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专题四    阅读表达
内容索引


                            题型分析

                            策略指导

                            真题诊断

                           随堂限时练
题型分析
   阅读表达的题材和体裁与传统的阅读短文没有太大的区别,长度
也大致相同或者比传统的阅读短文略短,文章的结构层次性更强。
   问题类型多样。总的来讲,大约有6种问题类型,即5+X:
1.主旨概括题:它要求概括出文章的某一段、或整篇文章的大意、标题
或作者的写作意图等。
出题方式主要有:
(1)What is the main idea of the article/Paragraph 1?
(2)What would be the best title of the passage?
(3)What is the purpose of writing the text/passage?
(4)What does the passage mainly talk about/discuss?
(5)For what purpose does the author mention...in Paragraph 1?
2.同义句替换题:它要求根据所给出的英文句子,寻找短文中意思相同
的句子。
出题方式主要有:
(1)Which sentence in the passage can be replaced by the following one?
(2)Which sentence in the text is the closest in meaning to the following one?
(3)Please find out the sentence which can be replaced by the following one.
3.完成句子题:它要求利用上下文,将短文中的空白处用合适的词、短
语或句子补充完整,使短文通畅。
出题方式主要有:
(1)Please fill in the blank in the passage with proper words.
(2)Fill in the blank in Paragraph 3 with proper words.
4.句子翻译题:它要求将短文中划线的句子翻译成通顺的汉语。
出题方式主要有:
Translate the underlined sentence in the...paragraph/passage into Chinese.
5.封闭型问题:结合文中具体依据进行回答。
出题方式主要有:
(1)What advice is given in the third paragraph? (no more than 10 words)
(2)According to Paragraph 2,how does the author settle the problem?
(no more than 20 words)
(3)What are the reasons for the problem according to the passage? (no
more than 10 words)
6.开放型问题:结合个人观点态度进行表述。
出题方式主要有:
(1)What would you do if you were...?
(2)How would you solve the problem if you were...?
(3)What other suggestions would you give to solve the problem mentioned?
策略指导
1.主旨概括题
这类问题要求我们理解全文后对文章标题或大意进行概括。我们要做到:
(1)在概括标题时,要做到精辟、简洁,注意书写格式和词数限制。标题可以概括成
短语,有时也可是一个短句。书写时有三种形式:①标题的开头字母大写,其他所
有字母都小写;②标题第一个单词和实词的首字母要大写;③全部字母都大写。可
任选其一。
(2)在概括文章大意时,我们要从整体上把握作者的观点、态度,捕捉与题目相关的
信息。抓住文章的首尾段和各段的首尾句是做好该题的关键。
2.同义句替换题
做此类题目时一定要分析所给句子的结构、含义、实际用意,在文章
中找句子时一定要通读上下文,切不可断章取义。找到的同义句必须
准确、全面,不能增加或减少内容。在抄写过程中一定不能出现漏掉
单词、字母、标点符号等现象。
3.完成句子题
语境和上下文之间的逻辑关系是回答该类问题的关键。语句间的逻辑
性是我们解决这类问题的着眼点,要找出语句间的一些递进、并列、
对比、转折、因果等的关系,在理解全文的基础上把握上下文之间的
逻辑关系,要充分考虑整句话的语言环境,特别注意上下、前后句子
的弦外之意,确定需要填写的是短语还是完整句子,并注意书写时的
问题,如大小写等。该类问题的词数要求会比较少,所以语言一定要
简练;做完题目后一定要用“代入法”进行验证,看是否符合文章逻
辑和作者的意图。
4.句子翻译题
做此类题目要分析句子结构,遵循忠实通顺的原则,表达完整;注意
英汉语序的差异,译文要符合汉语表达习惯;关键词务必要翻译出来,
语言要简练。
5.封闭型问题
面对该类问题,我们可以结合文中的具体依据进行回答,答案是固定
的、唯一的。
6.开放型问题
面对该类问题,我们可以依据自己的看法结合对原文的理解作出回答,
注意扬长避短,避难就易。
真题诊断
                      1  (2018·天津)
   Some people live to climb the highest mountains.Some people live
only dreaming about it while others live to avoid ever climbing at
all.But one thing is certain,all people encounter mountains in their life.
   When  I was a little girl,my family moved to a tiny town at the
bottom of a big mountain.One day after school,while exploring the
green woods of this magnificent mountain,I almost fell on a set of
stairs.What could these steps lead to?Curiosity got the best of me as I
knew it would be starting to get dark soon.I started climbing up those
strangely mysterious steps.
    I climbed and climbed.There was nothing but just green bushes
and these steps.I had to reach the top! But it was now getting real dark.
If I kept going I might not be able to see my way back.My mum would
be worried sick if I didn’t come home soon.So I ran back home
almost in the dark while trying not to get too scared.
    Anxiously I went to bed dreaming about what I would find at the
top of this magical mountain.Could there be a castle up there?Maybe
I would find a monster(怪物).Maybe I was taking the risk of never
coming back home.Or,maybe all I would find was absolutely nothing!
But something inside me was going to climb that mountain at all cost.I
could hardly wait to try this adventure again.
    Now we live in a world surrounded by the “can’t do” attitudes.
We all fall down. We all have doubts and regrets.Still we must climb
and dream about what’s at the top of our mountain.Monsters may
appear or the night will fall.But never ever give up on your dream!
Never let anyone tell you,“You can’t.” Dream big and climb high!
56.What made the author start to climb up the stairs to the mountain
top?(no more than 5 words)
_________________________________________Curiosity made her do so./The desire to explore.


                56 57 58 59 60                        答案
57.Why did the author hurry back home without reaching the top of
the mountain?Give two reasons.(no more than 15 words)
____________________________________________________________Because it was getting dark,and she didn’t want her mother to
____________________________________________________________worry about her./Because she was scared,and might not be able to
_________________________find her/the way back home.


                56 57 58 59 60                        答案
58.How would you describe the author in terms of personalities
according to Paragraph 4?(no more than 10 words)
____________________________________________________________She had rich imagination and she was brave./She was a brave and
____________________________________________________________determined girl with rich imagination./She was imaginative and
____________________________________________________________determined , and she dared to explore./She was imaginative ,
__________________________adventurous and determined.


                56 57 58 59 60                        答案
59.How do you understand the underlined sentence in the last
paragraph?(no more than 5 words)
____________________________________________________________We all sometimes fail./We face failure/defeat/hardships/challenges in
____________________________________________________________life./There are difficulties/barriers/obstacles in life./We run into
_____________________________________trouble sometimes./We have trouble in life.


                56 57 58 59 60                        答案
60.What’s your attitude towards the “mountain” in your life?
Please explain.(no more than 20 words)
____________________________________________________________I will try to reach my goal because I want to live an exciting life./I will
____________________________________________________________try to reach/get to the top of the “mountain” because I want to be
_______________successful in life.


                56 57 58 59 60                        答案
                      2  (2017·天津)
   In the years of my growing up,Dad was strict with me.He made
sure I made my bed and did my homework.He would call in advance to
make sure there was no alcohol at the party.I got so angry with him for
laying down the law.I would scream,“I hate you!”Dad would yell
back,“Good!I  don’t care!” Deep down I knew he did.
   One time at a party,I drank too much alcohol and got so sick.I
said,“Call my dad.”Next thing,Dad was carrying me to the car.I
woke up the next morning,thinking I would definitely be criticised.As
expected,I got a roasting,but I now understand why I needed discipline.
    Dad was 29 when he got his big roles in films.I had an early start
at the age of nine with a role in a 1990s TV series,but it wasn’t until
I finished film studies that I pursued my career as an actress.Like those
early days for Dad,I faced lots of rejections.Working in such a
competitive industry,I’ve sometimes thought,“I can’t do this
any more.”
    Once,after a trip to Hollywood,I returned to Australia so
depressed and spent months in my bedroom painting,listening to
Eckhart Tolle’s music and trying to find myself again.Dad sat me
down and said,“Alice,I  know it’s hard,but it’s all about
persistence(坚持不懈).”
    Now I get to work with Dad a lot,which I love.We are both
passionate about acting,which comes from us being so interested in
people.If it weren’t for Dad,I wouldn’t be where I am today.
He’s my biggest fan,and when you have that in your life you can go
a long way.
56.What rules did Alice’s father set for her when she was growing up?
(no more than 15 words)
____________________________________________________________She should make her bed,do her homework and drink no alcohol./
_______________________________________________________Making her bed,doing her homework and drinking no alcohol.


                56 57 58 59 60                        答案
57.What does the underlined part in Paragraph 2 mean?(no more
than 5 words)
________________________I got/was criticised/scolded.


                56 57 58 59 60                        答案
58.What did Alice’s father do when she felt depressed?(no more
than 5 words)
__________________________________He encouraged/comforted/inspired her.


                56 57 58 59 60                        答案
59.According to the last paragraph,what do Alice and her father have
in common?(no more than 10 words)
_______________________________________________________They are both passionate about acting and interested in people.


                56 57 58 59 60                        答案
60.What do you think of Alice’s father?Please explain.(no more than
20 words)
____________________________________________________________He is a good/devoted/caring/loving father because he was strict with
____________________________________________________________his daughter and encouraged her when she was in trouble.或He is
____________________________________________________________always supportive/a source of strength.Whenever she is in trouble,
________________he is there for her.


                56 57 58 59 60                        答案
                       3  (2016·天津)
    I’m a 34-year-old man,married,live in a nice house,and have a
successful career as an educational consultant.But my life was not always
so great.I had a learning disability from an early age.I went to a special
school where I got plenty of extra help.Still,I suffered the rest of my
school days in public schools.
    My life improved remarkably when I discovered art.The art world
gave me a chance to express myself without words.I went to a workshop
and gradually got good at making things with clay(黏土).Here I learned
my first important lesson:disabled as I was in language,I could still be
smart and well express myself with clay.And my confidence came along.
    I got my next lesson from rock climbing.It was a fun thing but I
was scared from the start.I soon noticed it wasn’t a talent thing; it
was practice.So I did it more.After about five years of climbing,I
found myself in Yosemite Valley on a big wall.I learned that if you fall
in love with something and do it all the time,you will get better at it.
    Later I decided to apply my previous experience to learning how
to read and write.Every day I practiced reading and writing,which I
used to avoid as much as possible.After two hard years,I was literate.
    Having gone through the long process with art,rock climbing,
and reading and writing,now I’ve got to a point in my life where I
know I am smart enough to dive into an area that is totally unknown,
hard,but interesting.
56.What made the author’s school days difficult?(no more than 5
words)
____________________________________________________________His learning disability./Or:Having a learning disability./Or:That
_______________________________________________________he was learning disabled./Or:That he had a learning disability.


                56 57 58 59 60                        答案
57.Why did art give the author confidence? (no more than 10 words)
____________________________________________________________Because he could be smart and express himself with clay./Or:
____________________________________________________________Because art could help him express himself without words./Or:
_____________________________________________Because he could well express himself with clay/art.


                56 57 58 59 60                        答案
58.What lesson did the author learn from rock climbing? (no more
than 15 words)
____________________________________________________________If you enjoy something and keep doing it,you will get better at
____________________________________________________________it./Or:The more you practice something,the better at it you will
___________________________________________________________become./Or:Practice makes perfect./Or:Practice leads to success.


                56 57 58 59 60                        答案
59.What is the meaning of the underlined part in Paragraph 4? (no
more than 5 words)
____________________I could read and write.


                56 57 58 59 60                        答案
60.How does the author’s story inspire you to overcome difficulties in
life? Put it in your own words.(no more than 20 words)
____________________________________________________________We should not lose heart in face of difficulties.If we work hard,we
____________________________________________________________will find a way out./Or:The author’s story tells me that I should
____________________________________________________________be confident and practice hard to overcome difficulties in my life./Or:
____________________________________________________________We should overcome our weakness and fears with courage and
_____________determination.


                56 57 58 59 60                        答案
随堂限时练
                           1
(2018·天津部分区县二模)
    Marga Allen might be around 93 years old.However , she
wouldn’t put her feet up.Every week,she leads a 90-minute fitness
class in her community for her ladies,and the youngest of them is
60.The class is a mixture of Scottish dancing , line-dancing and
routine.“I want to make it fun for them,” says Marga,“I’ve
been teaching classes since 1965.” At that time,8 ladies attended her
class,but now there are as many as 18.
   And when Marga isn’t out,she is a writer of poetry.She has
written six books and is now going on the seventh.“I write in the
evenings,about anything and everything,” says Marga.In writing
about her life,Marga isn’t short of materials.Born in the 1920s’,
Marga was a gifted pianist from a young age and even won a
scholarship to the Royal College at the age of 14.Marga stopped work as
a railway worker when she had the first child.Then she was a volunteer
of the Red Cross for more than 40 years.
    She now has four grandchildren and four great-grandchildren;the
youngest of them is just six-month old.In spite of her astonishing activity
level for her age,Marga says that loneliness is the concern of society and
that all the things she does still don’t fill up her time.
    Whenever she gets lonely or down,she picks up the phone and
chats with friends,which makes her in high spirits.“I miss people most
of all.But a lot of people are lonely,and I’d love to help them all.”
1.Why does Marga Allen give a fitness class in her community each
week?(no more than 10 words)
__________________________________________She intends to make her ladies’ life interesting.
解析   根据第一段中的“I       want to make it fun for them”可知,她开
办这个课程是想让她的朋友们生活得有趣。


                1  2 3 4  5                     解析    答案
2.Why doesn’t Marga Allen lack materials when writing about her
life?(no more than 12 words)
___________________________________________________She has experienced a lot,doing various things in her life.
解析   由题干中的“materials    when writing about her life”可定位至
第二段第四句,而其后的内容则讲述了不缺少素材的原因,即她有丰
富的人生经历。从她的人生经历来看,她经历过很多的事情,做过多
种工作,所以她不缺素材。


                1  2 3 4  5                     解析    答案
3.What does the underlined part in Paragraph 1 mean?(no more than
10 words)
__________________________________She doesn’t want to have a rest/break.
解析   前文说她九十三岁了,however“然而”表转折;后文说她每
个星期还要上健身课。可以猜测这句话的意思是她闲不住。


                1  2 3 4  5                     解析    答案
4.What does Marga Allen usually do when she feels depressed?(no
more than 5 words)
__________________________________She communicates with her friends.
解析   根据最后一段第一句可知,当她感到孤独或沮丧时,她就拿起
电话和朋友聊天。


                1  2 3 4  5                     解析    答案
5.What do you think of Marga Allen? And why? (no more than 25
words)
____________________________________________________________She’s old but active and kind.Because though 93-year-old,she does
______________________________________a lot to fill up her time and cheer up others.
解析   本题可根据提问和自己对文章的理解表达自己的观点,然后阐
明理由,言之有理即可。


                1  2 3 4  5                     解析    答案
                           2
    She had to pack up her bedroom in Virgina Beach,where she
lived with her mother,two sisters and brother.She had to say goodbye
to her two dogs,who used to sleep in her bed,and to the beach,
where she loved to ride waves on her boogie board.
    But it was time to take the leap,however,heartbreaking and
awkward it would be.Even at 14,Douglas knew that.
   So off she went about 1,200 miles to West Des Moines,Lowa,to
train with a coach from China and live with a white family she had
never been met.When she arrived,Douglas thought that she must be
the only black person in the state.When she woke up,she always said,
“This isn’t my bed set.Where am I?”
   Liang Chow,who had coached the Olympic gold medalist Shawn
Johnson,transformed Douglas into one of the best gymnasts in the
world,helping her skyrocket from an average member of the national
team to the top of the sport.And a couple with four young daughters
became her second family,nurturing her in Iown while her real family
supported her from afar.
    That move also was important in Douglas’s making history.By
winning the Olympic all-round title,she became the first black woman to
do so.She also became the fourth American woman to win the all-round,
following Mary Lou Retton in 1984,Carly Patternson in 2004 and Nastia
Liukin in 2008.
    Douglas won,scoring 62.232 points,and led the competition from
beginning to end.Viktoria Komova,who sobbed into her coach’s chest
when she learned she had lost,won the silver,with 61.973 points.Aliya
Mustafina,the 2010 world all-round champion,won the bronze with
59.566 points.The other American in the competition,Aly Raisman
finished fourth after losing a tiebreaker(决胜局) to Mustafina.
    Douglas said she had felt confident all along that she would
win.“It was just an amazing feeling,” she said,giggling(咯咯笑).
“I  was  just like , believe , don’t fear , believe.” After
sacrificing(牺牲) so much,she had no other choice but to push
forward,she said.
6.Why did Douglas leave her home at 14?(no more than 10 words)
_______________________________________Because she needed training to be a gymnast.
解析   根据第三段第一句“So        off she went about 1,200 miles to West
Des Moines,Lowa,to train with a coach from China and live with a
white family she had never been met.”可知,道格拉斯在十四岁时离
开家是因为她需要接受成为一名体操运动员的训练。


                6  7 8 9  10                    解析    答案
7.How did she feel when Douglas first arrived at the new home?(no
more than 5 words)
______________She felt uneasy.
解析   根据第三段中的“When        she woke up,she always said,‘This
isn’t my bed set.Where am I?’”可知,当道格拉斯第一次来到新
家时她感到很不安。


                6  7 8 9  10                    解析    答案
8.What does the underlined word “skyrocket” in Paragraph 4 most
probably mean?(no more than 3 words)
_______________________________________Soar./Rise rapidly./Increase suddenly/greatly.
解析   根据画线词所在句可知,Liang         Chow帮助道格拉斯成为一个世
界上最优秀的选手,帮助她扶摇而上。


                6  7 8 9  10                    解析    答案
9.According to Para.5,what achievement did Douglas make?(no
more than 15 words)
______________________________________________________She is the first black woman to win the Olympic all-round title.
解析   根据第五段第二句“By        winning the Olympic all-round title,
she became the first black woman to do so.”可知,道格拉斯是第一个
赢得奥运会全能冠军的黑人女性。


                6  7 8 9  10                    解析    答案
10.What do you think of Douglas from the story?Give your reasons.
(no more than 20 words)
____________________________________________________________She is strong-minded.After she won the game,she said “I was just
_________________________________like,believe,don’t fear,believe.”
解析   开放性问题,结出自己的理解,言之有理即可。


                6  7 8 9  10                    解析    答案
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