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江苏专用2019高考英语二轮增分策略专题四任务型阅读第二节分类突破三概括词汇类优选习题20181216318

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中国现代教育网
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                                                  三、概括词汇类


(2016·江苏)

                        An Extension of the Human Brain

    Other  people  can  help  us  compensate  for  our  mental  and  emotional 

deficiencies(欠缺),much    as  a  wooden  leg  can  compensate  for  a  physical 

deficiency.To be exact,other  people can  extend our intelligence and help  us 

understand and adjust our emotions.When another person helps us in such ways,he 

or she  is participating in  what I’ve   called a  “social  prosthetic(义肢的) 

system.” Such systems do not need to operate face-to-face,and it’s clear to 

me that  the  Internet is  expanding the  range of  my  own social  prosthetic 

systems.It’s  already a big bank of many minds.Even in  its current state,the 

Internet has extended my memory and judgment.

    Regarding memory: Once I look up something on the  Internet,I  don’t  need 

to keep all the details for future use—I  know where  to find that information 

again and can quickly and easily do so.More generally,the Internet functions as 

if it were my memory.This function of the Internet is particularly striking when 

I’m  writing; I’m  no longer comfortable writing if I’m  not connected to  the 

Internet.It’s become natural to check facts as I write,taking a minute or two 

to dip into PubMed,Wikipedia,or other websites.
                  中国现代教育网     www.30edu.com  全国最大教师交流平台

    Regarding judgment: The Internet has made me smarter in matters small  and 

large.For example,when I’m writing a textbook,it has become second nature to 

check a dozen definitions of a key term,which  helps me dig into the  core and 

understand its meaning.But more than that,I now regularly compare my views with 

those of many  others.If I have  a “new   idea,”   I now  quickly look to  see 

whether somebody else has  already thought of it,or  something  similar—and  I 

then compare what I think with what others have thought.This certainly makes my 

own views clearer.Moreover,I can find out whether my reactions to an event are 

reasonable enough by reading about those of others on the Internet.

    These effects of the Internet  have become even more striking since  I’ve 

begun using a smartphone.I now regularly pull  out my phone to check a  fact,

watch a video,read weibo.Such activities fill the spaces that used to be dead 

time (such as waiting for somebody to arrive for a lunch meeting).

    But that’s the upside(好处).The downside is that in those dead periods I 

often would let my thoughts flow and sometimes would have an unexpected insight 

or idea.Those opportunities are now fewer and farther between.

                       An  Extension of the Human Brain

                    ●The 71.Internet  can help make up for our mental 

                    and emotional deficiencies as a wooden leg can 

           A        compensate for a bodily deficiency.

       prosthetic   ●It 72.participates/joins in our daily events,

         nature     extending our intelligence,comprehending our 

                    feelings,and expanding the range of social 

                    activities.

                    ●On the Internet,we could quickly and easily locate 
       Wonderful 
                    the details,and check facts,without 73.keeping them 
        aspects: 
                    in mind.
       memory and 
                    ●The Internet makes us smarter over 
        judgment
                    74.all/different/various kinds of things.It provides 
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                    a dozen definitions of a key term for us to find the 

                    75.heart/core of the matter.

                    ●The Internet enables us to exchange ideas with many 

                    others to 76.check our claims,and to 77.judge our 

                    actions.

          The       ●Smartphones make it easier and more 79.convenient  

      78.mixed/two  to check reality,watch video clips,read weibo.

        sides of    ●Smartphones 80.reduce the possibility for new and 

      smartphones   insightful minds,and steal away our dead time.


考场思维模式

第一步:读表格,填出较简单的概括性词汇题

文章标题是“人类大脑的延伸”,                然后分为三个部分:假肢给我们带来的好处,网络的优

点,智能手机的优点。其中第            78 题是概括词汇类,78        题根据其右表信息和文章的最后两段

可知既提到了智能手机的优点也提到了其缺点,所以这是智能手机的正反两方面内容,所以

使用形容词“mixed/two”,故第         78 题填  mixed/two。

第二步:定位、定词、定性、定形

任务型阅读表格高度概括了原文信息,为了节约时间并且提高解题的针对性,先读表格内容,

然后在原文中进行定位。定位后进行定词。定词后要定性(如名词、动词、形容词、副词),

最后定形(如单复数、非谓语形式、大小写等)。

1.原文词汇类

71.答案 Internet

解析 根据第一段第四句“Such            systems  do not need to  operate face-to-face,and 

it’s  clear to me  that the Internet is expanding the  range of my own  social 

prosthetic systems.”可知因特网可以拓宽社会义肢系统的范围,也就是说网络可以弥补

我们精神和情感上的缺陷。

2.转换词汇类

72.答案 participates/joins

解析 根据第一段最后两句“It’s              already a  big bank of  many minds.Even in  its 
                  中国现代教育网     www.30edu.com  全国最大教师交流平台

current state,the  Internet has extended my memory and judgment.”可知动词短语

“participate/join in”符合句意。

73.答案 keeping

解析 根据第二段第一句“Once I look up something on the Internet,I don’t need 

to keep all the details...”可知动词短语“keep...in         mind 记住”,在表格中放在介

词 without 的后面,要使用动名词         keeping 的形式。

74.答案 all/different/various

解析 根据第三段第一句“The            Internet has  made me smarter in matters small  and 

large.”可知原文中“matters small and large”就是“all/different/various”的事情。


75.答案 heart/core

解析 根据第三段第二句“...which            helps me dig into the core  and understand its 

meaning”可知网络能让我们找到事物的核心并理解其真正含义。故短语“the                             core/heart 

of the matter”和原文中“dig into the core”语义一致。

76.答案 check

解析 根据第三段第四句“If            I  have a ‘new  idea,’   I  now quickly look to  see 

whether somebody else has  already thought of it,or  something  similar—and  I 

then compare what I think with what others have thought.”可知当我们有了新的观点

以后,我们会上网检查核对别人是否已经有了同样的观点,并对自己的行动做出判断。表格

中 check 与原文语义一致。

79.答案 convenient

解析 根据第四段后两句“I now regularly pull out my phone to check a fact,watch 

a video,read  weibo.Such activities fill the spaces that used to be  dead time 

(such as waiting for somebody to arrive for a lunch meeting).”可知我们可以使用

智能手机随时查信息,看视频,读微博,使用起来非常方便。所以使用形容词

convenient。

80.答案 reduce

解析 根据文章最后两句“The downside is that in those dead periods I often would 

let  my thoughts  flow  and sometimes  would  have  an unexpected  insight  or 

idea.Those opportunities are now fewer and farther between.”(在过去那些“dead 
                  中国现代教育网     www.30edu.com  全国最大教师交流平台

periods”时,我总会有一些灵光一现的神来之念,但是现在这些时间都被智能手机占用了。

这无疑就减少了这些神来之念的可能性。)可知表格中应为“reduce the possibility”。

3.概括词汇类

77.答案 judge

解析 根据第三段最后一句“Moreover,I              can find  out whether my reactions to  an 

event  are  reasonable  enough  by  reading  about  those  of  others  on  the 

Internet.”(而且在网络上阅读其他人的信息,让我判断我的行为是否合理),所以表格里

使用动词    judge。

第三步:复查并将答案填在答题卡上

复查完确认没有修改之后,将试卷上所写答案填在答题卡规定区域,注意要认真书写,不能

潦草。


典型的任务型阅读题目通常设置分为两栏,左边是文章提纲(passage                          outline),右边是支

持性细节或者论据(supporting details)。概括词汇类要求能够最大程度地覆盖右栏信息,

同时具有简洁性。这就要求考生对全文或段落进行总体语篇把握,通过观察表格的设置特点,

从而归纳和概括出所考查的单词。

概括词汇要求考生能够准确无误地概括出文章的主题,能够在概括的基础上进行推断、归纳、

抽象并提炼出文章主旨或者重要信息,也就是要拥有在语篇结构解读基础上的信息转换能力。

考查考生对信息的综合加工和处理能力,其信息既体现在短文阅读中,也体现在表格信息的

比较与理解中。

具体的解题步骤如下:

(1)一审表格结构。注意文章内容脉络,标题和所需的表达类型。

(2)二审短文意义。注意文章的段落和表格的匹配性。

(3)三审语法运用。注意涉及到的构词法和语法项目。


(2018·泰州中学检测)

    Your life is composed of all the little things we experience every day,and 

knowing how to find joy in  some of those little things is one of  the easiest 

ways to let happiness slowly fill your cup.In order for that to happen,you need 
                  中国现代教育网     www.30edu.com  全国最大教师交流平台

to do  two very simple  things:put  yourself in such  situations that you  can 

experience happiness there,and then find a way to savour the experience and let 

it sink into you.

    To put yourself in the position of experiencing happiness every day,Lahna 

Catalino,Ph.D,at   the University of  California,San  Francisco,recommends  an 

approach called “prioritizing positivity”—organizing your day-to-day life on 

purpose so that it  contains situations which naturally give rise to  positive 

emotions.It involves both carving out time in your daily routine to  do things 

that 

    you really love and heavily weighing the positive emotional consequences of 

major life  decisions,like  taking  a  new job,and   you will  regularly  find 

yourself.

    Then how can we find a way to savour the happy experience and let it sink 

into you? Here is what psychologist Rick Hanson,the author of Buddha’s Brain 

explains.

    Let a good fact become a good experience.

    Often we go through life and some good thing happens—a little thing,like 

we checked off an item on our To Do list,we survived another day at work,the 

flowers  are  blooming,and  so  forth.Hey,this   is  an  opportunity  to  feel 

good.Don’t  leave the  money lying  on the  table:recognize  that  this is  an 

opportunity to let yourself truly feel good.

    Really enjoy this positive experience.

    Practice what any school teacher knows:if   you want to help people  learn 

something,make it as intense as possible—in this case,as felt in the body as 

possible—for as long as possible.

    When  sinking  into  this  experience,sense   your  intention  that   this 

experience is sinking into you.

    Sometimes people do this  through visualization,like  by sensing a  golden 

light coming into  themselves or a  soothing balm inside  themselves.You might 

imagine a jewel going into the treasure chest in your heart—or just know that 
                  中国现代教育网     www.30edu.com  全国最大教师交流平台

this experience is sinking into you,becoming a resource you can take with you 

no matter where you go.

    It might seem a little cliche to say“stop and smell the roses”,but it’s 

moments like those  that can be  stored in your  happiness bank and  withdrawn 

later.Living a happy life can be as simple as  accepting the happiness that’s 

already around you.If you  want more,it’s   OK to  go out and  achieve it,but 

don’t forget where happiness really comes from.

           Let 71.         Come Naturally with the “Little Things”

                       *Put yourself in situations 73.         you experience 
   72.         to let 
                       happiness.
  happiness come your 
                       *Find a way to savour the experience and let it sink 
          way
                       into you.

                       *Organize your everyday life 75.         to experience 

                       positive emotions.
 Giving 74.         to 
                       *76.         your time to do things you love as well 
 positive things
                       as heavily weighing the positive emotional 

                       consequences.

                       *Let a good fact become a good experience so that you 

                       have the 77.         to feel good.
 Enjoying the 
                       *Really enjoy the positive experience as long as 
 experience and 
                       possible.
 letting it sink into 
                       *When sinking into this experience,be 78.         of 
 you
                       your intention so that it becomes a resource to take 

                       with you wherever you go.

                       *Happy moments like “stop and smell the roses” are 

                       80.        .
 79.        
                       *Living a happy life can be as simple as accepting the 

                       happiness already around you.
                  中国现代教育网     www.30edu.com  全国最大教师交流平台

语篇解读 本文是一篇说明文。文章讲述了如何从小事中获取快乐:第一是把自己放入能让

自己经历快乐的情景当中;第二是给经历加料,让它和自己合二为一,得到融合。


71.答案 Happiness

解析 原文词汇题。根据文章首句中的“and knowing how to find joy in some of those 

little things is  one of the  easiest ways to  let happiness slowly fill  your 

cup”可知,文章讲述的是用一些小事带来“快乐”。故填                       Happiness,因为是标题,注意

首字母大写。

72.答案 How/Ways

解析 概括词汇题。根据第一段的“put                yourself  in such situations  that you  can 

experience happiness”和“find   a  way to savour the experience and let it  sink 

into you”可知,这是带来快乐的两种“方式或途径”。故填                      How/Ways,注意首字母大写。


73.答案 where

解析 转换词汇题。分析句子成分可知,you                  experience happiness 是定语从句用来修饰

situations,指物作地点状语,故用          where 来引导。故填      where。

74.答案 priority

解析 转换词汇题。根据原文的“prioritizing                positivity”可知,是“优先考虑”积极

方面,注意这里要填名词形式作             give 的宾语。故填      priority。

75.答案 purposely/intentionally/deliberately

解析 转换词汇题。根据第二段的“organizing your day-to-day life on purpose”可知,

是“故意地”让自己每天的生活充满积极的情绪,修饰动词                         organize 要用副词形式,故把

on purpose 转换成  purposely/intentionally/deliberately。

76.答案 Spare/Squeeze

解析 转换词汇题。根据第二段的“It involves both carving out time in your daily 

routine to do  things that you really  love and heavily weighing the  positive 

emotional consequences of major life decisions”可知,是指“挤出”时间去做自己想

做的事。 故填      Spare/Squeeze。

77.答案 chance/opportunity
                  中国现代教育网     www.30edu.com  全国最大教师交流平台

解析 原文词汇题。根据第五段的“this is an opportunity to feel good”可知,要填

表示“机会”的词。故填           chance/opportunity。

78.答案 aware/conscious

解析 转换词汇题。根据第八段的“When                sinking  into this  experience,sense  your 

intention that this experience is sinking into you.”可知,是指“意识到或感知”

自己的意图,故把动词          sense 换成短语   be        aware/conscious       of 即可。故填

aware/conscious。

79.答案 Conclusions

解析 概括词汇题。根据后面的内容陈述可知,这里是做出的“总结”或得出的“结论”。

故填  Conclusions。

80.答案 memorable/lasting/unforgettable/impressive

解析 转换词汇题。根据最后一段的“It                 might seem a  little cliche to say  ‘stop 

and smell the roses’,but it’s moments like those that can be stored in your 

happiness bank and withdrawn later”可知,Happy     moments like “stop  and  smell 

the                          roses”是“难忘的、持久的或给人印象深刻的”。故填

memorable/lasting/unforgettable/impressive。
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