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2018-2019学年人教版英语必修一 Unit 4 Earthquakes

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Book 1  Unit 4
Earthquakes
内容索引


                          基础语境串记

                          考点互动探究

                          跟踪达标训练
基础语境串记
                         重点单词

Ⅰ.核心必记单词
1. burst           vi.爆裂;爆发
               n.突然破裂;爆发
2. event           n.事件;大事
3. ruin         n.废墟;毁灭
             vt.毁灭;使破产
4. injure            vt.损害;伤害→ injury      n.损害;伤害→  injured       adj.受伤的
5. destroy              vt.破坏;毁坏;消灭
6. shock           n.休克;打击;震惊
              vt.& vi.(使)震惊;震动
  → shocking         adj.令人震惊的
  → shocked        adj.感到震惊的
7.  trap         vt.使陷入困境
              n.陷阱;困境
8. bury          vt.埋葬;掩埋;隐藏
9.  congratulation                          n.祝贺;(pl.)贺词→ congratulate            vt.祝贺
10.  judge           n.裁判员;法官
                  vt.断定;判断;判决
   → judgement          n.判断;评价;审判;看法;见识
Ⅱ.阅读识记单词
11.nation n.  民族;国家;国民                                 → national        adj.国家的;民族的
12.suffering n. 苦难;痛苦                     → suffer      v.受苦;患病
13.rescue vt.& n._________援救;营救__
14.electricity n._______________电;电流;电学
15.disaster n.___________灾难;灾祸
16.shelter n._________________掩蔽;掩蔽处;避身处____
                 v.__________________躲避;为……提供庇护处_____
17.damage n.& vt.___________损失;损害
18.frighten vt.  使惊吓;吓唬                         → frightened          adj.受惊的;受恐吓的

  → frightening           adj.令人恐惧的

19.sincerely adv._________真诚地;真挚地______

20.express vt._______表示;表达____

                   n.___________快车;速递                       

  → expression          n.表达;表情;词句;符号
语境活用 [用所给词的正确形式填空]
1.Graphs can seem   frightening                   (frighten),but reading a graph is a lot like 
reading a story.(2015·浙江)
2.Natalie’s school was so  damaged             (damage) that she had to temporarily 
attend a school in Brooklyn.(2016·北京)
3.We all came up to the lucky boy to offer our  congratulations                            (congratulate) 
to him.
4.We’ve received a lot of    expressions                       (express) of support for our 
campaign.
5.We are still waiting for the court to pass judgement                     (judge) on the 
case.
6.Fat and salt are very important parts of a diet.Theyinjury  are required to 
process the food that we eat,to recover from           (injure) and for 
several othershocking bodily functions.(2017·全国Ⅰ)
7.It’s                   (shock) that hospitalssuffering can deny help to older people.
8.She seemed to take pleasure in our                    (suffer).
                          高频短语

1. right          away          立刻;马上
2. think           little          of    不重视;认为不好,不喜欢
3. as      if/though                仿佛;好像
4. at     an       end      结束;终结
5. in     ruins          严重受损;破败不堪
6. dig       out      掘出;发现
7. a    (great)              number               of    许多;大量的
8. judge...from/by                          根据……判断……
语境活用 [用上述加颜色短语的正确形式填空]
1.  Judging               from          his accent,he must be from Australia.
2.Last month saw his dreams shattered and his business  in     ruins          .
3.I must warn you that my patience is almost  at     an      end       .
4.Would you  think           little            of     me if I didn’t go to your wedding 
ceremony?
5.In order toright impress away at a job interview,you need to bond with the 
interviewer                     .(2015·安徽)
联想拓展·多积累

 1.“数字”拾零
 (1)dozen十二;一打
 (2)score二十
 (3)hundred百
 (4)thousand千
 (5)million百万
 (6)billion十亿
2.总用复数形式表达某一意义的单词
(1)damages损害;赔偿金
(2)goods货物
(3)arms武器
(4)contents内容;目录
(5)manners礼貌
(6)customs海关
3.“立即;马上”短语荟萃
(1)right away
(2)right now
(3)at once
(4)in no time
(5)without delay
4.不受逻辑主语限制的分词短语
(1)judging from/by根据……判断
(2)talking of谈到
(3)coming to论及
(4)taking all things into consideration全盘考虑
(5)allowing for考虑到
                          经典句式

1.too...to...太……而不能……
In the farmyards,the chickens and even the pigs were too nervous to eat.
在农家大院里,鸡甚至猪都紧张得不吃食了。
2.It seems/seemed as if...看样子好像……
It seemed as if the world was at an end! 
仿佛到了世界末日!
3.部分否定
All hope was not lost.
不是所有的希望都破灭了。
句式仿写
1.我不能和你一起去书店,因为我身体太虚弱了以至于无法走出卧室。
                                              (2016·全国Ⅲ)
The reason why I can’t go to the bookstore with you is that I’m _____too
 weak           to     walk          out        of     my bedroom.
2.看起来他似乎是个万事通,其实他很愚蠢。
 It     seems            as      if    he  knew          everything,but in reality,he is stupid.
3.尽管网上购物已经改变了我们的生活,但并非它的所有影响都是积极
正面的。(2016·浙江)
While online shopping has changed our life,  not      all     of     its     effects           have 
been positive.
考点互动探究
               边讲
               边练    突破核心词汇

1 burst v.爆裂;爆发
            n.突然破裂;爆发

burst in/into突然闯进;破门而入
burst out突然迸发;爆发;突然激动地喊叫
burst out doing...=burst into+n.突然做某事

(1)The police  burst           in     and arrested the thief.
警察突然闯进来,逮捕了小偷。
[同义句改写]
(2)Much to my surprise,she burst into tears the instant she read the 
letter.
→Much to my surprise,she  burst             out          crying            the instant she read 
the letter.
2 ruin n.毁坏;破产;(pl.)废墟
          v.毁坏;使破产

(1)in ruins严重受损;破败不堪;崩溃,垮掉
come/fall into ruin(因缺乏照料而)衰落,败落
bring...to ruin使……失败;使……毁坏
(2)ruin oneself毁掉自己
(1)When they returned to Rockaway the next day,they found their 
neighborhood  in      ruins         .
第二天当他们返回Rockaway时,发现整个社区都成了一片废墟。
                                                (2016·北京)
[句式升级]
(2)It rained for two weeks,which completely ruined our holiday.(用现在
分词短语作状语改写)
It rained for two weeks, completely            ruining          our        holiday   .
 3 injure v.损害;伤害;损坏(名誉);伤害(感情)

拓展词:injury n.伤;伤害 injured adj.受伤的

 (1)do sb.an injury/do an injury to sb.伤害某人
 (2)the injured伤员
(1)I was wearing a seatbelt.If I hadn’t been wearing one,I ___________would have
  been          injured             (injure).
我当时系着安全带。如果没系的话,我会受伤的。(2016·天津)
(2)These chemicals come from the   injured           (injure) parts of the plant and 
seem to be an alarm.
这些化学物质来自植物的受伤部位,(对周围的植物)好像是一种警报。
                                               (2017·全国Ⅱ) 
(3)Don’t lift that tool box—you’ll ________________________________do yourself an injury/do an injury to
 yourself               !(injury)
别抬那个工具箱——你会伤着自己的!
4 shock v.(使)震惊;震动
             n.休克;打击;震惊

拓展词:shocked adj.感到震惊的
shocking adj.令人震惊的

(1)be shocked by/at...对……感到震惊
be shocked to do...因做……而震惊
(2)in shock震惊地;休克
(1)At first,no one moved.The girls were    in    shock        .Then the softball 
coach shouted out,“Does anyone know CPR?”
起初,没有人动。女孩们很震惊。然后垒球教练大声喊道:“有人懂得
心肺复苏术吗?”(2017·北京)
(2)After the  shocking              news spread throughout the whole city,everyone 
felt   shocked              .(shock)
这条令人震惊的消息传遍了整个城市后,大家都感到震惊。
[同义句改写]
(3)It shocked me to see how my neighbors treated their children.(用
shock n.改写)
→ It       was        a      shock           to me to see how my neighbors treated their children.
 5 bury v.埋葬;埋藏;使陷入;沉浸;覆盖;隐藏

 bury sth.in...把某物埋在……
 bury oneself in埋头于,专心于
 be buried in专心于

(1)She sat there, buried             in     thought               .
她坐在那儿,陷入了沉思。 
(2)He walked slowly,his hand  buried            (bury) in his pocket.
他慢慢地走着,把手插在口袋里。
[句式升级]
(3)Because she buried herself in the film,she didn’t know it was 
snowing outside.
① Burying        herself        in   the    film   ,she didn’t know it was snowing 
outside.
(用现在分词短语作状语改写Buried in the film )
②                ,she didn’t know it was snowing outside.(用过去
分词短语作状语改写)
 6 congratulation n.祝贺;(复数)贺词

拓展词:congratulate v.祝贺

 (1)congratulations (to sb.) on sth.就……(向某人)祝贺
 Congratulations!祝贺你!(口语)
 (2)congratulate sb.on sth.为某事向某人祝贺

(1) Congratulations                              on      your happy marriage!
祝贺你喜结良缘!
(2)You can  congratulate                       yourself                on      having done a good job.
你的工作做得很出色,你应该感到自豪。
[易错点拨]
(1)congratulation用作祝贺语时,通常用复数形式;作为“祝贺”这一
抽象意义时,通常用单数形式。
(2)congratulate的宾语是sb.而不是sth.,且该动词后不接带不定式的复
合结构或that从句。
7 at an end结束;终结

(1)bring...to an end结束……
put/bring an end to结束……;终结……
come to an end结束
(2)at the end of在……尽头;在……末端
by the end of到……结束时;到……时候为止
in the end最后;终于
(3)end up with以……结束
end up doing最终在做……
(4)make (both) ends meet使收支相抵;量入为出
on end连续地;竖立着
(1)The meeting was  at      an      end       ./The meeting  came           to     an      end       .
会议结束了。
(2)By the end of next week,I  will        have          finished              (finish) most of the work.
到下周末为止,我将完成大部分工作。
(3)Driverless cars may   end       up     being          a form of public transport rather 
than vehicles you own.
无人驾驶汽车最终可能成为一种公共交通工具,而不是个人的交通工
具。
                               on end           (2017·天津)
(4)We studied for final exams for hours              .
我们连续花了好几个小时准备期末考试。
8 a (great) number of 许多;大量的

表示“许多;大量”的词语可分为以下几类:
(1) a large/great/good number of
  a great/good many       +可数名词复数+复数谓语动词
  a good few/quite a few
(2) a good/great deal of
  a great/large amount of +不可数名词+单数谓语动词
  quite a little
(3) a lot of/lots of
  a great/large quantity of
                       +可数名词复数或不可数名词
  large quantities of
  plenty of
(4) many a
               +单数可数名词+单数谓语动词
  more than one
(1)Large quantities of land in the area    have       been        reserved             (reserve) for 
national parks these years,which   are      (be) now home to bears,wolves,
and other wild animals.
(2)Among mammals alone,the number of nocturnal species   is (be) 
astonishing.
(3)More than one doctor    was       involved             (involve) in the rescue that took 
place after the earthquake.
(4)One survey shows that large amounts of water  are       wasted            (waste) every 
year in China,and that one third is available to be saved.
[易错点拨]
large quantities of后跟名词(可数或不可数)作主语,谓语动词一律用
复数。large  amounts of 后跟不可数名词作主语,谓语动词也用复数
形式。the number of后跟名词作主语,表示“……的数量”,谓语动
词用单数。
               点拨
               规律    突破经典句型

9 In the farmyards,the chickens and even the pigs were too nervous 
  to eat.
  在农家大院里,鸡甚至猪都紧张得不吃食了。

句型:too...to...
(1)too...to...太……而不能……
(2)too...to...与not或never连用时,意为“无论……也不过分,越……
越好”。cannot be too...再……也不过分
(3)only/just/but too...to...非常……去做……(too前的only,just,but不仅
没有否定意义,反而加重了too的肯定语气)
(4)too ready/easy/eager/willing/anxious/happy/...to...表示肯定,作“过
于、太会……”解
(5)too...not to...表示肯定,含义是“非常……必定能;太……不会不
……”
(1)The girl is too young to dress herself.
这小女孩太小,还不能自己穿衣服。
[英汉互译]
(2)Mary is too wise not to know it.
________________________玛丽很聪明,不会不懂的。
(3)I’ll be only too pleased to be able to do the job for you.
____________________________我能为您效劳,真是十分高兴。
(4)考试时你越仔细越好。
_____________You cannot be _too_______________________ careful in examinations.
10 It seemed as if the world was at an end!
  仿佛到了世界末日!

句型:It seems/seemed as if...

It seems/seemed as if...看样子好像……
seem的其他相关句型:
(1)seem (to be)+adj./现在分词/过去分词/介词短语
好像……
(2)seem to do/be doing/have done好像要做/在做/已经做了……
(3)It+seems/seemed(+to sb.)+that...(对某人来说)好像……;似乎……
(4)There seems to be...好像有……
(1) It     seems            as      if    you have something on your mind.

你好像有什么心事似的。

(2) There             seems            to     be     something wrong with the engine.

引擎似乎有些问题。
[句式升级]
(3)They were talking in a whisper,so it seemed that they were saying 
something secret.(将画线部分改为简单句)
They were talking in a whisper,so _______________________________they seemed to be saying something
 secret          .
(4)He seems to have come to terms with losing his sight.(改为复合句)
________________________________________________It seems that he has come to terms with losing his sight.
11 All hope was not lost.
   不是所有的希望都破灭了。

 句型:部分否定

 all...not=not all...部分否定,也称半否定。
 具有总括意义的代词(each,everybody,everything,all,both等)、
 形容词(complete,whole等)和副词(completely,always,wholly,
 altogether等)与否定词not连用,构成部分否定,表示“不都;并非都
 ”。而no,none,never,nobody,neither,nothing,no more,no 
 longer等表示否定意义的词与谓语一起使用构成了全部否定。
(1)I agree with most of what you said,but I __________________don’t agree with
  everything/all                        .
我同意你讲的大多数内容,但并非同意你讲的全部。
(2)But my life was   not        always             so      great          .I had a learning disability from 
an early age.
但我的生活并不总是那么美好,我从小就有学习障碍。(2016·天津)
[把下列部分否定的句子改为全部否定]

(3)Not everything she did pleased him.

_________________________Nothing she did pleased him.

(4)Both of them are not my brothers.

__________________________Neither of them is my brother._
跟踪达标训练
Ⅰ.单句语法填空
1.Drunk driving not only ruined        himself     (he) but also killed several passers
-by.
2.A terrible accident happened at the crossing and an ambulance rushed 
the   injured             (injure) to the hospital.
3.Hearing the bad news that their only son died in the earthquake,the 
couple burst   into        tears.
4. Buried           (bury) in his study,he wasn’t aware that all the others had 
left.
5.Now a great number of college graduates  are      seeking to get a high-paid 
job.But the number of posts available for them   is    often not enough.(be)
6.This    frightened                (frighten) boy whose mother was lost in the disaster is 
looking for her now.
7. There            seems to be no better way to solve this problem.
8.A large number of soldiers were sent there   to    rescue         (rescue) those 
trapped in the building.
9.When deeply absorbed in work,  which/as               he often was,he would 
forget all about eating or sleeping.
10.The headmaster wrote a letter to congratulate her   on  her good 
performance and the exciting  congratulations                          (congratulate) encouraged 
her greatly.
Ⅱ.单句改错(每小题仅有1处错误)

1.The girl was sitting on the bench in the park,buried her head in the 
                                      burying
novel.

2.With more and more forests cut down,large quantities of soil is being 
                                                 are
washed away.

3.The young man’s employers thought high of his abilities.
                               highly
4.The whole city lay in ruin after the earthquake,which made us 
                    ruins
homeless.

5.The meeting came to∧ end and he set down many key points.
                an
6.The storyteller was telling us a story in a vivid way as if he has 
                                                  had
experienced it himself.
Ⅲ.教材与语法填空
    Several days before July 28,1976,many strange things happened in 
Tangshan.The water in the village wells rose 1.  and      fell.In the city,the water 
pipes in some buildings cracked and burst.They were 2.  signs    (sign) for the 
earthquake.But people in the city didn’t think much 3. of     these events.At 3:42 
am that day,the earth began to shake,4. which            destroyed the city.Many people,
5.     including                   (include) rescue workers and doctors,came to rescue those 
6. trapped              (trap) under the ruins.7Later.           (late) that afternoon,another big 
quake struck Tangshan.More peoplewere  killed8.               (kill) or injuredmore and 9.        
(many) buildings fell down.Soldiers were called in to help the rescue 
workers.Teams were organizedthe  to dig out 10.         trapped and to bury the dead.
Ⅳ.教材与短文改错

Dear student,

    Congratulations!We are pleased to telling you that you have won a 
                                  tell                  the
high school speaking competition about new Tangshan.Your speech was 

heard by a group of five judges,all of who agreed that it was the best one in 
                             whom
this year.Your family should∧ proud of you! Our office would like to have you 
                    be
say in the new park,which will honor those that died in the terrible 
speak                            who
disaster.
What you know,this is the day the quake happened forty-two years 
 As
before.We invite you to bring your family and friends in that special day.
 ago                                     on
                                               Sincerely,

                                                Zhang Sha
Ⅴ.教材与微写作
写作素材(关于地震)
1.这座城市发生了地震。
2.突然,世界好像到了末日。
3.几秒钟之内城市被毁。
4.管道裂开了,电也停了,大量建筑物变为废墟。
5.人们有的受伤,有的被埋。
提示:加颜色部分用本单元词汇表达,并且请使用as if引导的表语从句。
连句成篇(将以上句子连成一篇50词左右的英语短文)
    An earthquake happened in the city.Suddenly,it seemed as if the 
world was at an end.The city was destroyed in seconds.Pipes burst and 
electricity went out.A great number of buildings lay in ruins and people 
were injured or buried.


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