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译林牛津高一模块二U nit2 重难点单词、短语、句子梳理(上)

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高中英语审核员

中国现代教育网
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                  中国现代教育网     www.30edu.com  全国最大教师交流平台

一、重要词汇(单词+词组)

1.  There are a lot of amazing adventures to have and places to see in the world.

   【句法分析】动词不定式           to  have 和 to see 均作后置定语,分别修饰          adventures 和
    places,动词不定式与被修饰词之间为动宾关系。

   动词不定式的主动形式表示被动意义

    (1) 在 There be…句型中修饰主语的动词不定式多用主动形式表示被动意义。

    图书馆里有许多书可读。

    There are many books to read in the library.

    (2) 动词不定式作定语,尽管与被修饰词之间为动宾关系,但是当句子的主语或宾语
       是不定式动作的发出者时,动词不定式仍须用主动形式。

    今天我有许多事得处理。

    I’ve got a lot of things to deal with today.

    (3) 形容词   easy, difficult, hard, possible, impossible, comfortable, interesting 等作表语,
       其后接动词不定式作状语,用于说明句子主语在某个方面存在上述形容词所表示
       的情况时,动词不定式用主动形式表示被动意义。

    这个句子难懂。

    The sentence is difficult to understand.

    (4) 上述形容词用作宾语补足语,其后接动词不定式作状语,用于说明句子中宾语在
       某个方面存在形容词表示的情况。

    我觉得这本书读起来很有趣。

    I find the book interesting to read.

    【学法点拨】如果动词不定式的动词是不及物动词,要在动词后加上适当的介词或副
    词,此时动词不定式和被修饰词之间是介宾关系。

    我的房间住起来很舒适。

    I’ve got a pleasant room to live in.

    这个问题难以解决。

    The problem is difficult to work out.
                  中国现代教育网     www.30edu.com  全国最大教师交流平台


2. I’ve been quite busy arranging my holiday with my older brother, Colin.

   arrange  v.   安排,准备;排列,整理

   搭配:

   arrange sth. for sb.   为某人安排某事

   arrange for sb. to do sth.   安排某人做某事

   arrange to do sth.  安排去做某事

   arrange for sth.  安排某事

   arrange that…  安排…

   他把书架上的书整理了一下。

   He arranged the books on the shelf.

   我们必须安排一个合适的时间和地点开会。

   We must arrange a proper time and place for the meeting.

   我们校长安排我带领外国朋友参观我们的学校。

   Our headmaster arranged for me to show the foreign friends around our school.

   本周末你安排好去野餐了吗?

   Have you arranged to go picnicking this weekend?

   他们已经安排我们这个周末去博物馆。

   They had arranged that we would go to the museum this weekend.

   【单词积累】

   arrangement     n. 安排,整理       make arrangements for   安排

  注意:1.表示“安排某人做某事”用              arrange for sb. to do sth. 而不用 arrange sb. to do sth.

   我们老板安排我去车站接史密斯先生。    

   Our boss arranged for me to meet Mr. Smith at the station.
                  中国现代教育网     www.30edu.com  全国最大教师交流平台

3. make arrangements for 中 arrangement 经常用复数形式。


4. We’re going to visit so many exciting places and do lots of extraordinary things.

   extraordinary    adj.

    (1) 意想不到的,令人惊奇的,奇怪的

       真想不到他竟然睡了一整堂课。

       It’s extraordinary that he slept through the class.

       我昨晚做了一个奇怪的梦。

       I had an extraordinary dream last night.

    (2) 不平常的,非凡的,卓越的

       她是位杰出的女性。

       She was an extraordinary woman.

       那是个卓越的成就。

       It is an extraordinary achievement.

    【助记】

    extra- (超出) + ordinary (普通的,平凡的) = extraordinary  不平常的,非凡的


5. We leave London on 15 July, and we’ll be taking a flight to Morocco, in northern Africa.

   【句法分析】本句是由          and 连接的两个分句。第一个分句用             leave 的一般现在时表示将
来;第二个分句用的是将来进行时,表示将来某个时间正在进行的动作。

    【学法点拨】一般现在时有时表示按计划、规定要发生的动作,往往表示由日历或时
刻表规定而不变或唯一的循环进行的情况,句中常带有时间状语。

    你认为这列火车什么时候开往北京?

   When do you think the train leaves for Beijing?

   飞机上午     10 点起飞。

   The plane takes off at 10 a.m.
                  中国现代教育网     www.30edu.com  全国最大教师交流平台

   注意:

   1.  一般现在时表示将来这种用法仅限于少数动词(短语),如                         begin, start, arrive, 
       return, come, go, leave, sail, end, stop, depart, open, close, take off 等。

   2.  上述动词(短语)有时可以用于现在进行时,表示按计划、安排要做的事,该形式
       不强调动作的规律性。

   请注意!8     点钟飞往北京的航班就要起飞了。

   Attention, please! The 8:00 flight to Beijing is taking off.

   【拓展】将来时的表达方式

   除了上述用一般现在时或现在进行时表将来外,将来时的其他表达方式还有:

   (1) “will + do”表示客观将来

       没有空气和水,一切将死亡。

       Everything will die without air or water.

   (2) be going to do 表示“打算好、计划好做(某事)”

       格林一家打算用砖建一所房子。

       The Greens are going to build a house with bricks.

   (3) be about to do 表示“正要做(某事)”,后面常接            when

       我正要离开,这时天下起了雨。

       I was about to leave when it began to rain.

   (4) “be + to do”表示“计划好、安排好要做(某事)”

       在会议上你得发言。

       You are to speak at the meeting.


6. We’ll be travelling by camel with local guides, camping in tents and sleeping on the 
    ground.

   【句法分析】camping in tents and sleep on the ground 是现在分词短语在句中作伴随状语。
                 中国现代教育网     www.30edu.com  全国最大教师交流平台

  我是一路跑来的。

  I’ve come running all the way.

  【拓展】分词(短语)作状语,可以表示方式、伴随、结果、时间、条件等。

  在街上散步时,我遇到一位多年不见的老朋友。

  Walking in the street, I met an old friend I haven’t seen for ages.

  从山上看,这个公园看起来更美。

  Seen from the hill, the park looks more beautiful.

  注意:若句子采用了分词作状语,注意句子的主语必须是该分词的逻辑主语,即两者
  存在动宾或主谓关系。

  她被那个故事感动得哭了。

  Moved by the story, she burst into tears.

  by  此处表示方法、手段,意为“以……,借助于…….”

  我乘公共汽车或火车去上学,而我哥哥开车去上班。

  I go to school by bus or by train, while my elder brother goes to work by car.

  【学法点拨】

  1. by + 不带冠词的工具名词:

  by train/plane(air)/spaceship/bus/car/taxi/ship(sea)/water/land/phone/letter/e-mail/…

  你最好将那封信以航空邮件寄出去。

  You’d better send the letter by airmail.

  2.by + doing: by teaching/farming/nursing/…

  只有通过努力工作,你才能成功。

  Only by working hard can you succeed.


      BY 的用法                               常见搭配

表示“经过某物/某人的            walk by sb.
                  中国现代教育网     www.30edu.com  全国最大教师交流平台

        身旁”             walk by the door

表单位,意为“以……计”            by the + 单词名词(单数)(day/hour/yard/pound/dozen)

                        by + 抽象名词(weight)

   表程度,意为“相             be older/younger than sb. + by +岁数
差……左右,(一个)接
                        比某人大/小多少岁
     着(一个)”
                        little by little 逐渐地,一点一点地

                        step by step 逐步     bit by bit 逐渐地

表基准,意为“根据,按             by the rules 按照规则
         照”
                        by law 依照法律

表媒介,指动作接触的身             take/catch/lead/pull sb. by the + 身体部位
        体部位

 置于不带    the 的名词前,      by chance/accident
 表原因,意为“由于”
                        by mistake


7. I’ve heard that, in the Sahara, there is no shade during the day, and the stars seems 
   especially brilliant on clear nights.

   shade    n. & v.

    (1) n. [U] 树荫,背阴处

       我们在树荫下坐了下来。

       We sat down in the shade of the tree.

    (2) n. [U] 阴影,阴暗部分

       这幅画明暗层次不够。

       The painting needs more light and shade.

    (3) v. 遮蔽,挡光

       搭配:shade…from    使……免受……的照射
                  中国现代教育网     www.30edu.com  全国最大教师交流平台

       你应该遮住眼睛以避开阳光。

       You should shade your eye from the sun.

【搭配】

    在阴凉处          in the shade 

    使某人/物相形见绌             put sb./sth. in the shade

    在树荫下        under the shade of a tree

【助记】shade    与 shadow

    shade 指一个立体空间,不可数,意为“阴凉处”

    shadow 指一个平面,可数,意为“影子”


8. Altogether, the trip will take six days.

   altogether    adv.

    (1) 总共,一共(用来说明数量,可放在数字之前,常位于句首或句末,in                               all 表示
       “总共,一共”时常用在数字之后)

    总共  10 人。

   There are altogether ten people.

   There are ten people altogether/in all.

   Altogether there are ten people.

    (2) 完全,全部(用于强调,可以修饰动词、形容词、副词、介词短语等)

    你怎么完全忘了啊?

   How come you forget it altogether?

   注意:altogether“完全,全部”与         completely, entirely, fully, wholly 等为近义词,用于
    否定句式,表示部分否定。

   这并非完全不可能。

   It is not altogether impossible.

    (3) 总之,总而言之(通常置于句首)
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    总而言之,那次会议很成功。

   Altogether, the meeting was a success.


   【辨析】altogether   与  all together


易混词(组)             辨析                             例句


altogether  总共,完全,总的来           Altogether, I consider it wrong.
            说
                                总的来说,我认为这是错误的。

all together 全体一起,同时在一          We are all together again.
            起
                                我们又相聚了。


9. That means I’ll have to sit on a camel for almost a week—how uncomfortable!

   uncomfortable   adj.   使人不舒服的;感觉不舒服的;不自在的;难处理的

   这双鞋子穿起来不舒服。

   The shoes are uncomfortable to wear.

   公共汽车那么拥挤以至于我以一种很不舒服的姿势坐着。

   The bus was so crowded that I was sitting in an extremely uncomfortable position.

   那个话题使他有些不安。

   The topic made him a bit uncomfortable.

   当着那么多人的面发言,我觉得难以应付。

   It is an uncomfortable fact that I am to speak in the presence of many people.

   【单词积累】

   comfort  v. 安慰   n. [U]安慰,宽慰;[C]令人感到安慰的人或事物

   comfortable  adj. 舒服的,舒适的
                  中国现代教育网     www.30edu.com  全国最大教师交流平台

   discomfort  v. 使不舒服;n.   不舒服,不安


10. A little way down the river from Lake Victoria, the water gets quite rough.

   【句法分析】a little way down the river from Lake Victoria 作状语,表示条件。英语中表
   示次数、距离、方向、程度、价值、时间、状态的名词可用作状语。

   我告诉过你许多次了。

   I told you many times.

   他手里拿着一顶帽子站在我面前。

   He stood in front of me, a cap in his hand.

   rough    adj.

   (1) 粗鲁的;粗野的;汹涌的;剧烈的

   天气风和日丽,但大海却还是汹涌澎湃。

   It was breezy and pleasant, but the sea was still very rough.

   你简直难以想象这样一位绅士竟然对一位女士那么粗鲁。

   You can hardly imagine that such a gentleman should be rough on a lady.

   (2) 粗糙的;(地面等)高低不平的

   我们的车在崎岖不平的道路上上下下颠簸。

   Our car bumped up and down on the rough road.

   (3) 粗略的,概略的,大体的

   我大致知道我想去哪儿了。

   I’ve got a rough idea of where I want to go.

   (4) 艰难的,难受的(相当于           tough)

   我们会找个人来干这重活。

   We’ll get someone to do the rough work.

   【单词积累】
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   roughly   adv.  大约,大致,差不多;粗暴/粗鲁地;粗糙地

   【链接】

   be rough on sb.   对某人粗鲁,对某人苛刻

   be rude to sb.     对某人粗鲁                     be hard on sb.  对某人苛刻

   be severe on/with sb.   对某人严厉                be strict with sb.  对某人严格


   【辨析】rough    与  tough


 易混词                   辨析                                 例句

          指物体表面“不平坦,不光滑”或性                 It is really a rough road.
          格“粗暴的”、天气“恶劣的”以及
                                           这条路真不平坦。
              估计等“粗略的,大体的”
 rough                                     The skin on her hands is rough and 
                                           hard.

                                           她手上的皮肤粗糙且没有弹性。

           指事情“艰难的;棘手的”,指人                 Don’t be too rough on him.
          “严厉的;无情的”“坚强的,能吃
                                           别对他过于严厉。
                      苦的”
 tough
                                           It was a tough/rough decision to make.

                                           那是个很难做出的决定。


11. You have to wear a helmet and a life jacket for protection, just in case you fall into the 
    water.

   protection   n.

    (1) [U] 保护,防御

    健康饮食能预防疾病。

    A healthy diet can provide protection against disease.

    (2) [C, U] 防护物
                  中国现代教育网     www.30edu.com  全国最大教师交流平台

    他穿着厚实的大衣以抵御严寒。

    He wore a thick overcoat as a protection against the bitter cold.

    【拓展】

    under the protection of …   在…的保护下

    afford/give/provide protection  提供保护

    receive protection  受到保护

    a protection against/from…  防御…的保护物

    protect…against/from…  保护…使不受…的伤害

   in case 

   (1) 用作介词短语,意为“以防万一,免得”,常置于句末作状语

   你最好随身带些暖和的衣服,以防万一。

   You’d better take some warm clothes just in case.

   (2) 用作连词,意为“万一,以防”,引导表示假设的条件状语从句。

   万一发生什么重要的事,请打电话给我。

   In case anything important happens, please call me up.


【拓展】

   (1) in case of +名词(短语)  “在…情况下,万一发生”,通常置于句首。

       万一发生火灾就打电话给警察。

       In case of fire, telephone the police.

   (2) in no case “决不”,置于句首时,句子用部分倒装语序。

       我决不会叛国的。

       In no case will I turn against my homeland.

   (3) in any case “无论如何,不管怎样”,用作副词,加强语气。

       无论如何,一定要常回家看看你的父母。
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       In any case, do go home to see your parents regularly.


12. We’ll live with the local people in their villages, and eat and drink whatever they do, 
   including cow’s blood!

   whatever   pron. 

    (1) 任何…的事(引导名词性从句,不可与                no matter what 换用,在句中作主语、宾语、
       表语等)

    一个小孩想要什么就给他/她什么,人们普遍认为这种做法是不明智的。

   It’s generally considered unwise to give a child whatever he or she wants.

    (2) 无论什么(引导让步状语从句,可与               no matter what 互换)

    无论你做什么,你都不能违背自然规律。

   Whatever/No matter what you do, you can’t go against nature.

   【链接】

   whoever   任何人           whenever   无论何时            wherever   无论哪里

   whichever  无论哪一个         however 无论哪无论如何,不管用何种方法里

   注意:

   “no matter + 疑问词”和连接副词      whenever, wherever, however 只引导让步状语从句。

   连接代词     whatever, whichever, whoever 既可引导让步状语从句,也可引导名词性从句。

   犯法的人都会受到惩罚。

   Whoever breaks the law will be punished.

   无论谁犯法,他都会受到惩罚。

   Whoever/No matter who breaks the law, he will be punished.


13. Since we’ll be walking for almost two weeks, I’ll need to buy a large backpack in 
    advance to carry my supplies of food and water.

   【句法分析】本句为主从复合句,句中                 since 引导原因状语从句,主句中动词不定式短
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语  to carry my supplies of food and water 作定语,修饰 a large backpack。

in advance   预先,提前,事先

我得事先提醒你,我跳舞不是很好。

I should warn you in advance that I’m not a very good dancer.

advance   n. & v.  

(1) n. [C, U] 进步,发展

我们生活在技术迅猛发展的时代。

We live in an age of rapid technological advance.

医学上的新进展令我们受益匪浅。

The recent advances in medical science benefit us a lot.

(2) v.  前进,行进;(知识、技术等)发展,进步

搭配:advance on/towards…

敌人怒吼着向我们涌来。

The enemies advanced on/towards us shouting angrily.

近年来我们对太空的了解深入多了。

Our knowledge of space had advanced considerably over recent years.

【单词积累】

advanced   adj.  高级的,先进的

supply   n. & vt.

(1) n. [U] 供应,供给;提供,补给;[C]          供应量,供给量,储备

搭配:

    the supply of…  …的供给

    in short supply 供应不足,短缺

    supply and demand 供求关系

    联合国已同意允许提供紧急援助。
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    The UN has agreed to allow the supply of emergency aid.

    诸如煤和石油这样的自然资源供应不足。

    The natural resources, such as coal and oil, are in short supply.

   (2) vt.  (尤指大量)供应,供给,提供

   政府决定为难民提供住房。

    The government decided to supply houses to the refugees.

   = The government decided to supply the refugees with houses.

   (3) vt. 满足(需要),补充(不足等)

       搭配:满足某人(对某物)的需要

       supply one’s need (for sth.) = meet/satisfy/suit one’s need (for sth.)

    他想尽办法满足了她买车的需要。

    He managed to supply her for a car.

    注意:

    a good supply of 和 supplies of 表示“许多,大量的”时,后面接不可数名词和可数名
词复数均可,但谓语动词的数必须视                supply 的单复数形式而定。该短语考察的重点是主谓
一致。

    大量的物资已被送往灾区。

    A good supply of goods has been sent to the disaster area.

    大量的钱已被寄往灾区。

    Good supplies of money have been sent to the disaster area.


【辨析】supply,provide    与  offer


 易混词                      辨析                                      例句
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 supply   指定期供应,强调替代或补充所需物品,                     They were arrested for supplying drugs to 
          尤指大量供应,常见搭配:supply sth. to sb.         street dealers.
          = supply sb. with sth.
                                                 他们因为向街头毒贩提供毒品而被逮捕。

 provide  指有预见性地或为应付意外、紧急情况等                     The government  has provided food  and 
          做充分准备,常见搭配:provide          sth. for sb. shelters for those who are suffering from the 
          = provide sb. with sth.                earthquake.

                                                 政府向那些遭受地震灾害的人们提供食物和
                                                 避难所。

  offer   指向别人提供可接受也可拒绝的帮助、服                     A foreign company offered him a well-paid 
          务或物品等,侧重主动向某人提出供给某                     job, which he refused politely.
          物,常见搭配:offer sth. to sb. = offer sb. sth
                                                 一家外国公司向他提供了一份薪水丰厚的工
                                                 作,他婉言谢绝了。


14. Our guides will have guns with them for defence—they can use the guns to scare the 
   animals away if they come too near.

   defence  n.

    (1) [U] 防御,防卫

    搭配:

    in defence of…    为了防御/保卫…

    他们为保卫祖国而献身。

    They died in defence of their country.

    (2) [C, U] 防御物,防备;国防机构;国防体系

    幽默是比暴力更有效的防御武器。

   Humour is a more effective defence than violence.

   国防方面的开支很大。

   A lot of money is spent on defence.

   【学法点拨】defence      除了有上述意义之外,还可做法律上的“答辩,辩护”讲,the 
   defence 意为“辩护律师”,还有“防守队员,后卫”之意。
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注意:defence   后接“入侵者或造成危害者”时用介词                against;若接“被保护者”时,
则用   of。

森林能起到防御沙漠尘土的作业。

The forest will act as defence against desert dust.

被告的辩护律师能力很强。

The defence of the accused was very capable.

【单词积累】

defenceless   adj.  没有防御能力的       defend  vt. 防御,保卫

scare   v. & n.

(1) v. (使)恐惧,使害怕;害怕

搭配:

scare sb./sth. away/off  吓走/吓跑某人/某物

scare sb. to death  把某人吓得要死

scare sb. into doing sth.  威胁/恐吓某人做某事

雷声使婴儿受到了惊吓,哭了起来。

The thunder scared the baby on tears.

我们点火以吓跑狼群。

We lit fires to scare away the wolves.

黑暗中传来的尖叫声把她吓得要死。

The scream from the darkness scared her to death.

强盗威胁那位女士交出所有的钱。

The robber scared the lady into giving all her money.

(2) n. [C]  恐慌,恐惧,惊恐

你那样悄悄地从我后面走过来,真把我吓了一跳!

You did give me a scare, creeping up on me like that!
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   (1) scared  adj.

   be scared at sth.  被某事/某物惊吓

   be scared of sth.  害怕某物

   be scared to do sth.  害怕做某事

   be scared that… 害怕…

   这个男孩被这恐怖的情景吓坏了。

   The boy was scared at the terrible sight.

   你怕蛇吗?

   Are you scared of snakes?

   (2) scaring  adj.  令人恐惧的

   令人恐惧的一幕过去了,但我的心脏还在剧烈地跳动。

   The scaring scene is over but my heart is still beating wildly.


15. I really want to an elephant up close, and Colin wants to see a giraffe.

   up close 靠近地

   巴里第一次近距离地看到了贫困。

   For the first time, Barry saw poverty up close.

   即使人们能亲眼看到他们,人们也弄不明白他们在做什么。

   Even if people can see them up close, they can’t understand what they do.

   close   adj.  亲密的,靠近的            adv.  在附近,靠近地(强调距离,表具体概念)


   closely   adv. 密切地,紧密地(表抽象意义)

   get close to  靠近,接近(表时间或空间;to          为介词,后接      n./ pron. /v-ing)

   close up to 离…很近(to   为介词,后需接宾语)

   我们彼此住的很近,我们是密友。
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   We live close to each other and we are close friends.

   这个问题与政府的政策紧密相联。

   The problem is closely connected with the government’s policy.

   小偷正在靠近那位女士。

   The thief is getting close to the lady.

   她紧挨着她丈夫站着。

   She stood close up to her husband.


16. Mountain climbing can be very tiring, and many people feel sick as the atmosphere gets 
    thinner, so Colin and I will make sure that we get plenty of rest.

   【句法分析】本句为复合句,动名词短语                  mountain climbing 作前一分句的主语。as       引
   导原因状语从句,so        引导结果状语从句。

   动名词(短语):动名词兼有动词和名词的特点,主要在句中作主语、宾语、表语、
   定语。

   他的到来会对他们很有帮助。

   His coming will be of great help to them.

   我的工作是教英语。

   My job is teaching English.

   你介意我关掉电视吗?

   Do you mind my turning off the TV?

   【学法点拨】动名词(短语)作主语与动词不定式(短语)作主语的区别:

   1.  动名词(短语)作主语表示说话人的习惯、爱好或抽象的动作。

   2.  动词不定式(短语)作主语表示具体的、一次性的动作。

   生活没有目标就像航海没有指南针。

   Living without an aim is like sailing without a compass.

   一个星期完成这样一篇论文是他力所不及的。
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To finish such an essay in one week is beyond his ability.

注意:1.    动名词的复合结构(one’s + doing)是高考单项填空题的重要考点。其复合结
 构的规范形式是“形容词性物主代词/名词所有格+动名词”,但当该结构不位于句首
 是,也可用“人称代词宾格/名词普通格+动名词”的形式。

他病了,这增加了我们旅行中的困难。

His being ill added to our difficulty in the trip.

我喜欢他笑起来的样子。

I like him/his smiling. = I like it when he smiles.

2.  为了保持句子平衡,避免头重脚轻,在下面一些句式中,常用                          it 作形式主语,而把
真正的主语(动词-ing        形式)后置。

It is + no use/no good/fun/a waste of… + doing sth. 做某事是没用的/不好的/有趣的/浪
 费…的。

It is + useless + doing sth. 做某事是没用的。

试图说服他是没用的。

It’s no use /useless trying to persuade him.

tiring    adj.  令人疲倦的;累人的

那是令人感到又长又累的一天。

It was a long tiring day.

【单词积累】

tire     使疲倦;使厌烦                  tired    adj. 疲倦的;不耐烦的

【链接】

be tired of  对…感到厌烦                be tired from/with  由于…而劳累

be tired out  精疲力竭                 tiring work 累人的工作

注意:(人)感到疲劳用           tired,表示主语(人)所处的状态;事物令人疲惫用                   tiring,
表达事物本身具有的性质。

经过这么累人的一次攀登之后,我们都累坏了。

After such a tiring climb, we were all tired out.
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   atmosphere   n. 大气;环绕地球四周的空气;某一地方的空气;气氛;环境

   这些植物喜欢温暖潮湿的空气。

   These plants love warm, moist atmosphere.

   孩子们在关爱、和谐的环境里长大。

   The children grew up in an atmosphere of love and harmony.


17. We had hoped that we would get to see some other wildlife on our trip, but sadly we 
    didn’t.

   had hoped  表示没能如愿

   我本希望再见她一面。(但没能如愿)

   I had hoped to see her again.

   我曾希望再见她一面。(过去的愿望)

   I hoped to see her again.

   【学法点拨】英语中有些表示“愿望或打算”的动词(如                         hope, intend, plan, mean, 
   suppose, think, want 等),用于过去完成时中可以表示过去未曾实现的设想、意图或希
   望,含有某种惋惜的感情色彩。

   常见搭配:

   had done + that 从句

   had done + to do sth. = 动词的过去时  + to have done

   我本来希望无论什么时候我处于困境中,他都可以帮我。

   I had hoped that he could help me whenever I was in trouble.

   我原打算去车站给你送行,但是我去晚了。

   I had planned to see you off at the station, but I got there late. = I planned to have seen 
   you off at the station, but I got there late.


17. Let me know your answer and schedule as soon as possible.
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   schedule    n. & vt

   (1) n. [C, U] 工作计划,日程安排;时间表,进度表。

   一切都在按预定计划进行。

   Everything is going according to schedule.

   (2) vt. 安排,为某事安排时间(尤用于被动语态)

   会议安排在星期五下午。

   The meeting is scheduled for Friday afternoon.

   她告诉我她预计       5 点钟抵达伦敦。

   She told me that she was scheduled to arrive in London at five.

   【拓展】

   ahead of schedule = ahead of time 提前                behind schedule  比规定时间晚          

   on schedule 按时间表;及时;准时                         according to schedule 按预定计划                

   draw/make up/plan a schedule 制定/安排时间表           fall behind schedule 进度落后

   a full/heavy schedule 紧凑的行程表                    a bus schedule 公共汽车时刻表

   be scheduled for… 为…安排时间


18.24-29 June: explore places of interest in Lhasa

   explore   vt. 

    (1) 探索,勘察,探险,考察

    我们一来到岛上就急忙考察起来。

   As soon as we arrived on the island we were eager to explore.

   最好是徒步考察这座城市。

   The city is best explored on foot.

    (2) 探究,仔细查阅

    这些想法将在第       7 章里进行详细的探讨。
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   These ideas will be explored in detail in Chapter 7.

   【单词积累】

   explorer   n. 探险者;勘探员

   exploration   n. 探究;探索;试探

   注意:explore   作“勘察”讲时,explore       sp. 表示“在某处勘察”,explore        for sth.表示
   “为了得到某物而勘察”,该用法类似于                  search。

   他们在这条河的南部地区探测石油。

   They explored the land to the south of the river for oil.


19.However, I’m afraid I cannot go as I am very busy during June.

   【句法分析】本句为主从复合句,as               在句中引导原因状语从句。

   however    adv. & conj.

    (3) adv. 可是,然而(可放句首、句中或句尾,其后常用逗号隔开,表转折关系)

    然而,当他回来是,他发现一切都变了。

    However, he found everything changed when he returned.

    他总是第一个到校,但是,他今天早上迟到了。

    He is always the first to get to school, however, he was late this morning.

    这块手表旧了,然而走得很好(状况良好)。

    The watch is old. It is in good condition, however.

    (4) conj. = no matter how 不管怎样,无论如何,后接形容词或副词,引导让步状语从
       句。

    不管天气有多冷,他总是去游泳。

    He always goes swimming, however cold it is.

    = He always goes swimming, no matter how cold it is.

20.Colin was about to get off the camel when a child ran towards him.

   be about to do…when…  刚要做…这时(突然)…
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   在该句中     when 用作并列连词,意为“这时”,相当于                at this/that time。

   我们刚要离开,这时电话响了。

   We were about to leave when the telephone rang.

   【拓展】

   be doing…when…  刚要做…这时…;正在做…这时…

   be on the point of doing…when… 刚要做…这时…

   had just done…when… 刚刚做了…这时…

   had hardly done…when… 一…就…

   我们刚要启程这时天(突然)下起了雨。

   We were just starting when it began to rain.

   她刚坐下电话就响了。

   She had hardly sat down when the phone rang.

   【链接】

   When  引导非限制性定语从句,作“在这时,在那时”讲,相当于                         and then/and at that 
   time。

   孩子们在院子里玩到太阳落山,这时天下起了雨。

   The children played in the yard until sunset, when it began to rain.


21.The sun rose, as it always does, in a clear sky.

   rise   vt. 上升,上涨,增高;升起

   生活费用继续上涨。

   The cost of living continues to rise.

   河水上涨了好几米。

   The river has risen by several meters.

   太阳从东方升起,在西方落下。
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   The sun rises in the east and sets in the west.


   【辨析】rise, raise, arise 与 arouse


       易混词                      辨析                          例句

                      vi. 升高,上升,增加,增长           House prices are likely to rise 

   rise(rose, risen)                            towards the end of this year.

                                                今年年底房价可能会上涨。

                      vt. 举起,抬起,使增高,增           Please raise your hand if you 
                      加(数量等)
  raise(raised, raised)                         have any question.

                                                如果你有疑问请举手。

                      vi. 发生,(由)…引起,出           A crisis has arisen in the Foreign 
                      现,呈现,起立
  arise(arose, arisen)                          Office.

                                                外交部出现了危机。

                      vt. 引起兴趣、期望等;激起           His  behaviour  aroused  the 
   arouse(aroused,    愤怒、恐惧、厌恶等                 interest of the neighbours.
      aroused)
                                                他的行为引起了邻居们的兴趣。

2、重要语法


一.      将来进行时

1. 将来进行时的用法

(1) 表示将来某一段时间内持续做的动作。

汤姆整个下周的时间将一直在攀爬喜马拉雅山。

Tom will be climbing in the Himalayas all next week.

(2) 表示将来某个时间前已开始做的动作并很有可能继续下去。
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汤姆下周二将不在伦敦,他将一直在攀爬喜马拉雅山。

Tom will not be in London next Tuesday. He will be climbing in the Himalayas.

(3) 表示将来自然而然会发生的事情,而不是人为安排要做的事。

天气预报说我们到达伦敦时将有雨。

The weather report says that it will be raining when we arrive in London.

(4) 表示礼貌地询问对方或别人计划要做的事情。

你将要去伦敦看望你叔叔吗?

Will you be visiting your uncle in London?

2. 将来进行时的构成(以动词            do 为例)

(1) 肯定句:主语+ will + be doing

明天我们将乘飞机飞往巴黎。

Tomorrow we’ll be flying to Paris.

(2) 否定句:主语+ will + not + be doing

我希望你不会觉得太累。

I hope you won’t be feeling too tired.

(3) 一般疑问句:Will +     主语+ be doing?

明天这个时候你将正在做作业吗?

Will you be doing your homework this time tomorrow?

(4) 特殊疑问句:疑问词+ will +       主语+ be doing?

明天上午    8 点你做什么?

What will you be doing at eight tomorrow morning?

【拓展】将来进行时与一般将来时的区别

将来进行时表示按计划、安排发生的将来的动作,强调动作的进行性;而一般将来时则表
示动作尚未发生,它可以是经过事先安排的或临时决定的,但它不表示动作的进行性。

他今晚会在大约       11 点钟到达。
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He’ll be arriving at about 11 o’clock tonight.

他们明天要离开香港。

They will leave Hong Kong tomorrow.

注意:时间状语从句和条件状语从句一般不用将来进行时。

如果我回来时你还在我家,我就给你做一顿好吃的。

If you are staying at my home when I come back, I’ll cook a good meal for you.


二.      过去将来时

1. 过去将来时的用法

(1) 表示从过去某时开始将要发生的动作或存在的状态,常用于宾语从句中。

他说他将去北方度假。

He said he would go to the north for the holiday.

他  68 岁,再过两年就      70 岁了。

He was sixty-eight. In two years he would be seventy.

(2) 常可表示过去习惯性的动作(不管什么人称,都用                     would)

过去他一有时间就帮他们干活。

Whenever he had time, he would help them with their work.

2. 过去将来时的构成(以动词            do 为例)

(1) 其基本表达方式:would do

他希望将来有一天他们能再见面。

He hoped that they would meet again some day.

(2) 表示过去将来时的其他几种表达方式:

A: was/were going to do 这种表达方式表示准备、计划做某事

她说她打算买一辆新自行车。

   She said she was going to buy a new bike.
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B: was/were about to do 这种表达方式表示即将发生的动作,不和表示时间段的状态连用。

公共汽车马上就要开了。

   The bus was about to start.

C: was/were to do 这种表达方式表示过去曾计划或安排要做某事。

他说他打算一个星期后完成这项工作。

   He said he was to finish the work in a week.

D: was/were doing 这种表达方式仅限于某些表示位移的动词,如                 come, go, arrive, leave 等,
表示按计划或安排将要发生的事。

我不知道他们什么时候再来。

   I didn’t know when they were coming again.

E: 用某些动词的过去式表示按计划或时刻表要发生的事。

他们告诉我     9 月 1 号开学。

   They told me school began on September 1st.

【拓展】

was/were (about) to do 结构和 was/were going to do 结构的区别

was/were to do 侧重被别人安排要做;was/were about to do    表示说话的瞬间就会发生的动作,
一般不与表示将来的时间状语连用;was/were going to do            侧重说话人的意图或打算。

史密斯先生说他要接任这个职务。

Mr Smith said he was to take up the position.

我觉得有可怕的事要发生了。

I felt something terrible was about to happen.

他答应我要把文章写好。

He promised me he was going to write the article well.
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