of death.

(3)Setting goals for completing the daily schedule helps an employee to finish 

the assigned tasks and targets in a timely manner.

=By setting goals,an   employee can increase output and performance instead of 

delaying completing his or her tasks.


    Marketers have more options in today’s increasingly multilingual society—

a variety of  electronic and print  media can address  groups of consumers  in 

different  languages.Various  factors  influence  the  choice  of  media   and 

language.In some cases,it’s   simply practical to advertise in the consumer’s 

native language,particularly  if  many  of the  consumers  in this  group  are 

primarily  monolingual.In  other  cases,by   advertising   on,say,a    Spanish 

television channel in the US,an advertiser may earn the respect of the consumer 

by  addressing him  in  his  native  language,as   well  as  develop  positive 

associations with the medium and its unique content.Now,marketers have another 

factor to  consider when deciding where  to advertise  and in what  language.A 

paper.Do bilinguals have two personalities? A  special case of  cultural frame 

switching published  by researchers  at the  University  of Texas,shows   that 

bilingual  individuals  exhibit  different  personality  characteristics  when 

speaking different languages.

    Lead  researcher  Nairan  Ramirez-Esparza,tested   individuals  who   were 

bilingual in English and Spanish for various personality traits,and found that 

the subjects  answered the  questions differently when  asked  in English  and 

Spanish.The new work built on past research that showed the values of subjects 

changed when they were surrounded by stimuli from different cultures.

    How can marketers take advantage of “cultural  frame switching”?   It  may 
                  中国现代教育网     www.30edu.com  全国最大教师交流平台

sound challenging without specific research,but  at least for Spanish,English 

bilinguals in  the US,there  is  now some  hard data  on the  language-related 

personality shift.Extrapolating to other language combinations may be possible,

too.Since the Spanish/English bilingual results seem  to be in  agreement with 

testing of monolingual Spanish and English speakers,language-specific  testing 

of bilingual subjects  may not be  essential to get  an idea of  what kind  of 

cultural frame switching might occur  in other bilingual combinations.Rather,

comparing known personality differences for each language/culture would give an 

indication of the differences bilingual individuals would exhibit.

    I think it would be a mistake to over-emphasize this phenomenon over other 

criteria affecting the selection of appropriate media and language to reach  a 

target market.Clearly,the major considerations of demographics(人口统计资料),

perception   of   the   medium,language   fluency,etc.should    remain   major 

factors.Besides,the language-driven cultural frame switching may not make much 

difference to many products or services.If the product does attract one cultural 

personality more,though,it  may make sense to exploit  that differences of the 

other decision criteria are more or less equivalent.

    The researchers  point  out that  the  differences aren’t   great.Even  if 

slight,though,the differences are noticeable.

      Cultural Frame Switching:Different Language,Different Personality

                      Cultural frame switching refers to the phenomenon of 
       Concept of 
                      shifting from one cultural mindset to another when 
     cultural frame 
                      people are 71.         to their new cultural 
        switching
                      environment.

                      Cultural frame switching is a factor marketers now 

     Applications of  take into 72.         to reach target customers.

     cultural frame   Personality shift proves to be 73.         for 

        switching     Spanish/English bilinguals,which makes it not 74.         

                      to do language-specific testing of bilingual 
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                      subjects.

                      Looking for the known personality differences 

                      between each language/culture would give marketers a 

                      better 75.         of how bilingual individuals 

                      would 76.         in two different cultures.

                      It’s wrong to put too much 77.         on the 

                      functions of cultural frame switching.

                      Compared with other criteria,the language-driven 
       Facts about 
                      cultural frame switching simply plays a (n) 78.         
     cultural frame 
                      role in marketing success.
        switching
                      Providing that a product 79.         to a certain 

                      cultural personality more,the difference is worth 

                      employing.

                      The effect different languages have on personality 
       Conclusion
                      is 80.         but noticeable.

                   

语篇解读 在当今日益多元化的社会中,营销人员有更多的选择。各种各样的电子和印刷媒

体可以用不同的语言对话消费者群体,现在市场营销人员开始考虑文化框架转换的因素。


71.答案 exposed

解析 转换词汇题。根据第二段最后一句“The new work built on past research showed 

the values  of subjects  changed when  they  were surrounded  by stimuli  from 

different cultures.”可知,文化框架转换指的是当面临全新的环境时,人们从一种文化

心态转向另一种文化心态的移位现象。be exposed to                暴露于。

72.答案 account/consideration

解析 转换词汇题。根据第一段最后四句可知,现在市场人员开始考虑文化框架转换的因素。

take...into          account/consideration 是固定短语,意为“考虑到……”,故填

account/consideration。

73.答案 existent
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解析 概括词汇题。根据第二、三段的内容可知,性格转换这种现象是存在的。故填

existent。

74.答案 necessary/essential

解析 原文词汇题。根据第三段中的“language-specific                   testing   of    bilingual 

subjects may not be  essential to get an idea  of what kind of  cultural frame 

switching might occur in other bilingual combinations”可知,双语科目的特定语言

测试可能不是必要的。故填            necessary/essential。

75.答案 understanding/idea

解析 转换词汇题。根据第三段最后一句“Rather,comparing                       known    personality 

differences  for  each  language/culture would  give  an   indication of   the 

differences bilingual individuals would exhibit.”可知,比较每种语言/文化的已知

个性差异可以对双语个体会表现出的差异给出提示。此处用近义词                            give     a     better 

understanding/idea 来表示,故填     understanding/idea。

76.答案 behave

解析 转换词汇题。参考上题解析。exhibit               在这是“展览;显示;提出(证据等)”的意思,

故填  behave。

77.答案 stress/emphasis

解析 转换词汇题。根据第四段开头“I                  think  it would  be  a  mistake  to  over-

emphasize this  phenomenon  over  other...”可知,不应过分强调文化框架转换。put 

stress/emphasis on 意为“强调”,故填        stress/emphasis。

78.答案 minor/unimportant

解析 转换词汇题。根据第四段中的“Besides,the                  language-driven  cultural  frame 

switching may not make much difference to many products or services.”可知,语言

驱动的文化框架转换对很多产品影响不大。形容词修饰名词,故填                            minor/unimportant。

79.答案 appeals

解析 转换词汇题。根据第四段末句“If                  the  product does  attract  one  cultural 

personality more,though,it   may make sense to exploit that difference of  the 

other decision criteria are more or less equivalent.”可知,假如一个产品更吸引某

种文化个性,那这种区别就值得采用。attract=appeal to,故填                    appeals。

80.答案 slight
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解析 原文词汇题。根据最后一段“The                researchers point out that  the differences 

aren’t great.Even if slight,though,the differences are noticeable.”可知,研

究人员发现不同语言对个性的影响虽然轻微,但是这些不同是显而易见的。故填                                 slight。 
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