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高中英语外研版复习课件:必修1 Module5 A Lesson in a Lab (共48张PPT)

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话题   A Lesson in a Lab(一堂实验课   )
功能   Using sequence(表达顺序)
语法   Degrees of comparison(比较等级)
                                    7.equipment n.设备 ,装备
     1.contract vi.& n.收缩;(订)合约
                                         →equip vt.装置
     2.float vi.漂浮
                                   8.astonished adj.吃惊的;惊愕
     3.expand vi.膨胀→expansion n.
                                   的→astonishing adj.令人吃惊的
重点   膨胀
                                     →astonish vt.惊讶,吃惊
词汇   4.mixture n.混合物→mix v.混
                                   →astonishment n.惊  ,惊奇
及拓   合                                              讶
                                   9.aim n.& v.目标;以……
 展   5.electricity n.电→electrical adj.
                                   为目标→aimless adj.漫无目的
        的,和    有关的→electric adj.
     电       电                                的
     发电   的,用电的
                                    10.balance n.天平;平衡
     6.reaction n.反应→react vi.反应
                                      →balanced adj.平衡的
     1.react with与……反应     5.be supposed to理应;应该
     2.add ...to往……加入     6.put...in order 使……整 ;
重点                                            齐
     3.used  to过去常常             使……有条理
短语
     4.be proud of因……而   7.keep ... out of 防止……进入
     自豪                      ;不让……靠近……
     1.It is hard to think of a world without metals.很难想象一个
     没有金属的世界。
     2.Here is a table with the metals that react most at the top,
重点   and the metals that react least at the bottom.
句型   这儿有一个图表,那些反应最强烈的金属在上部,反应
     最不强烈的在下部。
     3.The closer you are,the more you'll see.你靠得越近,你
     看到的就越多。
1.exist vi.存在;生存(无被动式和进行时)
归纳拓展
(1)There exists/existed...某地有……;存在……
exist in在于……
exist on=live on靠……生活/生存
(2)existence n.存在;生存
be in existence存在
come into existence开始产生,成立
bring into existence使产生
(3)existent adj.存在的;现行的
例句:We can't exist without food or water.
没有食物和水我们就不能生存。
I can hardly exist on the wage that I'm getting.
我靠我挣的工资简       直难以糊口。
When did the world come into existence?
世界是什么时候开始存在的?
    【链接训练】
    ①He doesn't believe in the ________ of God.
    A.life                 B.exist
    C.existence            D.exhibition
    【解析】      句意为:他不相信有上帝的存在。life“生命
”;exist      (v.)“存在,生存”;existence(n.)“存在”;
exhibition“展览”。根据句意选C。
    【答案】 C
    ②As  everyone knows,since the Communist Party of 
China ________ in 1921,great changes have taken place in 
China.
    A.came into effect     B.came into exist
    C.came into existence  D.came into power
    【解析】      考查动词词组辨析。句意为:众所周知,自
从1921年中国共产党成立后,中国发生了巨大的变化。come 
into existence“开始产生,成立”,符合题意。come           into 
effect“生效,执行”;come      into exist短语本身错误;come 
into power“上台,掌权”。
    【答案】 C
    2.conclusion n.结论,决定;结束,结局;协定,协
议
    归纳拓展
    (1)come to/arrive at/reach/draw a conclusion得出结论
    make a conclusion下结论
    bring...to a conclusion使……结束
    in conclusion总而言之;最后
    (2)conclude v.结束,断定,推断出
    例句:I've come to the conclusion that he's not the right 
person for the job.我断定他不适合做这项    工作。
    In conclusion, I would like to thank you for your coming 
to the meeting.
    最后,我对各位出席这次会议表示感谢。
    After waiting for half an hour, I concluded that he 
wouldn't come at all.
    等了半个小时后,我得出结论           ,他不会来了。
    【链接训练】
    The ________,I  think,he drew from his simple 
experiment is not scientific.
    A.conclusion B.charge C.promise D.relation
    【解析】     考查名词区别及动词搭配。这里考查draw              a 
conclusion“得出结论”这一固定短语,此题中conclusion提
前了。
    【答案】 A
    3.aim  n.[C]目标,目的;[U]瞄准 vt.瞄准,对准,
目标在于
    归纳拓展
    (1)take aim at瞄准,对准
    achieve/attain one's aim达到目的
    miss one's aim打不中目标/达不到目的
    without aim漫无目的地
    (2)aim at瞄准,对准;目的在于
    aim gun at把枪瞄准……
    aim to do sth.旨在做某事
    be aimed at针对;目的是,旨在
    (3)aimless adj.无目的的;无目标的;
    aimlessly adv.无目的地;无目标地
    例句:Teamwork    is required in order to achieve these 
aims.
    要达到这些目标需要团队合作。
    He aimed the gun at the bird.
    他用枪瞄准那只鸟。
    My sister aims to be a pilot when she leaves school.
    我姐姐立志毕业后要成为飞行员。
    【链接训练】
    The farmer built long fences,________keeping the wild 
dogs out of them.
    A.aim at B.aim for C.aiming at D.aiming for
    【解析】 aim     at“目标在于”,此题中用现在分词形
式作伴随状语。
    【答案】 C
    4.form n.表格;形式;外形;状态,精神 vt.             &  vi.
形成;构成;组织;养成;培养
    归纳拓展
    (1)fill in/out the form填表
    be in/out of form状态良好/不好
    in the form of...用……的形式
    take the form of...采取……的形式
    (2)form a good habit of形成一种……的好习惯
    form in line排好队
    form (=set up) a company创办公司
    form into组成……;编成……
    例句:He is filling in the application form.
    他正在填申请表。
    The team were in excellent form throughout the whole 
competition.
    这个队在整个比赛过        程中一直处于良好的状态。
    The cookies were all in the form of stars.
    那些饼干的形状像星星。
    They formed the habit of getting up early when in high 
school.中学时,他们养成了早起的习惯          。
    【链接训练】
    ________,the house is like the letter S.
    A.In form  
    B.In the form
    C.With form  
    D.In a form
    【解析】 in    form“在形式上”。句意为:形式上,这
座房子看起来像字母S。
    【答案】 A
5.balance n.天平,秤;平衡;收支差额,余额
v.平衡;斟酌,权衡
归纳拓展
(1)keep a balance between A and B 保持A与B均衡
keep one's balance保持(身体)平衡;保持镇静
lose one's balance失去平衡,心慌意乱(表动作)
be out of balance失去平衡(表状态)
in/on balance总的来说,权衡起来,两相比较
(2)balance A against B 权衡/比较A与B
(3)balanced adj. 保持平衡的;均衡的
    例句:Can you balance yourself on skates?
    你穿着溜冰鞋能保持身体平衡吗?
    You  should balance the advantages against the 
disadvantages before your final decision.
    在作出决定之前,一定要权衡利弊。
    His suggestion has,on balance,proved useful.
    他的建议总    的来说是有用的。
    He kept his balance with his arms on top of the wall.
    他在墙上用双臂保持平衡。
    【链接训练】
    There are both advantages and disadvantages in the 
scheme proposed,but ________ I think we should benefit by 
adopting it.
    A.on balance           B.out of balance
    C.on the balance       D.off balance
    【解析】      句意为:在这份提议的计划书中,优点和缺
点同时存在,但是两相比较,我认为我们应该取其精华。on 
balance“总的来说,权衡起来,两相比较”,符合题意。
    【答案】 A
1.add...to...往……加入……;把……加到/进……里
归纳拓展
add up sth. =add sth. up 把……加起来
add up to总共是;总计为(不用于被动语态)
add that...补充道……
add in算入;包括
add to增加;加到
    例句:Add some oil to the water.往水中加入一些油。
    Add your scores up and we will see who win.
    把你们的分数加起来,我们就可以看出谁赢了。
    The continuous rain added to our difficulty in rebuilding 
the dam.
    持续的降雨增加了我们重修大坝的困难。
    【链接训练】
    —Did little Kate help you with the work yesterday?
    —Why?Yes.But  her  help,as a  matter of fact,
________my difficulty.What a naughty girl!
    A.added up to          B.added up 
    C.added to             D.added
    【解析】      考查短语add    to“增加,添加”的用法。句
意为:——昨天小凯特帮助你工作了吗?——什么?是的。但是
事实上,她的帮助增加了我的困难。她是个调皮的小女孩!
add up to“合计为,总计为”;add up“把……加起来”。
    【答案】 C
    2.used to do sth.过去常常做某事
    归纳拓展
    (1)It used to be said that...过去人们常说……
    There used to be...过去有……
    (2)be/get used to (doing) sth.习惯于做某事(to为介词,后
跟名词、代词或动名词)
    be used to do sth.被用来做某事(use在此为“使用”之意
,是其被动语态,后跟不定式)
    例句:I   used to go to the cinema a lot,but I never get 
the time now.我过去常看电影,但现在根本没时间           。
    Did there use to be a hotel on that corner?
    那个拐角处过     去有家旅馆吗      ?
    The old man gets used to walking after supper.
    这位老人习惯     于晚饭后散步。
    Wood can be used to make tables.
    木材可用来制造桌子。
    同类辨析
                   used to do与would
    (1)used to do只有过去式,表示过去常做的事或过去的状
态。主要与现在比较,暗示现在不再这样了。
    (2)would用来表示过去反复出现的动作。多有时间状语
加以限定,意为“总是”,不表示过去存在的状态。
    例句:He used to go fishing on Sunday.
    过去他常在星期天去钓鱼。(现在已不去了)
    On Sundays he would come to my college to see me.周日
他总是来学校看我。
    【链接训练】
    ①You  didn't use to like him much when we were at 
school, ________?
    A.were we  
    B.weren't we
    C.did you  
    D.didn't you
    【解析】 考查含有used to的反意疑问句的用法。
    【答案】 C
    ②I________in the house which________books and 
magazines.
    A.am used to live;used to keeping
    B.used to live;has been used to keeping
    C.having been used to living;was used to keep
    D.used to live;is used to keep
    【解析】      句意为:我过去曾经在现在存放书和杂志的
房子里住过。第一个空表示“过去住过”要用used                 to do sth.
的形式;第二个空表示“被用来做……”要用be                 used to do的
形式。
    【答案】 D
    3.keep...out of...使……进不去;不让……进入;把……
挡在外面
    归纳拓展
    keep away离开,避开
    keep back退缩;隐瞒;留(扣)下;阻止
    keep sb. from (doing) sth.阻止某人做某事
    keep up (with) 跟上;不落在后面
    keep it up不松劲,照原样继续下去
    keep off让开,避开
    keep on doing sth.继续做某事
    keep on with (doing sth.)继续(做某事)
    keep out把……关在外面;阻止入内;不参加
    例句:This will keep air out of the water.
    这会把空气阻挡在水之外。
    I have always tried to keep out of their quarrel.
    我总是尽可能的不卷入他们的争吵中。
    You won't be able to keep the truth from her father.
    你是瞒不了她父亲事实真相的。
    It's hard to keep up with the changes in computer 
technology.要跟上电脑  技术的变化是很难的。
    【链接训练】
    A certain percentage of your salary is ______ by the 
employer as an insurance payment.
    A.kept away            B.kept out
    C.kept back            D.kept up
    【解析】      句意为:你薪水的一定的百分比被雇主留下
用于支付保险金。keep           back“扣留,留下”,符合题意。
keep away“远离”;keep    out“使……进不去”;keep        up 
(with)“跟上”。
    【答案】 C
    It is hard to think of a world without metals.
    很难想象一个没有金属的世界。
    归纳拓展
    (1)It is /seems /feels...+adj.+to do句型中it用作形式主
语,真正的主语为动词不定式。
    (2)It be+adj.+for sb.to do sth.句型中表语说明不定式行
为的特点,常见的形容词有easy,hard,difficult,important
,necessary,expensive,impossible,possible 等。
    (3)It be+adj.+of sb.to do sth.句型中作表语的形容词是
对 sb.及其行为的评价,此类形容词有 good,kind,nice,
wise,wrong,clever,brave,honest 等。
    (4)It be+adj./n.+that从句
    例句:It seems only reasonable to ask students to buy a 
dictionary.
    要学生买一本词典,好像也没什么不合情理的。
    It's careless of you to make so many mistakes in this 
exam. 
    在这次考试中你出了这么多错,真是太粗心了。
    It's difficult to finish the task in such a short period of 
time. 在这么短的时间    内完成这项     任务很困难。
    Is it true that the Smiths are emigrating?
    史密斯一家要移民,这是真的吗?
    【链接训练】
    —Do you think Jack is to blame?
    —Yeah,it was very rude ________ facial paper to the 
guests at the table.
    A.of him to throw      B.for him to throw
    C.that he threw        D.enough to throw
    【解析】      此题是“It's+adj.+for/of sb.to do sth.”句
型。rude是对杰克及其行为的评价,所以介词选用of,故选A
。
    【答案】 A
          形容词和副词的比较级和最高级
基本用法:
(1)表示倍数的三个句型
①...times as+adj./adv.原级+as...
②...times the+性质名词+of...
③...times+adj./adv.比较级+than...
例句:This table is three times as big as that one.
=This table is three times the size of that one.
=This table is twice bigger than that one.
这张桌子是那张桌子的三倍大。
    (2)同级的比较,用as...as,the same as,such...as引导。
    例句:Henry is as good a worker as Peter (is).
    =Henry is such a good worker as Peter (is).
    亨利和彼得一样都是好工人。
    (3)“比较级   +and+比较级    ”结构(两个同义形容词的
比较级   ),表示“越来越……”的意思。
    “the+比较级    ,the+比较级    ”结构,表示“越……就
越……”。
    例句:As   time goes on,the boy is getting more and 
more diligent.这孩子的勤奋与日俱增。
    The busier he is, the happier he feels.
    他越忙越感到高兴。
    (4)“the+比较级   +of the two”意为“两者之中更……
的一个”。
    例句:The   larger of the two islands is Britain,which 
lies to the east of Ireland.
    两个岛中较大的是大不列颠岛           ,位于爱尔兰东       部。
    (5)比较级  和否定词连    用,意为“最……不过”。
    例句:The situation couldn't be worse.
    形势再糟糕不过。
    They have never seen a movie better than this one.他们
从未看过这    么好的电影。
(6)注意no+比较级    +than句型的特殊含义。
A is no more careful than B.
A和B两人都不仔细。
A is no less careful than B.
A和B两人都很仔细。
A is not more careful than B.
A不如B仔细。
A is not less careful than B.
A的仔细程度并不弱于B。
(7)一个人的两种性质的比较,用“more...than...”结构。
例句:—Ann acts quite unfriendly.
安表现得相当不友好。
—I think she's more shy than unfriendly.
我认为   与其说她不友好,不如说她害羞。
(8)比较的对象不能相互包容。
    例句:The   Mississippi River is longer than any other 
river in the United States.
    密西西比河比美国其他任何一条河流都长。
    China is larger than all the other countries in Asia.
    中国比亚洲的其他任何国家都大。
    China is larger than any country in Africa.
    中国比非洲的任何一个国家都大。
    (9)比较的对象应该      相同。
    例句:The    weather here is warmer than that of 
Shanghai.
    这里的天气比上海的暖和。
    The radios made in our factory are better than those 
(made) in your factory.
    我们工厂制造的收音机比你们工厂的要好。
    (10)常见的修饰比较级      的修饰语    有rather,much,still
,even,far,any(用于否定句或疑问句),a          lot,a little,a 
great deal,by far,a bit,slightly等。
    例句:The students study even harder than before.
    学生们学习比以前更努力了。
    A car runs a great deal faster than a bike.
    汽车比自行车跑得快多了。
    This problem is a bit harder than that one.
    这个问题    比那一个稍难。
    This article is a little more hard than those ones.这篇文
章比那些稍难一点儿。
    (11)注意比较结    构中的省略现象。
    在日常交际中,彼此都明白的比较对              象往往省略。这种
省略现象给正确判断造成一定的障碍,高考题中出现率较高
,应引起足够的重视。
    例句:—What do you think of the film?
    你觉得这部电影怎么样?
    —I have never seen a better one.(后边省略了than this 
film)我没有看过比这部更好的了。
    Tom's composition,if not better(省略了than Jack's),is 
at least as good as Jack's.
    汤姆的作文如果不比杰克的更好,也至少和杰克的作文
一样好。
    【链接训练】
    ①—Do  you think the weather is good enough for an 
outing?
    —Yes, you couldn't hope for ________ at this time of the 
year.
    A.the nicer day        B.a nicer day
    C.the nicest day       D.a nice day
    【解析】      考查形容词比较级与否定词连用,表示最高
级含义的用法。you couldn’t hope for a nicer day at the time 
of the year.“在一年中的这个时候你不可能再期待比这更好的
日子了”。
    【答案】 B
    ②—This house looks beautiful,doesn't it?
    —Well,I'd rather have a house ________ to look,but 
________ to live in.
    A.not beautiful;most comfortable
    B.less beautiful;more comfortable
    C.less beautiful;most comfortable
    D.beautiful;comfortable
    【解析】      后半句句意为“我宁愿房子看起来不是那么
漂亮,但住起来更加舒服”。前后要一致,故选B项。
    【答案】 B
    ③—Is this your second car?
    —Yes.Blue is always my colour.It is a little________but 
still fits________into the garage.
    A.wider;easily         B.widest;more easily
    C.wider;more easily    D.widest;easily
    【解析】      考查比较级。第一空表示这辆车和以前的车
相比较,用形容词的比较级;第二空所填词修饰动词“fit”,
应用副词,无比较之意,因此选A。
    【答案】 A
    ④Though  he started late,Mr Guo played the piano as 
well as,if ________,Miss Liu.
    A.not better than      B.not better
    C.no better than       D.no better
    【解析】      句意为:虽然郭先生钢琴学得晚,可是他弹
得即使不比刘小姐更好,也至少和她一样好。因为有Miss                   Liu
作宾语,than不可以省略,所以排除B和D;no  better than表
示“两者都不好”,而本题是说郭先生弹得不错,故排除C项
;not better than表示“不比……更好”。
    【答案】 A
    ⑤John  is the tallest boy in the class,________ 
according to himself.
    A.five foot eight as tall as  B.as tall as five foot eight
    C.as five foot eight tall as  D.as tall five foot eight as
    【解析】 five    foot eight意为“五英尺八英寸”,放在
as tall as后表示个子的高度。
    【答案】 B
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