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2018-2019学年人教版英语 必修一 Unit 学案(教师版)

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高中英语审核员

中国现代教育网
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Ⅰ.核心必记单词
1.transport n.& vt.运输;运送
2.prefer vt.更喜欢;选择某事物(而不选择其他事物)→preference             n.偏爱;优先权;偏爱的事
物

3.persuade vt.说服;劝说→persuasion n.劝说,说服(力)
4.graduate vi.毕业;n.大学毕业生→graduation n.毕业
5.finally adv.最后;终于
6.schedule n.时间表;进度表;vt.为某事安排时间
7.organize vt.组织;成立→organization n.组织
8.determine vt.决定;确定;下定决心→determined adj.坚决的;有决心的→determination n.决
心;决定;确定

9.journey n.旅行;旅程
10.attitude n.态度;看法

11.view n.风景;视野;观点;见解;vt.观看;注视;考虑

Ⅱ.阅读识记单词
12.journal n.日记;杂志;定期刊物
13.disadvantage n.不利条件;不便之处→advantage n.有利条件;优势,长处

14.flow vi.流动;流出;n.流动;流量
15.shortcoming n.缺点

16.bend n.弯;拐角;vt.使弯曲;vi.弯身;弯腰
17.boil vi.(指液体)沸腾;(水)开
18.forecast n.& vt.预测;预报
19.reliable adj.可信赖的;可靠的→rely v.依赖;依靠
20.beneath prep.在……下面
语境活用     [用所给词的正确形式填空]
                  中国现代教育网     www.30edu.com  全国最大教师交流平台

1.That young man is honest,cooperative,always there when you need his help.In short,he’s 
reliable(rely).(2016·浙江)
2.We should overcome our weakness and fears with courage and determination(determine).
                                                                    (2016·天津)
3.After a long delay the performance finally(final) started.
4.His lack of education was a disadvantage(advantage) when he looked for a job.
5.I work with Volunteers for Wildlife,a rescue and education organization(organize) at Bailey 
Arboretum in Locust Valley.(2017·全国Ⅰ)

6.Several days later,when the video was played on the graduation(graduate) ceremony,it was 
well received.(2017·北京)
7.That person personally persuaded the personnel with persuasive(persuade) words.
8.Choosing furniture is largely a matter of personal preference(prefer).


1.ever since 自从;自……以后
2.dream about 梦想
3.graduate from 毕业于
4.be fond of 喜爱;喜欢
5.care about 关心;在意;忧虑;惦念

6.change one’s mind 改变主意

7.make up one’s mind 下决心;决定
8.give in 投降;屈服;让步
9.as usual 照常
10.at midnight 在午夜
语境活用     [用上述黑体短语的正确形式填空]
1.Although I got up with a headache,I went to work as usual.
2.At the same time,I made up my mind to study harder rather than waste precious time on those 
useless things,such as playing video games and chatting online.
3.The book is especially helpful for those who care about their body shape.
4.She was/is especially fond of a little girl named Betsy.
5.Now Alia waited for the war to end and dreamed about peace and a new library.(2017·浙江)

6.—Where is Peter?I can’t find him anywhere.
—He went to the library after breakfast and has been writing his essay there ever since.(2015·福建)
                  中国现代教育网     www.30edu.com  全国最大教师交流平台


1.位置反义词小结

(1)on→beneath
(2)over→under
(3)above→below
2.fore­前缀表“预见的;前部的”
(1)forecast n.& v.预测;预报
(2)foresee v.预见;预知
(3)foretell v.预言;预测
(4)forehead n.前额
(5)foreword n.前言;序
(6)foresight n.先见之明;远见

3.“态度”单词聚焦
(1)negative 消极的;否定的→positive   积极的;肯定的
(2)optimistic 乐观的→pessimistic 悲观的
(3)mild 温和的→tough  强硬的
(4)partial 偏袒的→neutral 中立的
(5)sympathetic 同情的→indifferent 漠不关心的

4.“缺点”汇总
(1)weakness n.弱点;缺点
(2)shortcoming n.短处;缺点
(3)disadvantage n.劣势;缺点
(4)defect n.缺陷;缺点
5.与完成时连用的常见短语
(1)ever since 自从
(2)over/during/in the last/past+一段时间在过去……时间里
(3)so far 到目前为止
(4)up to/till now 直到现在

6.“喜欢”一族
(1)be fond of 喜欢
(2)be crazy about 对……着迷
(3)be addicted to 对……上瘾
(4)be keen on 喜爱
                  中国现代教育网     www.30edu.com  全国最大教师交流平台

(5)have a fancy/preference for 喜欢


1.ever since 与完成时连用
Ever since middle school,my sister Wang Wei and I have dreamed about taking a great bike trip.
从高中起,我姐姐王薇和我就一直梦想做一次伟大的自行车旅行。

2.insist+that...坚决要求……;坚持主张……

Although she didn’t know the best way of getting to places,she insisted that she organize the 
trip properly.
尽管她对去某些地方的最佳路线并不清楚,她却坚持要自己把这次旅行安排得尽善尽美。

3.不定式的主动形式表示被动意义
When I told her the air would be hard to breathe and it would be very cold,she said it would be 
an interesting experience.
当我告诉她那里空气稀薄,呼吸会很困难而且天气很冷时,她却说这将是一次有趣的经历。
句式仿写

1.上星期她病了,从那时起她就一直卧床不起。
She fell sick last week and has been in bed ever since.
2.我告诉她咳嗽了一晚上她不应该去游泳了,但是她拒绝放弃,坚持要去。(2016·天津)

I told her she shouldn’t swim after a whole night’s coughing,but she refused to give up and 
insisted (that) she (should) go.
3.在夏季,人们可以神清气爽地呼吸新鲜空气,愉悦地享受自然风光。(2016·四川)

In summer,fresh air is comfortable to breathe and natural scenery is pleasant to enjoy.


    
prefer v.更喜欢;选择某事物(而不选择其他事物)

拓展词:preference n.偏爱;优先权;偏爱的事物
(1)prefer to do/doing...更喜欢做……
prefer sb.to do...更喜欢让某人做……
                  中国现代教育网     www.30edu.com  全国最大教师交流平台

prefer sth./doing...to sth./doing...与……相比更喜欢……
prefer to do...rather than do...宁可做……也不做……
(2)have a preference for...偏爱……

(1)Rather than talk(talk) with his mother,he prefers to be(be) always on the phone,sleep,stay 
in his room or go out with his friends.
他更喜欢打电话,睡觉,待在房间里或和朋友外出而不是和母亲说说话。

(2)A teacher should not show preference for any one of his pupils.教师不应偏爱任何一个学生。
[一句多译]
(3)她宁愿跟我们一起去也不愿留下来。

①She preferred going with us to staying behind.(prefer...to...)

②She preferred to go with us rather than stay behind.(prefer...rather than...)

③She would rather go with us than stay behind.(would rather...than...)

④She would go with us rather than stay behind.(would...rather than...)

    persuade vt.说服;劝说;使信服;使相信
拓展词:persuasion n.劝说,说服(力)
persuade sb.to do sth.=persuade sb.into doing sth.说服某人做某事
persuade sb.not to do sth.=persuade sb.out of doing sth.说服某人不做某事
persuade sb.of sth./that...使某人相信……

(1)It was hard to persuade him to give up/into giving up/out of smoking.说服他戒烟很难。
[同义句改写]
(2)He tried to persuade me to accept his idea,but in vain.

→He advised me to accept his idea,but in vain.
[熟词生义] 写出句子中黑体词的汉语意思

(3)How can I persuade you that I am sincere?使相信
[联想发散] 表示“试图说服某人做某事(不一定说服)”的表达形式:try to persuade sb.to do 
sth.;advise sb.to do sth.。

    determine vi.& vt.决定;确定; 使 下定决心
拓展词:determined adj.坚决的;坚定的;果断的
determination n.决心;坚定;果断
(1)determine to do...决定做……(表示动作)
determine on/upon 决定
(2)be determined to do...决心做……(表示状态)
                  中国现代教育网     www.30edu.com  全国最大教师交流平台

(3)with determination 坚决地;果断地

(1)This made Hannah very sad,and even more determined(determine) to do something.
这使汉娜很伤心,也更坚定了她要做点儿事情的决心。(2017·北京)

[同义句改写]
(2)I have determined to spend my holiday at home.
→I have determined on/upon spending my holiday at home.
[句式升级]
(3)Johnny broke away and ran outside and he was determined never to go to another dance.(用形容
词短语作状语改写)
Johnny broke away and ran outside,determined never to go to another dance.

 view n.看法;观点;视野;风景
    v.把……看作;观看;考虑

拓展词:viewer n.观看者;观众
(1)in view of 鉴于;由于;考虑到
come into view 进入视野;看得见
in view 在视线范围内

in one’s view/opinion 在某人看来
(2)view...as...把……看作……

(1)In view of the weather,we will cancel the outing.
因天气关系,我们要取消此次郊游。

(2)In my view/opinion,if you want to learn English well,you need to do more listening,
speaking,reading and writing.
依我看来,如果你想学好英语,你需要多听、多说、多读、多写。

(3)Viewed(view) from a distance,the island looked like a cloud.
从远处看,这个岛看起来像一朵云。

    care about关心;在意;忧虑;惦念
care for 喜欢;照顾
take care 当心
take care of 照料;处理
with care 小心地
                  中国现代教育网     www.30edu.com  全国最大教师交流平台


(1)She thinks only of herself;she doesn’t care about other people.
她只顾自己,不顾别人。

(2)As the average age of the population increases,there are more and more old people to care for.
随着人口平均寿命的延长,越来越多的老人需要照顾。(2016·天津)

[同义句改写]
(3) Whatever you do,you must do it carefully.

→Whatever you do,you must do it with care.
[易错点拨]
care about 意为“介意;在乎”;care for     意为“喜欢;照顾”,两者意义不同,不要混淆。

   change one’s mind改变主意
make up one’s mind 下决心;决定

read one’s mind 看出某人的心思

fix/keep one’s mind on...把注意力放在……上
bear/keep sth.in mind 记住某事
never mind 没关系;不要紧

(1)The determined look in their eyes told us that nothing could make them change their minds.
他们坚定的眼神告诉我们任何东西都不能使他们改变主意。

(2)Williams’ two books helped Benjamin to make up his mind to be a painter.
威廉姆斯的两本书帮助本杰明下定决心成为一名画家。(2017·浙江)

(3)On the Internet,we could quickly and easily locate the details,and check facts,without 
keeping them in mind.
在互联网上,我们可以快速方便地找到详细资料,核对事实,而不必记住它们。(2016·江苏)

[易错点拨]

change one’s mind 和 make up one’s mind 中 mind 随 one’s 的单复数变化而变化。

   give in投降;屈服;让步;上交
give away 泄露;赠送
give out 分发;用完;耗尽;发出热、光等
give off 发出气味、热等;冒出
give up 放弃
give back 归还

(1)Only a coward gives in to his fate.
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只有懦夫才会向命运屈服。

(2)Body language can give away a lot about your mood,so standing with your arms folded can 
send out a signal that you are being defensive.
身势语能够泄露很多你的情绪,因此双臂交叉站着能发送出你正在防卫的信号。(2015·浙江)
(3)We had just reached home when the petrol gave out.
我们刚好到家,汽油用光了。


Although she didn’t know the best way of getting to places,she insisted that she organize 
the trip properly.
尽管她对去某些地方的最佳路线并不清楚,她却坚持要自己把这次旅行安排得尽善尽美。

句型:insist+that...
(1)insist 作“坚持要求;坚持主张”讲时,后面的宾语从句要用虚拟语气,即从句谓语动词
用(should+) do;作“坚持说;坚持认为”解时,其后的从句用陈述语气。
(2)insist on/upon (doing) sth.坚持要求(做)某事

(1)The doctor insisted that she was(be) seriously ill and that she (should) be operated(operate) on 
immediately.
医生坚持说她病得很重,坚决要求马上给她动手术。

[同义句改写]
(2)He insisted that I (should) go with him.
→He insisted on me/my going with him.
[易错点拨]
 insist 既不接不定式,也不接动名词,遇此情况要用                 insist on。insist 后也不接不定式的复合
结构。

When I told her the air would be hard to breathe and it would be very cold,she said it would 
be an interesting experience.
当我告诉她那里空气稀薄,呼吸会很困难而且天气很冷时,她却说这将是一次有趣的经历。

句型:不定式的主动形式表示被动意义
动词不定式的主动形式表示被动意义的几种情况:
(1)主语+be+adj.+不定式,常用于本句型的形容词包括:easy,hard,difficult,
                  中国现代教育网     www.30edu.com  全国最大教师交流平台

interesting,heavy,pleasant,comfortable,safe,dangerous,impossible,strange 等。在这种
句型中,不定式与句子的主语构成逻辑上的动宾关系,如果动词是不及物动词时,应该在不
及物动词后加上适当的介词。
(2)have/give/show/get sth.to do 句型中的不定式与前面的名词有动宾关系,又和句中另一名词
或代词构成主谓关系。
(3)在“疑问词+to do”中,不定式常用主动式。
(4)be to blame/let 短语中,不定式主动形式表示被动意义。

(1)In my opinion,a man who is hard to please must be difficult to work with.
依我看来,一个很难取悦的人一定很难共事。
(2)The sentence is not easy to understand(understand).
(3)Her coworker was sick so she had a lot of work to do(do) today.
(4)His admission that he was to blame(blame) kept the others from being punished.


Ⅰ.单句语法填空
1.They needed to be aroused(激发) one way or the other,and they preferred good news to bad.
                                                                  (2016·全国Ⅲ)

2.If you don’t speak good English,you’ll be at a big disadvantage when you try to get a job.
3.We have made up our minds(mind) to overcome this difficulty.
4.My husband and I insisted that our children were(be) old enough to make their beds.
5.She is scheduled to give(give) a speech tonight,hoping all of us will attend it.
6.I hold a positive attitude towards/to online voting.(2016·江苏)
7.She left school three years ago and has been working(work) as a nurse ever since.
8.This machine is very easy to operate(operate).Anybody can learn to use it in a few minutes.
9.Mr Black,who is a very organized person,works as the president of a large international 
organization.(organize)
10.My brother graduated from Beijing University last year.He has been working in a famous 
company after graduation.(graduate)
Ⅱ.单句改错(每小题仅有         1 处错误)
                             b∧e
1.The government insisted that plans  made to help those out of work.
                                             w∧ith
2.The man is very stubborn and difficult to get along well .
3.Having worked for two days,Steve managed to finish his report on the schedule.
                  中国现代教育网     www.30edu.com  全国最大教师交流平台

    persuaded
4.He advised  her to stop smoking but failed.
 Determining
5. Determined ,Dad filled our plates with steaming stew and passed them around.
Ⅲ.教材与语法填空
    Wang Kun and Wang Wei are brother and sister.They have dreamed about 1.taking(take) a 
great bike trip.After graduating from college,they finally got the chance 2.to take(take) a bike 
trip.It was Wang Wei 3.who/that first had the idea to cycle along the entire Mekong River,whose 
source is in Qinghai Province.Despite all the difficulties,Wang Kun and Wang Wei were 
4.determined(determine) to begin their journey at an altitude of 5.more(much) than 5,000 metres in 
Qinghai Province.Before their trip,they found a large atlas 6.with good maps 7.showing(show) 
details of world geography.From it they were surprised to learn that half of the Mekong River is in 
China.When it enters Southeast Asia,it travels 8.slowly(slow) through low valleys to the plains 
9.where rice grows.At last,the river delta enters 10.the South China Sea.

Ⅳ.教材与短文改错
    Although it was autumn,the snow was already beginning to fall in Tibet.Along the way 
children who were dressing in long wool coats stop to look at us.The lakes shone like glass in the 
setting sun and looked wonderfully.To climb the mountains was hard work but as we found myself 
cycling through clouds,we were surprising.It was a great fun to go down the hills.In the valleys 
colourful butterflies flew around us and we saw many sheeps eating green grass.
    In the early evening we always stop to make camp.At midnight the sky became clear and the 
stars grew brighter.We can hardly wait reach Dali in Yunnan Province,there our cousins will join 
us.
答案

    Although it was autumn,the snow was already beginning to fall in Tibet.Along the way 
               dressing                stop
children who were dressed  in long wool coats stopped to look at us.The lakes shone like glass in 
                      wonderfully
the setting sun and looked wonderful .To climb the mountains was hard work but as we found 
 myself                           surprising
ourselves cycling through clouds,we were surprised .It was a great fun to go down the hills.In the 
                                                sheeps
valleys colourful butterflies flew around us and we saw many sheep  eating green grass.
                                                                   clear
    In the early evening we always stop to make camp.At midnight the sky became clearer and the 
                                t∧o                             there
stars grew brighter.We can hardly wait  reach Dali in Yunnan Province,where our cousins 
                  中国现代教育网     www.30edu.com  全国最大教师交流平台

will join us.


Ⅴ.教材与微写作
写作素材    (关于旅游)
1.我们的邻居汤姆,喜欢旅游而不愿待在家里。
2.上个月他说服我们和他一起去旅游。
3.他很可靠,关注准备工作的每个细节。
4.他选择了路线,找了交通工具并且制定了日程表。
5.他组织的这次旅游给我们带来了很多快乐。
提示:黑体部分用本单元词汇表达,并且请使用过去分词短语作定语。

连句成篇    (将以上句子连成一篇         50 词左右的英语短文)
    Our neighbor Tom,prefers travelling to staying at home.Last month,he persuaded us to 
join in his journey.He was quite reliable and cared about every detail of the preparation work.He 
chose the route,found the transport and made the schedule.The journey organized by him made 
us happy.


Ⅰ.阅读理解
                                      A
(2017·河北唐山一模)

    The online business model is changing on a satisfaction­first basis.It doesn’t matter if 
someone recommended you an app,and nothing beats getting to try out the app first before 
deciding on whether or not applying for the service.
·Rhapsody
    Listen to Rhapsody’s large music library and get the option to download and listen to songs 

or even full­length albums even when you’re offline.At the moment,this service is available in 

32 countries only.Remember that you’ll need to cancel within the free trial period to avoid being 
charged for your first month.
    [Trial period—14 days|After trial— 9.99/month|Try now]
·Bigstock
    Need to save photos for your presentations and artworks?Go to Bigstock to check out their 
collection from top artists and photographers around the world.Choose from over 30 million 
photos,and illustrations(插图),with 75,000 images coming in every new week.All you need to 
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start your free trial is your e­mail address.
    [Trial period—7 days|After trial— 79/month|Try now]

·Canvas
    If you are drowning in paperwork,perhaps it is time to use Canvas and transfer all your 
paperwork online.Digitalize your work orders,forms etc.,so that they can be filled up and 
completed right on any mobile device.This makes it easy to create,edit,gain valuable data and 
send it to the people who need it in seconds.
    [Trial period—30 days|After trial— 13/month|Try now]
·Backupify
    If you have ever lost your phone,you know how important it is to backup(备份) all your 
important documents,notes,contacts and other personal details.Get cloud­to­cloud protection of 
up to 3PB of data with Backupify.You can backup your data for Google apps,Office 365,
various social media sites and even Salesforce.
    [Trial period—15 days|After trial— 3/month|Try now]
    To learn more about the apps above,Click Here.
语篇解读 本文介绍了几款可以免费试用的软件。
1.Who is more likely to use the app Canvas?
A.A secretary.                    B.A photographer.
C.An artist.                      D.A musician.
答案 A
解析 推理判断题。根据           Canvas 部分的第一句“If      you are drowning in paperwork,perhaps 

it is time to use Canvas and transfer all your paperwork online.”可知,这款软件适用于需要大
量处理文书工作的人。secretary        秘书;photographer 摄影师;artist   画家;musician  音乐家。
故选  A 项。

2.To save photos,         can be of some help.
A.Bigstock and Canvas
B.Backupify and Bigstock
C.Rhapsody and Backupify
D.Rhapsody and Canvas
答案 B
解析 细节理解题。根据           Bigstock 部分的第一句“Need      to save photos for your presentations 
and artworks?”以及  Backupify 部分的“Get    cloud­to­cloud protection of up to 3PB of data 

with Backupify.”可知,这两款软件可以保存照片。故选               B 项。
3.What do the four apps have in common?
A.Users will access them via e­mail accounts.
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B.They offer free entertainment services.
C.They can help brush up users’ work skills.
D.Users can try them without paying money.
答案 D
解析 细节理解题。根据这四款软件最后的提示可知,这四款软件都可以免费试用。故选
D 项。
4.Where can you find more information about such apps?
A.A magazine.                     B.A TV show.
C.A website.                      D.A newspaper.
答案 C
解析 推理判断题。根据文章最后一句“To learn more about the apps above,Click Here.”可
知,这篇文章应该出现在网站上。故选                C 项。
                                      B
(2018·河北故城高级中学期中)

    There are more bicycles than residents in the Netherlands,and in cities like Amsterdam and 

The Hague up to 70% of all journeys are made by bike.The BBC’s reporter,Anna Holligan,
examines what made everyone get back in the saddle(车座).

    Before World WarⅡ,journeys in the Netherlands were mainly made by bike,but in the 
1950s and 1960s,as car ownership increased quickly,this changed.As in many countries in 
Europe,roads became increasingly crowded.
    The jump in car number caused a huge rise in the number of deaths on the roads.In 1971 more 
than 3,000 people were killed by motor vehicles,and 450 of them were children.In response a 
social movement demanding safer cycling conditions for children was formed.Called Stop de 
Kindermoord,it took its name from the headline of an article written by journalist Vic Langenhoff 
whose own child had been killed in a road accident.
    The Dutch love of the motor vehicle was also shaken by the Middle East oil crisis of 1973,
when oil­producing countries topped export to the US and Western Europe.
    These twin pressures helped to persuade the Dutch government to invest in improving cycling 
infrastructure(基础设施)and the Dutch urban planners started to change from the road­building 
policies designed mainly for cars.
    To make cycling safer and more inviting,the Dutch have built a vast network of cycle 
paths.These are clearly marked,have smooth surfaces,separate signs and lights for those on two 
wheels,and are wide enough to allow cycling side by side and overtaking.
    Even before they can walk,Dutch children live in a world of cycling.As babies they travel in 
special seats on bikes.As the children grow up they ride their own bikes.And,as the Dutch are not 
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allowed to drive until 18,cycling offers teenagers an alternative form of freedom.
    The state also plays a part in teaching,with cycling lessons a compulsory(必修的) part in 
Dutch schools.All schools have places to park bikes and at some schools 90% of pupils cycle to 
class.
语篇解读 文章主要介绍了在荷兰骑车是生活的一部分。交通事故和石油短缺使得荷兰政府
投资改善了自行车基础设施,并采取了一系列促进自行车骑行的措施。

5.What does Anna Holligan intend to find out?
A.Why cycling is popular in the Netherlands.
B.How journeys are made in the Netherlands.
C.What’s the main means of transport in the Netherlands.
D.What makes the children like cycling in the Netherlands.
答案 A
解析 细节理解题。根据第一段第二句可知,Anna Holligan                 想弄清楚为什么骑自行车在荷兰
受欢迎。故选      A。
6.Stop de Kindermoord is aimed at         .
A.advising people to travel by bike
B.calling on more children to cycle
C.improving cycling conditions for children
D.asking the government to invest more in cycling
答案 C
解析 细节理解题。根据第三段中的“In                response a social movement demanding safer cycling 

conditions for children was formed.Called Stop de Kindermoord”可知,Stop de Kindermoord 的
目标就是改善孩子们的骑车环境,使其更加安全。故选                       C。

7.What resulted in the Dutch government’s changing road­building policies?
A.More cars and road accidents.
B.More cars and higher oil prices.
C.Road accidents and oil shortage.
D.A social movement and oil crisis.
答案 C
解析 推理判断题。根据第三、四段的内容可知,交通事故和石油短缺导致了这一结果。
8.What do we learn about the Dutch children?
A.They must get a license to ride a bike.
B.They are not allowed to drive until 16.
C.They must have cycling lessons at school.
D.They don’t use bikes when they are very young.
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答案 C
解析 细节理解题。根据最后一段第一句可知,荷兰的孩子在学校一定要上自行车课。故选
C。
                                      C
(2018·辽宁沈阳交联体期中)

    Tulou,the special residential architecture of Fujian Province was included on the 

UNESCO’s   World Heritage List during the 32nd session of the World Heritage Committee in 
Quebec,Canada.
    In the fourth century,Han Chinese living in the Central Plains area began to migrate south,
gradually gathering in Fujian and forming the Hakka communities.As a defence against enemies,
the Hakkas chose to live in compact(紧凑的) communities,and the tulou was their preferred 
houses.Tens of thousands of such earthen structures were constructed in Fujian Province.
    Most tulous are to be found in the valleys,surrounded by high mountains,and some are in 
the depths of the great mountains.Most are three to four storeys high,and look like circular 
blockhouses(堡垒).Rooms on the first floor are used as kitchens,rooms on the second floor are 
used as barns(谷仓),and rooms on the third and fourth floors are for bedrooms and living 
rooms.For defensive purposes,the rooms on the first floor have no windows.
    Raw materials for the tulou were obtained locally.Their main building material was a mixture 
of clay,sand,lime and water,and egg whites,brown sugar and rice water were added as 
adhesive agents(粘合剂).It was then mixed to form the walls.Once they dried,the walls were so 
hard that driving a nail into them would have been difficult.Fir branches,which are extremely 
strong and do not rot,were used to strengthen them,and many centuries later they have remained 
their original look.
    Tulous are located in a region where earthquakes happen frequently,and their circular 
construction helps them resist the regular shocks.
    The proven design even inspired one famous Peruvian architect,who paid several visits to 
Yongding,to build a tulou back home.Not long after,an earthquake struck only 10 kilometers 
away,and while all the houses around the earthen building fell down,his tulou remained.
语篇解读 本文主要介绍了福建省特殊的住宅建筑——土楼,现已被列入联合国教科文组织
的世界遗产名录。

9.From the passage,we know that tulou         .
A.is a special residential architecture of Han Chinese in Fujian even today
B.was once the place where the Hakkas chose to live together
C.is also modern people’s preferred houses
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D.looks like circular blockhouses but easy to fall down in the earthquake
答案 B
解析 细节理解题。根据第二段中的“As a defence against enemies,the Hakkas chose to live 
in compact(紧凑的) communities,and the tulou was their preferred houses.”可知,土楼曾经是
客家人选择一起居住的地方。

10.From the third paragraph,we can infer that         .
A.most tulous are to be found in urban area
B.Hakkas might live an organized and harmonious life
C.people lived on the second floor in the tulou
D.no windows are on the first floor to keep the tulou strong
答案 B
解析 推理判断题。根据第三段可知土楼不在城市里,排除                        A;人们住在第三、四层,排除
C;一楼没有窗户是为了防御,排除               D。再根据建造这样大规模的样式一致的房子,一定是
有组织地行为;人们也都住在一起,说明能和谐共处,可以推断出客家人可能过着有组织的、
和谐的生活。故选        B。
11.Which of the following is TRUE according to the passage?
A.Hakkas built tulous when they lived in the Central Plains area.
B.Raw materials for the tulou were obtained from far away.
C.It is difficult to dig a hole into the walls of the tulou.
D.Fir branches may help them resist the regular shocks.
答案 C
解析 细节理解题。根据第四段中的“Once                they dried,the walls were so hard that driving a 

nail into them would have been difficult.”可知,在土墙上钉子都钉不进去,可见在土楼的墙
上挖一个洞是很难的。故选            C。
12.What would be the best title for the passage?
A.One of UNESCO’s World Heritage List
B.The Function of Tulous
C.Yongding County and the Hakkas
D.The Special Earthen Architecture of Fujian
答案 D
解析 标题归纳题。本文主要介绍了福建省特殊的住宅建筑——土楼,现已被列入联合国教
科文组织的世界遗产名单。由此可知本文的最佳标题是                       The Special Earthen Architecture of 
Fujian(福建的特殊土建筑),即土楼。故选             D。

Ⅱ.七选五
(2018·河南豫西南部分示范性高中联考)
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    Health care is regarded as an important way to improve the health and well­being of people 
around the world.In many countries of the world,free health care is provided by the government.  
13  
    Clearly,we all have to pay for this service through our taxes.
      14   They say that people who take unnecessary risks should not receive this free health 
care.For example,people who join in risky activities such as skiing are more likely to have an 
accident.It has been suggested that these people should pay for any medical treatment they require.
      15   Firstly,it’s difficult to say exactly what is risky and what is not.For example,not 
doing enough exercise is probably more risky than skiing in the long run.As a result,it isn’t fair 
to give free health care to an inactive person and make the skier pay.  16   Clearly,these people 
should receive free medical treatment if they are hurt on the job.
    Finally,I would like to say that I think free health care is a good thing.I understand that the 
system is not perfectly fair because some people use it more than others.Besides,not all the 
medical treatment is really necessary for the health of the patient.The taxpayer should not have to 
pay the costs of such treatment.  17  
A.It offers plenty of money to run.
B.Personally,I disagree with this point of view.
C.However,some people think this is basically unjust.
D.This means that everybody has a chance to see a doctor.
E.Free health care will decrease the economy of the country.
F.Besides,firefighters take risks,but they are necessary risks.
G.However,in my opinion,this is a small price to pay for a healthier society.
语篇解读 文章主要谈论了人们对政府提供免费的医疗保健的不同看法。
13.答案 D
解析 由上文“In       many  countries of the world,free health care is provided by the 

government.”可知政府提供免费的医疗保健,可知               D 项这意味着每个人都有机会看医生,
符合上下文逻辑。故选          D。
14.答案 C
解析 由下文的“They        say that people who take unnecessary risks should not receive this free 

health care.”可知,有些人认为免费医疗是不公平的,故选                 C。
15.答案 B
解析 由下文的“Firstly,it’s difficult to say exactly what is risky and what is not.”可知,作
者不同意这种观点,故选           B。
16.答案 F
解析 由下文的“Clearly,these people should receive free medical treatment if they are hurt on 

the job.”可知,此处指因工作需要而受伤也应该享受免费医疗。F                      项中的消防员便是属于这
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一类的。故选      F。
17.答案 G
解析 由该段第一句可知,此处作者是赞同纳税人为免费医疗买单的,故                              G 项“However,
in my opinion,...”符合上文语境。故选       G。
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