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人教版新课标 高考英语第一轮复习教案 ---- 动词不定式

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高中英语审核员

中国现代教育网
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一.  教学内容:
    高考英语语法:动词不定式
    动词除了在句子中充当谓语外,还具有名词、形容词及副词的性质,可在句中作主语、
表语、宾语、定语、补语和状语等,称作非谓语动词,包括动词不定式、现在分词和过去
分词、动名词。今天我们主要讨论动词不定式。
    动词不定式的基本形式是“to+动词原形”,有时可以不带                     to。动词不定式没有人称和数
的变化,在句子中不能作谓语,但可以担任主语、表语、宾语、状语和宾语补足语。动词
不定式仍保留动词的一些特点。
(一)不定式的句法功能: 
  1. 作主语: 
    To make a speech here is an honor. 
    To lose heart means failure. 
    动词不定式短语作主语时,常用              it 作形式主语,如上两句可用如下形式: 
    It is an honor to make a speech here. 
    It means failure to lose heart. 
    常用结构:      It+be+ adj. /n. + for sb. to do sth. 
    It+be+ adj. + of sb. to do sth. =sb. be + adj. + to do sth. 
    (常见形容词:clever,   silly, foolish, stupid, wise, kind, rude, impolite, careless, cruel, crazy, 
etc. ) 
    It’s necessary for us to have a good knowledge of English. 
    It is foolish of you to make such a mistake. =You are foolish to make such a mistake. 
  2. 作表语: 
    Her wish is to become a novelist. 
    He appears to have caught a cold. 
    不定式一般紧跟在系动词如            be, seem, remain, appear 等后面,用来说明主语的内容。这
类结构中的主语一般为名词,如:idea, purpose, hope, plan, intention, wish, dream, etc. 
    My purpose is to teach them a lesson. 
    有时句子主语也可以是不定式或名词性从句。 
    To be strict with students is to be responsible to them. 
    What I want to do is (to )tell you the truth. 
    如果主语中含有       do 的任何形式,     那么不定式可以省去         to. 
    The only thing he could do was ( to) tell the truth. 

    比较: [来源:学科网 ZXXK]
    A 组: sth. +be +不定式(作表语)---表示主语的具体内容 
    sb . +be +不定式(作表语)---表示时态(将来时) 
    He is to tidy up the room. 
    His plan is to tidy up the room. 
    B 组:动名词和不定式在句中作表语的区别: 
    (1) 一般情况下,区别不大,可通用 
    Seeing is believing. =To see is to believe. 
    (2)动名词表示的动作较抽象或是习惯性的,                而不定式表示某次具体的动作. 
    My job is typing papers. 


    My job now is to type th ese papers. [来源:学*科*网]
  3. 作宾语: 
                  中国现代教育网     www.30edu.com  全国最大教师交流平台

    A. 动词+ to 不定式 
    常见动词: hope, wish, long, want, refuse, pretend, promise, agree, aim, decide, expect, offer, 
fail, plan, learn, manage, intend, desire, etc. 
    I longed to become an artist. 
    He helped (to) bring up the orphan. 
    B. 动词+(间接宾语)+疑问词+ to       不定式 
    常见动词: know, decide, wonder, learn, remember, understand, find out, etc. 
    I don’t know what to say to comfort her. 
    The farmer showed us how to milk the cow. 
    C. 动词+ it+宾语补足语+( for sb. )+ to 不定式: 
    常见动词:find, consider, think, make, feel, etc. 
    Marx found it important to study the situation in Russia. 
    I think it important for you to recite some English articles. 
    D. 介词  but, except 后可接 to 不定式作宾语。 
    注意:如句中谓语或非谓语部分含有                do,那么不定式可省去         to 
    Seeing the room crowded, I had no choice but to stand in the dark. 
    Seeing the room crowded, I could do nothing but stand in the dark. 
  4. 作宾语补足语: 
    A. 动词/动词词组+宾语+to       不定式 
    常见动词: want, wish, ask, tell, order, beg, allow, permit, help, advise, persuade, cause, force, 
warn, invite, urge, encourage, prepare, call on, would like, wait for, etc. 
    I got them to join us in the discussion. 
    They are waiting for the school bus to come. 
    B. 动词+宾语+不带      to 的不定式 
    常用动词: feel ; hear, listen to; make, let, have; see, watch, observe, notice, look at ;help(可
带  to 或不带  to)但改为被动语态时,不定式要加             to. 
    I saw him cross the road. 
    He was seen to cross the road. 
    比较: I saw him crossing the road. 
    He was seen _____the road. 
    I saw him carried downstairs. 
    He was seen ____ downstairs. 
  5. 作定语:
    A. 与被修饰名词构成动宾关系: 
    I have a meeting to attend. 
    He found a good house to live in. (如果不定式是 vi.,其后应有适当的介词. ) 
    如果不定式修饰       time, place, way,可以省略介词: 
    He has no place to live. 
    This is the best way to work out this problem. 
    注意:如果句子的主语不是不定式的逻辑主语,不定式就用被动语态表示。比较: 
    I am going to the post office, for I have a letter to post. 
    I am going to the post office, do you have any letter to be posted? 
    B. 与被修饰名词构成主谓关系: 
    He is the right person to do that job. 
                  中国现代教育网     www.30edu.com  全国最大教师交流平台

    He is the first to get here. 
    注意:不定式+介词修饰名词也可以转换成介词+关系代词(whom                         或  which)+不定式。
 
    Mary is a nice companion to travel with. 
    Mary is a nice companion with whom to travel. 
    I got a piece of paper to write on. 
    I got a piece of paper on which to write. 
    C. 说明所修饰名词的内容: 
    We have made a plan to finish the work. 
    Jane expressed a wish to earn her own living. 
  6. 作状语: 
    A. 表目的: 
    He worked day and night to pay off the debt . 
    She sold her hair to buy the watch chain. 
    注意:不定式逻辑主语与句子主语要一致: 
    To save money, every means has been tried. (×) 
    To save money, he has tried every means. (√) 
    = He has tried every means in order to/so as to save money. 
    = In order to save money, he has tried every means. 
    B. 表结果: 
    I visited him only to find him out. 
    Would you be so kind as to tell me the way to the garden Hotel? 
    His behavior is such as to make his friends angry. 
    The patient is strong enough to walk about. 
    too…to…结构 
    It’s too dark for us to see anything. 
    The question is too simple for him to answer. 
    注:对少数几个表示心情或倾向的形容词,如:glad,                    ready, pleased, willing, anxious, 
happy, satisfied, etc. 用于 too…to…结构时表示肯定意义。 
    They were too anxious to leave. 
    I am only/but too glad to do you the favor. 
    C. 表原因: 
    They were very excited to hear the news that their team had won the game. 
    7. 作插入语和同位语: 
    常见插入语:to tell (you) the truth/to be frank; truth to tell 实不相瞒;to start/begin with; to 
conclude; to make matter worse; to be more exact 确切地讲;to make a long story short 长话短说,
简而言之;to be fair 公平地说,凭心而论;to be sure      肯定地,毫无疑问地; 
    To tell (you) the truth, I don’t like the way _______he talked. 
    To make matter worse/___ ____, the computer broke down. 
    We have made a plan to finish the work. 
    Her wish to be an air hostess has never come true. 

(二)动词不定式的否定形式
    动词不定式的否定形式:not + to +         动词原形
                  中国现代教育网     www.30edu.com  全国最大教师交流平台

    He asked me not to make such a mistake. 

(三)动词不定式与疑问词连用
    疑问代词    who, what, which 和疑问副词    when, where, how, why 等后面可以接动词不定
式,构成动词不定式短语,可以在句子中作主语、宾语、表语等成分。
    (1) He doesn’t know how to use the machine. (不定式作宾语)


    (2) How to use the machine is a question. (不定式作主语)[来源:学科网]
    (3) The question is when to go there. (不定式作表语)

(四)不定式的时态: 
  1. 一般式
    (to)+动词原形:不定式的一般式所表示的动作或状态与谓语动词动作同时发生或发生
在谓语动词动作之后。 
    The policeman made the thief stand in the corner. 
    The play is said to be made into a film soon. 
  2. 进行式
    to    be+现在分词:不定式的进行式所表示的动作或状态与谓语动词动作同时发生。
(seem, appear, happen, pretend 等动词的结构中) 
    The boy pretended to be working hard. =The b oy pretended t hat he was working hard. 
    He seems to be reading in his study. =It seems that he is reading in his study. 
  3. 完成式
    to have +过去分词:不定式的完成式表示的动作或状态发生在谓语动词动作之前. 
    I regretted to have told a lie. 
    I happened to have seen the film. 
    The novel is said to have been translated into several foreign languages. 
    =It is said that the novel has been translated into several foreign languages. 
    比较: I must be off now. I am pleased to have met/meeting you all. (分手告别时) 
    Pleased to meet you, Mr. Cook. (初次见面时) 

(五)不定式的语态: 
    主动式和被动式 
    A. 如不定式的逻辑主语是动作的承受者,               不定式需用被动语态-to be +过去分词 
    He dislikes to be praised in public. 
    The only animal to be seen in the desert was the camel. 
    B. 主动的形式表示被动: 
    ①句中存在不定式的逻辑主语,             构成逻辑上的主谓关系: 
    The master gave his dog a few bones to eat. 
    I have a lot of papers to type. 
    (比较:I am free now. Do you have any papers to be typed?) 
    ②在“形容词+不定式”结构中,           如不定式与句子主语构成逻辑上的动宾关系,那么不定式
多用主动语态.      常见形容词:hard, difficult, easy, fit, cheap, expensive, interesting, etc. 
    The water is fit to drink. 
    The couch is comfortable to sit on. =It is comfortable to sit on the couch. 
    The sentence is easy _____ (explain). =It is________ 
                  中国现代教育网     www.30edu.com  全国最大教师交流平台

    ③在  there be 结构中,倾向于用不定式主动语态表示被动意义. 
    There is always much work to do in the house. 
    ④下列句子惯用不定式主动语态. 
    The house is to let/to be let. 这房子待出租。 
    He is not to blame. 他不该受责备。 
    但在  be + to 不定式以及    be likely to 结构中,如果主语是不定式所表示的承受者,那么
不定式仍需用被动语态。 
    The collection of poems is to be published within a year. 
    The results of the exams remain to be seen. 
    He is likely to be made monitor of our class. =It is likely that he is made …. 
(六)不定式的省略与保留。 
Ⅰ.  不定式符号的省略与保留: 
  1. 在 had better, would rather, would rather…than…, would sooner…than…, cannot but, why 
(not) 等结构后面的不定式符号          to 通常被省略。如: 
    You’d better tell her the truth. 
  2. 动词不定式短语作介词          but, except, besides 的宾语,且介词之前有行为动词         do 或其它
形式时,不定式符号         to 通常被省略。 
    What do you like to do besides swim? 
    My mother could do nothing but wait for the doctor to arrive. 
    Now he had given himself no choice but to tell her. 
  3. 两个或多个不定式短语表示并列关系时,后面不定式短语的不定式符号                             to 通常被省略;
如果表示对比关系,则不定式符号               to 通常保留。 
    They didn’t tell me whether to go on or to stop. (对比关系) 
    She told the child to stay there and wait till she came back. (并列关系) 
  4. 在某些感官动词或使役动词(如:hear,listen             to,  notice,observe, see, watch, 
make 等)之后充当宾语补足语的不定式中,不定式符号                     to 总是被省略,      但在被动语态的
句子中,不定式符号         to 通常保留。 
    They made that man work all the morning. 
    That man was made to work all the morning. 
  5.  不定式短语作表语,不定式符号             to 通常保留,但当      what 引导的名词性从句作主语,
或  all,everything 等后接定语从句作主语,从句谓语部分含有动词                  do 或 do 的其他形式时,
作表语的不定式可以保留也可省略不定式符号                    to。 
    The greatest happiness is to work for the happiness of all. 
    The only thing I can do is (to) go on myself. 

II. 不定式符号后面动词的省略与保留 
  1. 为了避免重复,在        hope,  wish,  want,   like, love,decide,  mean,  prefer, 
have to, be able to, be going to, used to, ought to 等动词及习语后面出现与上文相同
的不定式时,常保留不定式符号              to,而把其它部分省略。 
    Ms King lied to us because she had to. 
  2. 当不定式在     ask, advise, persuade, wish, allow, permit, tell, expect, force, invite, beg 等动
词后面充当宾语补足语时,           为了避免重复,      常保留不定式符号        to,而把后面的动词省略. 
    She wants to come , but her parents won’t allow her to. 
    If he doesn’t want to go there, don’t force him to. 
                  中国现代教育网     www.30edu.com  全国最大教师交流平台


    He didn’t come, though we had invited him to. [来源:Zxxk.Com]
  3. 在特定的上下文中,         为了避免重复,        如果不定式为一般式         to be…或完成式     to have 
done 时, 则不定式符号      to 和 be 或 have 常一并保留, be  或  have 之后的部分通常要省略. 
    ---Aren’t you the headmaster? 
    --- No, but I don’t want to be. 
    --- Hasn’t he finished the report? 
    --- No, but he ought to have. 
注意:    If you don’t want to do it, you don’t need to. 
    ---Ought I to finish the work today? ---Yes, you ought to. 
  1.  以上例句中的不定式符号           to 均不能省略。但如省略名词后的不定式时,to                 可以一起
省去。 
    Never will Tom miss school for no reason; he hasn’t the courage (to). 
    I will come as soon as I have got the chance (to). 
  2. want 和 would like 如用于从句中,to    通常可以省略。 
    Come whenever you want (to). 
    You can stay here as long as you like (to). 
  3. 如不定式带有系动词         be 或助动词   have, 则需保留    be 或 have. 
    ---Are you a teacher?---No, but I used to be. 
    --- Sorry, I haven’t finished my work yet. ---Well, you ought to have. 
  4. 另外两种省略      to 的情况. 
    ⑴  如主语部分含有动词         do,则作表语的不定式可省略          to 
    What I want to do is run a night school. 
    ⑵当两个以上的不定式并列使用时,除第一个不定式以外,其余的不定式一般要省略                                 to. 
    It is up to you to decide whether to stay or leave. 
    He wished to study medicine and become a doctor. 

【模拟试题】(答题时间:25                分钟)
  1. The discovery of new evidence led to _________. 
    A. the thief having caught       B. catch the thief 
    C. the thief being caught        D. the thief to be caught
  2. Though _______money, his parents managed to send him to university. 
    A. lacked         B. lacking of          C. lacking       D. lacked in
  3. He got well-prepared for the job interview, for he couldn’t risk ____ the good opportunity. 
    A. to lose      B. losing      C. to be lost   D. being lost
  4. _____ to sunlight for too much time will do harm to one’s skin. 
    A. Exposed    B. Having exposed     C. Being exposed      D. After being exposed
  5. ____ into use in April 2000, the hotline was meant for residents reporting water and heating 
supply breakdowns. 

    A. Put      B. Putting         C. Having put   D. Being put
  6. It was unbelievable that the fans waited outside the gym for three hours just ____ a look at 
the sports stars. 
    A. had      B. having          C. to have      D. have
  7. With a lot of difficult problems _______, the newly-elected president is having a hard time. 
    A. settled         B. settling         C. to settle         D. being settled   
                  中国现代教育网     www.30edu.com  全国最大教师交流平台

  8. More and more people are signing up for Yoga classes nowadays, ____ advantage of the 
health and relaxation benefits. 
    A. taking   B. taken           C. having taken D. having been taken
  9. Sandy could do nothing but ________ to his teacher that he was wrong. 
    A. admit        B. admitted        C. admitting     D. to admit
  10. He sent me an e-mail, ________ to get further information. 
    A. hoped       B. hoping        C. to hope      D. hope


                                                             [来源:Zxxk.Com]
                  中国现代教育网     www.30edu.com  全国最大教师交流平台

【试题答案】
  1. 答案为   C。
    【解析】      lead to 这个词组中    to 是介词,后面跟名词,于是          B 被排除,the    thief 是动
名词逻辑上的主语,构成动名词的复合结构,与                    catch 之间应是被动关系,故排除           A。常
见的带介词     to 的短语有:(get)   be used to, look forward to,look up to, stick to, object to, be 
devoted to, pay attention to 等。
  2. 答案为   C。  
    【解析】       lack 是及物动词,后接宾语         money。his parents 与 lack 是逻辑上的主谓关
系,要用现在分词作状语。译文:虽然缺钱,他的父母亲还是设法                            让他上了大学。 
  3. 答案:B
    【解析】      risk 后面只能带动名词作宾语,含义为“冒……之险”。
  4. 答案为   C。
    【解析】       在非谓语动词中,用动名词或不定式来作主语,而分词和介词短语不能作
主语,因此     A、D   被排除。在这个句子中,will do         是谓语,缺少主语,要用动名词作主语。
expose 与 one’s skin 是动宾关系,所以要用动名词的被动式              being exposed。译文:在阳光
下晒太长时间对人的皮肤有坏处。
  5. 答案:A  
    【解析】      put sth. into use “让……投入使用”。显然,put        和句子主语     the hotline 构
成被动关系,所以用表示被动的过去分词。
  6. 答案:C
    【解析】      动词不定式充当目的状语。
  7. 答案为   C  
    【解析】动词不定式         to settle 作为 difficult problems 的定语表示现在或将来要解决的难
题;过去分词      settle 作定语表示已经解决的难题,现在分词的被动式                  being settled 作定语表
示正在解决的难题。
  8. 答案:A 
    【解析】      take advantage of (利用)和句子主语     More and more people 构成主动关系,
且和句子谓语      sign up for  (报名参加)同时发生,所以选择          A。
  9. 答案为   A。
    【解析】      该句中的    but 是介词,后接动词不定式。当谓语动词是                do,does 或  did 时,
后接不带    to 的不定式;是其他动词时,后接带              to 的不定式。该句的谓语是          could      do 
nothing,要填动词原形      admit。译文:山德不得不向老师承认自己错了。
  10. 答案为   B。
    【解析】      现在分词     hoping 表示与  sent me an e-mail 同时发生的动作。一些考生认为
应该填不定式作目的状语。不定式作目的状语时,句子的正确形式是:He sent me an e-mail 
to get further information. 不需要 hope 一词,如果要选择“hoped”时,句子的正确形式是:
He sent me an e-mail and hoped to get further information。“hope”和“sent”作并列谓语。
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