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广东省廉江市实验学校人教版高一英语必修4Unit 4 Body language

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                           Unit 4 Body language

I.单元教学目标

                       技能目标      Skill Goals
Talk about body language: cultural differences and intercultural communication
Practise talking about prohibition & warning as well as obligation
Learn to use the -ing form as the Attribute &Adverbial
Learn to write a diary that showing the observation of how body language helps 
in communication

II.  目标语言
       Talk about body language
       What is the purpose of language?
       What do you think “body language” means?
       How can you tell if someone is sad or happy even if they do not speak?
 功     How can you communicate a feeling to someone who does not speak your language?
       Why do we need to study body language?
 能     Talk about cultural differences & intercultural communication
       What do British people often do when they meet strangers?
 句     What do French people often do when they meet people they know?
       Why should we be careful about our own body language? 
 式     Why is it important to watch others as well as listen to them?

      1.四会词汇 
      Represent, association, canteen, dormitory, flight, curious, approach, major, 
 词    misunderstand, dash, adult, crossroad
      2.认读词汇 
 汇    unspoken,, Jordan
      3.词组
      be likely to, in general, not all, turn one’s back to, lose face

      4.重点词汇
      represent, introduce, approach, touch, express, nod, avoid, misunderstand, punish, 
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      general, curious, similar, expression, agreement, gesture, action
      The -ing form as the attribute && adverbial
      Finding out in the reading text sentences with present participle(s) used as the attribute 
      or adverbial.
      1. The -ing form as the attribute
 语    They are visitors coming from several other countries, ...
 法    His nose touches Mr. Cook’s moving hand, ...
      This is an exciting experience for you, ...
      2. The -ing form as the adverbial
      ... so you stand watching and listening.
      Four people enter looking around in a curious way.
      You see her step back appearing surprised, and take a few steps away from Mr. Garcia.
      The visitor from Japan comes in smiling at the same time as George Cook from 
      Canada.

Ⅲ.   教材分析和教材重组
1.  教材分析
本单元以     Body Language——“体态语”为中心话题,具体涉及什么是“体态语”,如何理
解“体态语”,以及“体态语”的跨文化性等。本单元的语言技能和语言知识也都是围绕
“体态语”这一中心话题设计的,旨在通过单元教学,用听、说、读、写、做(表演)等多
种形式,让学生正确认识和掌握“体态语”在交际中的作用和意义,使学生明确“体态语”
在人类交际中的重要性,了解“体态语”在不同民族、不同文化交际中的多样性;使学
生在今后的日常生活、学习、工作和交往中尽量减少或避免运用“体态语”时可能产生
的误解,提高他们的“语言交际”能力和“非语言交际”能力。
1.1 WARMING UP   以列表对比(填充及增补)的形式,并通过                    WARMING UP   的活动,
让学生了解有声语言与“体态语”的对应关系,了解语言意义与行为意义(“体态语”)在
交际中具有同等重要的作用。同时,学生在听、说、做(即表演“体态语”的动作)中
能够增进对语言交际的感性认识,为他们在阅读过程中上升到对语言交际的理性认识
打下基础。

1.2 PRE-READING   通过提供三个关于不同文化背景下“体态语”的问题,启发学生思考
我们所学习的“语言”的目的、形式、功能。通过引导学生联系自己日常生活的实际,
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提高学生努力学习英语的积极性和自觉性;同时培养学生留心社会、关注生活的洞察

力,为引导学生进一步“阅读”作好准备。
1.3  READING    是一篇介绍性(记叙文)体裁的文章,主要介绍了各种文化背景下的
“体态语”的异同,为学生提供了来自不同国度、不同语言文化背景的“体态语”及其在交
际中的异同和影响的具体例证。学生也可以结合自己在语言交际中所遇到的实际例子

来进一步理解“交际,毫无问题可言吗?”这一主题。
1.4 COMPREHENDING     包括八个问题(前        5 个旨在检查学生对阅读材料细节的理解,
6~7 旨在引导学生对“体态语”的意义及文化差异的思考,第                       8 个检查学生能否通过细节
进行推理判断),通过对来自不同国度、不同语言文化背景的六个角色对待男女不同

性别所使用的“体态语”异同的(学生在老师指导下的自我或小组讨论后的)归纳,进
一步熟悉和掌握“体态语”在不同语言文化交际中的作用和意义。
1.5 LEARNING ABOUT LANGUAGE        分词汇和语法两部分。词汇部分由“本单元重点
词汇英文释义”,“词语填空”和“词性变换”三项内容构成,语法部分由两大方面组成:
一是让学生自己通过在课文中寻找相关语法的句子并按其语法功能分类,二是根据学
生的认知规律安排该语法项目的练习让学生进行操练。整个项目通过三个练习和一个
游戏,以及语法结构讲练,进一步巩固本单元所学词汇(尤其是课文中的黑体字),

学习“现在分词”结构用作定语和状语,并通过操练,以收到“学以致用”、“熟练生巧”的
效果。

1.6 USING LANGUAGE     通过增加阅读篇目“Showing         Our Feelings”来拓展学生在“体态
语”方面的知识视野,并通过“True”            or “False”判断练习和问题讨论,使学生进一步明确
“体态语”对人们在日常交际中了解对方情感、思想、态度等方面所起的作用。同时要
让学生认真对待自己的“体态语”,并在日常交际中“听其言”(Listen                         to them)、“观其
行”(Watch    them)。此外,该部分还通过听、说、读、写四个方面来巩固本单元所学
内容和语言交际项目。

1.7 SUMMING   UP  师生从话题、词汇和结构三个方面来共同总结本单元所学的单词和
短语,语言及语法项目,总结本单元所学的主要内容和收获。

1.8 LEARNING   TIPS 建议学生关注实用交际技巧,学会“体态语”;建议学生在看英语
电影时或与以英语为母语的人士交谈时,观察对方面部表情和体态姿势,观察对方的

“言”、“行”,进而形成有效的口笔头语言及“体态语”的交际能力。
2. 教材重组
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   2.1 精读    把 Warming  up 作为  Reading 的导入部分,把        Pre-reading、Reading 和
            Comprehending 整合在一起作为一堂“精读课”。
   2.2 知识点学习      把 Reading 的知识上一节“知识课”。
   2.3. 语言学习    把  Learning About Language 上一节“练习课”。
   2.4 语法学习     把 Discovering useful structures 上一节“语法课”。
   2.5 听力和阅读     Using Language 的 Listening 和 Reading 上一堂 “听力课
                 加泛读课”。
   2.6 口语和写作      将 Using Language 的 Speaking 和 Writing 上一堂“写作课”。
3.  课型设计与课时分配
    1st period      Warming up and Reading
    2nd period      Language points
    3rd period      Using Language
    4th period      Grammar
    5th period      Listening & Reading
    6th period      Speaking & Writing
Ⅳ.   分课时教案
                           Warming up and Reading
Teaching goals 教学目标
1. Target Language 目标语言
a. 词汇和短语
  major, local, represent, curious, Columbia, introduce, approach, touch, cheek, stranger, 
  spoken, express, action, Jordan, nod, general, avoid, comedy
b. 重点句子
  Yesterday, another student and I , representing our university’s student association, went to 
  the Capital International Airport to meet this year’ international students.
  …I saw several young people enter the waiting area looking around curiously.
  She stepped back appearing surprised and put up her hands, as if in defence.
2. Ability goals 能力目标
a. Enable the students to realize the importance of body language.
  What is the purpose of language?
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  What is the purpose of body language?
  How can you tell if someone is sad even if they do not speak?
  How can you communicate a feeling to someone who does not speak your language?
b. Enable the students to understand the text.
  Where are the visitors from?
  How do Mr. Garcia from Columbia and Julia Smith from Britain response when they are 
  introduced to each other?
  What do Mr. Cook and the Japanese visitor do as they are introduced?
  How can people express themselves besides their spoken language?
  Do all cultures greet each other the same way?
  Do English people and other Europeans act the same when they first meet?
  Is a handshake very common in Japan?
  Is a kiss often used in France when people meet?
  Why are there different kinds of body language?
c. Enable the students to retell the text in their own words.
3. Learning ability goals 学能目标
Help the students learn how to explain the common idea—“different cultures, different body 
languages” with the target language in this unit.
Teaching important points 教学重点 
How does body language differ among people from different cultures?
Teaching difficult points 教学难点
The understanding of the poorly-written reading text, especially the relationship awkwardly 
built up between “you” and the other people in the text, who are met by the awkward 
arrangement of the compilers of the textbook.
Teaching methods 教学方法
Skimming method, task-based method, role-play method.
Teaching aids 教具准备
A recorder, a projector ,some pictures and a computer.
Teaching procedures & ways 教学过程与方式
Step I Lead-in
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1. The teacher shows ways of communicating:
  Spoken language  speaking  ringing


  Written language  writing  typing


  Body language  facial expression  gesture  action


2. What is body language?
  Body language is one form of nonverbal communication (非言辞交际) without using 
  words. Eye contact or gaze, facial expression, gesture, and posture (姿势), or the way you 
  stand, are different kinds of body language.
  Some psychologists believe that we communicate 65% of our ideas and feelings without 
  words! The shape of our bodies and faces, the movements and gestures we make, the 
  clothes we wear, how near we stand to each other and whether we touch each other … all 
  these communicate. 
3. Facial expressions


  Look at the following facial expressions, and try to tell us what his feeling is.
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Step II Introduction
Gestures
Do you know what these gestures mean? Look at the pictures and discuss with your partner 
what the man is trying to say.


 Good!     Bad!


Come here!  Me?       I don’t know!


ok             stop            silent        well done
What else gestures do you know?


victory     applause

Step Ⅲ Warming up

T: Look at Page 25. 
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What are these people communicating? 
Read the following statements. Choose a phrase and act it out without speaking. Can your 
partner guess what you are trying to communicate?
“Hello”  “Goodbye” “Come here” 
“Go away!”              “Expensive!” 
“I’m surprised!” “I’m tired.” 
“I’m confused.”     “OK!”
“Good luck!”        “I’m delighted!” 
“I’m upset!”          “I’m sad!” 
“I forgot!”            “You’re great!”

Step Ⅳ Pre-reading

1. What is the purpose of language?
2. How can you communicate with someone if you cannot speak? Give 
  an example.
3. There are many different ways to greet someone using words. How many ways can you 
  think of to greet someone if you cannot speak? 
  Keys: The purpose of language is to communicate with other people. 
        I can use body language to communicate with someone if I can’t speak. For 
        example, if I’m angry, I might turn away and not talk to others. If I’m happy to see 
        someone, I might smile and hold out my hand or open my arms.


        Ways to greet someone without words: smile, wave, shake hands, hug, kiss, [来源:Z。xx。k.Com]
        etc.
Step V Predicting
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T: Look at the picture and the title of the passage on page 26. What do you think the topic will 
  be?


Step VI Reading[来源:Zxxk.Com]
1. First-reading
I. Read the passage and divide the whole passage into several parts and find out the main idea.
  Part 1.  (Para. 1)
  Meet the visitors at the airport.
  Part 2 (Para. 2 and 3)
  People from different countries express greetings in different ways.
  Part 3. (Para. 4) 
  Different peoples have different body languages.
  Part 4. (Para. 5)  
  Summary of body language.
  Try to write down the main idea of the text.
  The text is mainly about different _____________ in different countries. In order to avoid 
  difficulties in   today’s  world   of    cultural crossroads,  we    should 
  ___________________________. 
  Keys: body language  study international customs


2. Second-reading[来源:Zxxk.Com]
  Read the passage again and choose the best answers.
  1. In which of the following countries do people greet each other in the same way?
    A. Jordan and Italy.   
    B. China and Japan.     
    C. Canada and Colombia.
  2. From the text, we can know that _____.
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    A. people are likely to keep the same distance in different countries
    B. men from Britain often stand close to others to shake hands
    C. people are facing multicultural communication problems
   Keys: A C
3. Careful reading
  How do different international students behave when they greet people? Complete the chart 
  with information from the passage.

      Name      Description      Body Language      To  Whom

    Tony Garcia                                     everyone

                                 no touching         

               man from Japan     

    George  
    Cook

                                                    to men  
                                                    to women

                                 shake hands and kiss 
                                 twice on each cheek                       


4. Post-reading[来源:Zxxk.Com]
  I. Answer the following questions.
  1. Is the author of this passage male or female? How do you know?
  2. What were the two mistakes that the author noticed ? 
  3. Who seemed to prefer to keep more physical distance from others? Who seemed to 
    prefer closer physical distance?
  4. Did any students have similar greeting customs? If so, which ones?
  5. “When in Rome, do as the Romans do.” What do you think this famous saying means?
    Keys: The author is male. Ahmed Aziz will not shake hands with women, but he shakes 
          hands with the author.
          He noticed that the Colombian man kissed the British woman, but in her culture, 
          a kiss from a stranger is not acceptable. He also noticed that the Japanese man 
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          bowed  just as the Canadian man started to shake hands, so one man’s nose 
          touched the other man’s hand.  
          The British woman, Julia, and probably the Canadian man, George, seemed to 
          prefer to keep more physical distance from others. The Colombian man, Tony, 
          and the Jordanian man, Ahmed, seemed to prefer closer physical distance. 
          Yes. Tony from Colombia and Darlene from France had a similar greeting 
          custom—a kiss. George from Canada and Ahmed from Jordan also had a similar 
          greeting custom—a handshake, but Ahmed shakes hands only with men.
          This saying means that when we are in a certain place, we should follow the 
          customs of the people who live in that place, not our own customs.
  II. Decide if the following statements are true (T) or false (F). 
    1. Englishmen often stand close to others or touch strangers as soon as they meet.
    2. Most people around the world now greet each other by kissing.
    3. Japanese will bow to others as greeting.
    4. People from Jordan will move very close to you as you introduce yourself to 
     them.
    5. Some body languages in some countries are good while some countries’ body 
     language are bad.
    6. People from different countries may have a major misunderstanding while 
     greeting each other.
    7. The physical distance from each other that people are comfortable with generally 
      depends on the culture.
    8. All members of a culture behave in the same way.
  Keys: FFTF FTTF
Step VII Discussion
1. If you meet a foreigner who comes up close to you to talk, what countries might he be from? 
  How can you show him that you are uncomfortable with that?
2. What are some situations where body language is the only form of 
  communication? Why?
3. Discuss ‘Do you agree with the author’s statement that body language is not good or bad? 
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  Why or why not?’    
Step VIII Homework
Talk about body languages you usually use.

                          Language points in Reading

StepⅠ Revision

Free talk about the topic: 
the Importance of Body Language. While the student on duty gives the presentation, the 
teacher can simultaneously approve his or her performance by using the body language 
learned or familiar to the students such as nodding the head, stretching out the hand with 
thumb up, shrugging the shoulders, etc.

Step Ⅱ Language points

1. Yesterday, another student and I, representing our university’s student association. 
   阅读下列句子,注意          represent 的意思用法。
   1) The rose represents England.
   [自我归纳] 
   represent 作___词, 意为“_________”(句   1)
   Keys: 动    象征,  表示
  2) He represented our school at the meeting.
  3) He represented himself as a wealthy man, but in fact he was a poor man.
  “______________” (句 2), 后多跟名词或代词等; represent oneself as    意为“假称是、装
   作”(句  3);
   Key: 作为......的代表
  4) Let me try representing my idea to you in English.
  另外还可意为“__________”       (句 4), 多用于短语     represent sth. (to sb.),意为“(向某人)
  陈述、说明、阐述”。
  Key: 陈述,   阐述
  [拓展] 
  representative 作名词,是可数名词,意为“代表”;
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  作形容词,意为“有代表性的、典型的”。
  翻译下列句子。

  1. 鸽子通常象征着和平。
  2. 他假装自己是英语专家。 
  3. 我想向你说明一下我迟到的原因。
  Keys: The dove usually represents peace. 
       He represents himself as an expert in English.
       I would like to represent the reason why I was late to you.
2. After half an hour of waiting for their flight to arrive, I saw several young people enter the 
  waiting area looking around curiously.   
  curiously 副词“好奇地”,    其形容词为     curious。
  curious  adj.  = eager to learn or know
  be curious about sth.  对……好奇
  be curious to do sth.   急于……
  out of curiosity       出于好奇 
  e.g. The tourists were surrounded by the curious children.
     Don’t be curious about everything. 
  People have always been curious ________ how living things on the earth exactly began.  
  A. in        B. at          C. of          D. about
  本题考查了      be curious about sth.结构。
3. Tony approached Julia, touched her shoulder and kissed her on the cheek.
  1) 阅读下列句子,注意          approach 的用法。
  1. Someone is approaching our car.
  2. She approaches everything in a new way.
    approach 作_____ 动词,   意为“___________” (句  1)、“___________” (句 2);
    Keys: 及物    接近,  靠近      着手处理,     开始对付
  3. Summer is approaching.
  4. The approach of the exam is making him nervous.
  5. Let’s try another approach.
    也可作_______动词,      意为   “_____________________”(句 3); 
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   还可以作___词,      意为“_____”(句   4)、“_____” (句 5)
   Keys: 不及物      接近,  靠近;   即将达到 
         名    来临      方法
 6. All approaches to the city are cut off.
   “_____”(句 6), 作“方法”、“通路”、“入口”讲时,          多与介词     to 连用。
   Key: 通道
  用  approach 的适当形式填空。
  (1) The dog is ___________ my little child.
  (2) With the _________ of winter, the weather grows colder.
  (3) They ___________ the birds quietly and watched them.
  (4) It is one of the best __________ to studying English.
  Keys: approaching  approach  approached  approaches
 2) touch  vt.   
   a. 触摸,  接触,   触及,  轻触
   e.g. I told you not to touch my things.
   b. touch sb.
   感动(某人)触动某人(某人的感情)
   e.g. Her miserable experiences touched us all deeply / touched our hearts.
      她的不幸经历让我们深受触动/              触动了我们的心弦。
   c. 接触,联系       n.
   get / keep in touch with sb.  与……取得/保持联系
   be in/ out of touch (with sb.)    与……有/无联系
   e.g. We’ve been out of touch for years.
4. Not all cultures greet each other the same way, nor are they comfortable in the same way 
  with touching or distance between people.
  各种文化背景下的人相互问候的方式不尽相同,身体接触和相互间距的程度也
  不尽相同。

  此句中, not all 意为   “并非全都……”表示部分否定。
  英语中有一些表示“全体”或“完全”意义的总括词,                      如 all,  every   (及 everybody, 
  everything 等), both, always, quite, wholly, entirely, altogether, completely 等,含有这些
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  词的否定句并非表示全部否定,而表示部分否定。

  e.g. Not all explanations are correct. 并不是全部的解释都正确。
  区分:

  All explanations are not correct. 
  所有的解释都是不正确的。

  e.g. Not everything in the book is caught by me. 
     我不能完全掌握书中的内容。
     Everything in the book is not caught by me. 
     书中所有的内容我都不能掌握。
     Not both children are clever. 
     并不是两个孩子都聪明。

     Both children are not clever. 
     这两个孩子都不聪明。

5. In the same way that people communicate with spoken language, they also express their 
  feelings using unspoken “language” through physical distance, actions or posture.
  (1) that 引导的是方式定语从句。The way that/ in which/或不用关联词。
  (2) using 引导的是状语, v-ing   做状语。
  spoken English      口语
  written English     书面语
  English-speaking countries  讲英语的国家
  1. I don’t do well in _____ English.
    A. speaks          B. to speak     C. spoken          D. speak
  2. We must practise __ English every day.
    A. to speak       B. speak   C. in speaking        D. speaking
  Keys: C D
6. However, people from places like   Spain, Italy or South American countries approach 
  others closely and are more likely to touch them.   
  阅读下列句子,注意          likely 的意思和用法。
  1. The weather is likely to be fine.
  2. He is likely to be late.
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  3. It is likely that he will succeed.
  [自我归纳] 
  likely 意为“可能的、有希望的、预料的”;             常用结构有: _________________ (句     1、句
  2) 和  ________________(句 3)。
  Keys: be likely to do sth.
       It is likely that ...
  — Would she mind playing against her former teammates?      
  — ______ She is willing to play against any tough players.  
  A. I think so.   B. I’m not surprised.   C. Of course.    D. Not likely!
  选  D。根据答语“她乐意和任何强劲的对手比赛”可知她不可能(not                         likely)介意与前
  队友进行比赛。
  likely, probable, possible 
  possible 常常用于下列结构: 
  It is possible for sb. to do sth. 
  It is possible that 从句  
  主语不能是人

  probable: 常用于结构:
  It is probable + that 主语不能是人, 几乎不能说      it is probable to do sth.
  根据提示,完成下列句子。
  1. _____________ (很有可能) that it will rain. 
  2. ______________________________  (我们很可能犯错误) when we learn 
    English.
  3. ____________ (我有可能) finish the work within a week.
  Keys: It is very likely
       We are very likely to make mistakes 
       I am likely to
7. In general, though, studying international customs can certainly help avoid difficulties in 
  today’s world of cultural crossroad!
  general  1) adj. 普遍的,全面的
  e.g. A matter of general concern/ interest  普遍(公众)关心/感兴趣的事情
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     Air-conditioner is in general use now.
  2) 总的,整体的
     in general    大体上,  通常,  总的来讲
     e.g. In general, he is a good guy.
     generally speaking  一般而言,  总的来说
     e.g. Generally speaking, this may be true.
        Generally speaking, we enjoyed the trip.
   类似用法的有:frankly speaking        honestly speaking

Step Ⅲ Exercises

I. 根据下列各句句意及所给单词的首字母或汉语提示,                      写出该单词的正确形式。
1. I’ll book you on a direct _____ (航班) to London.
2. The light wind gently brushed his ______ (脸颊).
3. She knows very little Japanese; this often leads to _________________ (误解) when she 
  visits Japan.
4. Not only children but also ______ (成年人) like the film.
5. Please turn right at the next _________ (十字路口), and you will see the station.
6. The soldier gave his life in d______ of his country.
Keys: flight   cheeks   misunderstandings   adults  crossroads  defence
II. 用括号内所给单词的适当形式填空。
1. The competition attracted over 600 competitors ___________ (represent) 10 different 
  countries.
2. She asked him ________ (curious) why he had that hobby.
3. The time is ___________ (approach) when we must leave. 
4. He ______ (dash) out without telling us where he was going.
5. I thought she was his wife — I must have _____________ (misunderstand).
6. Do you practise ________________ (speak) English every day?
7. It is _____ (like) that he will do the job well.
Keys: representing  curiously  approaching   dashed   misunderstood 
     spoken / speaking   likely
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Step IV Homework
Finish the exercises on the workbook.

                           Learning about Language 
Step I Find the word from the text for each of these meanings.
1 action of defending oneself against an enemy’s attack
2 very probably
3 European country that is shaped like a boot
4 small restaurant provided by a school for its students or by a company for its employees
5 to be chosen to speak or act in place of someone
6 to run or travel somewhere in a great hurry
7 to come nearer to something or someone from a great distance 
8 group of people organized for a special purpose
9 either side or the face below the eye
10 the act of flying, especially scheduled on a plane
Keys: defence   likely  Italy   canteen   represent   dash   approach
      association    cheek    flight
Step II Complete the passage with the words below in their proper forms.
approach     cheek      contrary   curiously dash    Jordan       
misunderstand
Joan was sitting in the park. A tall, dark woman __________ her, singing loudly. She looked 
as if she was from a Middle Eastern country, maybe ________.
After a minute, the woman stopped and started hitting her own ______. Joan watched 
_________, thinking that the woman seemed a little crazy. Suddenly, the woman saw Joan 
and _______ over to her. Joan then realized that she had ______________ the woman’s 
actions – she wasn’t crazy. She was, on the ________, asking for help to kill a bee!!!
Keys: approached  Jordan  cheek  curiously  dashed
     misunderstood   contrary
Step III Use words from the box to complete the paragraph below.
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adult      crossroads    major      greeted  flight  spoken   dormitory   
association Colombia     curious    representing
Julie was at a __________. She had just graduated from university and was ready to begin 
life as an independent _______. She had already received some great job offers from several 
______ companies and was very excited about the opportunities. While cleaning out her 
__________ room on her last day at university, she received an unexpected phone call. The 
caller _______ her in careful English and then introduced himself as _____________ an 
international __________. He had met Julie a few weeks ago at a job fair and was impressed 
with her _______ English. The only difficulty was that his company was in the country of 
__________. Julie was _______ to find out more, so after talking with her parents that 
evening, she booked a _____ to South America.
Keys: crossroads    adult   major   dormitory   greeted   representing
     association
Step IV Homework
Preview the grammar.

                                  Grammar
Step I Structure Study
一:  V-ing 形式由    “do+ing” 构成,   其否定形式是       “not doing”, V-ing 可以带宾语或状
语构成    V-ing 短语,  没有人称和数的变化,          但有时态和语态的变化。
    V-ing 形式在句中作定语和状语是本单元的学习重点。
1. 作定语 
   V-ing 形式可以单独充当名词的前置修饰语,                 这时有两种情况。
   1) -ing 形式表示    “供作......之用”的意思,    这类作定语的-ing      形式叫动名词。
       A swimming pool
    = a pool for swimming
2) -ing 形式表示   “......的” 意思, 叫现在分词
   A sleeping child 
   working people 
   the rising sun
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   -ing 形式短语作定语时一般放在它所修饰的名词之后,                       相当于一个定语从句。如: 
   They are visitors coming from several countries. 
      The boy standing there is a classmate of mine.
2. 作状语
   可以表示时间,       原因,  结果,条件,    行为方式或伴随动作等。
   Attention Please 
   -ing 形式作状语时,      它的逻辑主语必须与主句的主语是一致的。
   Time permitting, I will pay a visit to the whole city. 
 (分词的逻辑主语是         time , 而句子的主语是       I , 两者不构成主谓关系,        所以只能用独立
   主格结构,     也就是给现在分词补充一个主语。)
Step II Exercise
1. Sarah pretended to be cheerful, _____ nothing about the argument.     
  A. says           B. said  C. to say         D. saying
2. _____ around the fire, the tourists danced with the local people. 
   A. Gather   B. To gather     C. Gathering        D. To be gathering
3. Sit down, Emma. You will only make yourself more tired, _____ on your feet. 
  A. to keep      B. keeping   C. having kept    D. to have kept
4. Do you wake up every morning _____ energetic and ready to start a new day? 
  A. feel    B. to feel    C. feeling  D. felt
5. More highways have been built in China, _____ it much easier for people to travel
  from one place to an-other. 
  A. making       B. made    C. to make              D. having made
6. _____ at my classmates’ faces, I read the same excitement in their eyes. 
    A. Looking                    B. Look  
    C. To look                     D. Looked
7. Dina, _____ for months to find a job as a waitress, finally took a position at a local 
   advertising agency.  
    A. struggling     B. struggled    C. having struggled  D. to struggle
8. Lots of rescue workers were working around the clock, _____ supplies to Yushu, Qinghai 
   Province after the earthquake. 
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   A. sending      B. to send  C. having sent         D. to have sent 
9. It rained heavily in the south, _____ serious flooding in several provinces. 
  A. caused       B. having caused   C. causing          D. to cause
Keys: DCBCA ACAC
Step III Homework
Do “Using Structures” on Page 64.


                               Using Language
Step I Warming up

Enjoy the pictures–facial expressions.


       fearful                                 happy
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             sad                                     angry
Go on enjoy body languages.


handshake        hug                bow
Step II Discussion
1. What is the function of body language?
2. What role do you think the body language in our daily life play?
3. Are all the body languages the same in the world? What do you know about them?
Showing our feelings


Step III Skimming
Which of the following can best express main idea?
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A. Only gestures without spoken language may cause misunderstanding.
B. Some body languages or gestures are the same throughout the world.
C. Different gestures stand for different feelings, wishes or attitudes while many are universal.
D. It is important to give attention to the differences in body language.
Key: C
Step IV Careful-reading
Read the passage carefully and decide whether the sentences are true or false. 
1. Body language is never as powerful as spoken language.
2. If you are angry at a person, you might turn your back to him or her.
3. You can threaten a person by refusing to speak.
4. You should not greet your new boss by giving her or him a hug.
5. Body language is the same all over the world.
6. Most people can understand each other if they try.
Keys: FTFTFT
Fill in the blanks below according to the text. 

Feelings               Body language

Happiness              ▲smiling

Anger or unhappiness   ▲__________ and turning one’s back to someone

                       ▲making a(n) ______ and shaking it

Agreement              ▲nodding the head up and down

Disagreement or refusal ▲_______ the head from side to side

Boredom                ▲looking away from people or ________

Interest               ▲turning toward and __________ someone or something

Respect                ▲not giving a(n) ______ to a boss or teacher

                       ▲not standing too close to someone of a higher ______
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                       ▲standing at a little distance with ______ hands


Keys: frowning  fist   shaking   yawning    looking at   hug  rank open
Universal body languages
A smile shows happiness and puts people at ease.
If someone “loses face” they may smile to hide it.
A smile can hide other feelings, such as anger, fear or worry.
Step V. Post-reading
Use what you have read in the passage and answer the following questions.
1. How can we know others’ feelings, even if they do not speak to us?  
2. Why should we be careful with our body language?  
3. Why is it important to watch as well as listen to others?  
4. What are some jobs in which using body language is extremely important?  
Keys: We can watch the expressions on people’s faces; we can see whether they face us or 
     look away; we can observe how they hold their arms and hands; we can see whether 
     they are close to or far away from others. Are they smiling, frowning, shrugging, 
     holding their arms in front of them or touching other people?
     We should be careful of our own body language, as we must be sure not to be impolite 
     in other cultures, and we need to communicate without being misunderstood.
     We need to watch other people because they may be communicating one idea in words 
     and a different one in body language.
     Body language is very important in any job where clear communication with others is 
     necessary. For example, teachers and medical care people should have good clear body 
     language; anyone who is interviewing people for jobs (and the people being 
     interviewed) should communicate clearly; anyone giving orders or directions needs 
     good body language; people working in diplomatic jobs and in some government jobs.
Step VI. Language points
1. It is possible to “read” others around us, even if they do not intend for us to catch their 
  unspoken communication.                       
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  我们可以了解别人,         即使有时他们并不想要我们了解他们没说出来的语言。
  even if 是连词词组,    用来引导让步状语从句,          意为   “尽管;   即使”。
  注意:   若主句与从句皆表示将来情况, even if           从句可用一般现在时代替将来时。
  e.g. We have decided to visit the Museum even if it rains tomorrow.                                
     我们决定明天参观博物馆,            即使天下雨。
     Even if I leave now, it’ll be too late. 


     即使我现在离开,        我也会迟到的。[来源:Z.xx.k.Com]
     She understood what I was talking about, even though it was the first time we had 
     spoken together. 
     即使那是我们第一次谈话,她还是明白了我在谈什么。

  辨析:    even if 与 even though
  even if 从句所说的不肯定,        而  even  though 从句所说的则是事实。
  e.g. He will not let out the secret even if he knows it.                                                        
     即使他知道这个秘密,          他也不肯说出来。(他对秘密知道与否不一定)
     He will not let out the secret even though he knows it.                                           
     他虽然知道这个秘密,          却不肯说出来。(他知道这个秘密)
2. Looking away  from people or yawning will, in most cases, make me appear to 
  beuninterested.
  如果把眼光从某人身上移开,             或者打了个哈欠,       这就会让人知道我不感兴趣。
  look away from = not look at …  不看, 不注视
  e.g. Don’t look away from me when I’m speaking to you.    
     当我和你说话时看着我,           不要看别处。
  [开放思想]
  look at  看; 视为 
  look back  回头看;   回顾
  look down on/upon  轻视, 瞧不起
  look for 寻找
  look forward to  盼望 
  look into 调查
  look out  小心          
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  look on  旁观
  look over 仔细检查
  look through  浏览
  look up  仰视;  在词典,   参考中查找
  e.g. Just look at what you’ve done!    瞧你干了些什么!
     The old like looking back on the past. 老年人喜欢回顾过去。
     I wish you wouldn’t look down upon/on this kind of work. 
     我希望你不要看不起这类工作。
     We are looking forward to seeing you again. 
     我们盼望再见到你。

     The police are looking into the accident. 
     警察正在调查这件事。

     In that case we will not look on with folded arms.
     在那种情况下,       我们不会袖手旁观。
  yawn
  1) v. 打呵欠
  e.g. She yawned during the lecture because it was boring.                                   
      她听课时打哈欠,        因为这堂课很乏味。
  2) n. 哈欠
    e.g. He gave a yawn and then fell asleep.                             
       他打了一个哈欠之后就睡着了。
3. If I roll my eyes and turn my head away, I most likely do not believe what I am hearing or 
  do not like it.
  most likely 在这里是省略: it is most likely that。 
Step VII. Exercises
用括号内所给单词的适当形式填空。

1. The importance of his ideas is that they represent the ________ (spoken) opinion of the 
  silent majority.
2. His _____ (face) expression shows he is angry now.
3. He stood up, stretched and _______ (yawn).
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4. He took a _________ (subject) view of the problem.
Keys: unspoken  facial  yawned  subjective 
Step III. Listening
1. Look at the following pictures, can you guess the correct order of the pictures below? 


Look at the following expressions may help your listening.
You may not...           Always stay...
Keep away from...     Do not... 
You should never...   Look out!
You must...                Watch out!
You will need to ...    Be careful when…
You’ll have to…     You’ll be fined 200 yuan
2. Listen to the tape and write down the correct order.
Answer: 2  1  3  4  6  5
3. Listen again and then answer the questions. 
1) From whom did Lin Pu buy the car?
2)What did the cyclist tell LinPu to do?
3) What did the policeman tell LinPu to do?
Keys: From his brother-in-law.
     To pay for his apples. At least Lin Pu should pick the apples up.
     To pay a fine by the end of the month for breaking the traffic rule. 
Step IX. Group Work
Work in groups of three act the story you just heard. Act it out once without speaking. Then 
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act it a second time with words. The following words may help you.
You may not...           Always stay...
Keep away from...     Do not... 
You should never...   Look out!
You must...                Watch out!
You will need to ...    Be careful when…
You’ll have to…     You’ll be fined 200 yuan
Scene 1 Lin Pu and his brother-in-law


                  bought a car from his brother-in-law


Scene 2               driving nervously for the first time


Scene 3
Lin Pu and a cyclist


Scene 4                  Lin Pu, the cyclist and a policeman
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Lin Pu and the cyclist quarreled, and a policeman walked towards them.


Scene 5                    Lin Pu, the cyclist and the policeman
The police made Lin Pu pay the fine.
Step X Homework
Finish exercises on the workbook.

                             Speaking & Writing
Step I Speaking
One of your classmates came in this morning looking very upset about something, but you 
cannot imagine what it is. Discuss with a partner what body language or behaviour made you 
think there was a problem.
A: I think that there’s something wrong with Lin Pei. When she came in today, she kept her 
face down and wouldn’t speak.
B: Yes, when I saw her in class, she…
Step II Writing
如何用英语写表达关切之情的信

Your classmate left very quickly after class, so you want to write him/her a short letter to ask 
about what is wrong and whether you can help. Use the structure on the right to help you.
Dear (friend’s name),
(1st paragraph: describe the body language that you noticed)
 (2nd paragraph: ask if something is wrong; perhaps make some guesses)
(3rd paragraph: offer to help; remind him / her that you are a good friend)
                                (closing),
                                (your name)
本单元要求给同学写一封信表示关心。此类作文属于应用文。如题目所示,首先要通
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过表情、行为或其他肢体语言描述朋友离开时的情景;其次提出疑问或猜测,表示对
朋友这种异常行为的关注;最后提出帮助,表达自己的关切之情。
写作时应注意下面几点:

1. 确定文体:属于应用文中的书信。
2. 主体时态:文章以一般过去时和一般现在时为主。
3. 主体人称:以第一人称和第二人称为主。
4.  内容要点:①情景描述;②询问理由或做出猜测;③自然的结尾(表示关心或提出
帮助)。
写作要求

1. 注意信的格式。
2. 要明确写信的对象。只有对象明确了,表达关切之情的内容才好安排。
3. 语言要亲切、生动,感情要充沛、真挚。
4. 注意主题突出,语言简练。
语言积累

Body Language:
looking sideways; blinking; avoiding some one’s eyes eyebrows slightly pushed 
together; 
head down, white face nodding head; head shaking side to side leaning forward; 
hands in pockets, tapping foot crossing arms or legs;
patting on the back; walking up and down high pitched voice; 
forced smiles (mouth smiles but eyes do not) pointing; 
thumbs-up; fingers crossed; shrug trembling lower lip; clenched fists sweating; 
gasping and holding breath putting hands on the waist
开头: 
I’m shocked / awfully sorry to hear that ...
It was a great shock to hear that ...
It broke my heart to hear that ...
I just can’t tell you how sad I was when I heard that ...
I can’t tell you how sorry I felt when I heard that ...
I am writing to express my deep sympathy / care for you.
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正文:

I understand how you feel now.
I know the way you feel very well.
You’ll always have a support in me.
It’s true that attitude decides everything. So you should never give up no matter what happens.
We are best friends so I will ...
Please let me know if there is anything I can do.
If I can be of any help, please don’t hesitate to let me know.
结尾:

I’m looking forward to ...
I hope our caring will help to comfort you.
I hope that time will take away the sorrow (悲伤) of your recent loss.
Remember that my heart and my thoughts are with you.
Step III Homework
假设你叫李华,得知你的英国朋友安德鲁(Andrew)的爱犬火花(Sparky)出车祸身亡,请
你给他写一封慰问信。
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