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2018-2019 高考英语短文改错专题练习之逻辑关系

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                       高考短文改错专题练习之逻辑关系

                                     教学内容


                               逻辑关系

难点诠释

   逻辑关系错误在短文改错中所占比例不大,但“杀伤力”极强,这是因为逻辑关系错误重在
考查语篇深层理解能力,尤其是语篇逻辑把握能力,难度较大。广义上逻辑关系指代范围很广,

包括:1、前后句关联词逻辑错误;2、句子肯定否定错误;3、代词指代对象逻辑一致性;4、
比较的对象的是否一致,范围是否协调等等。

   难点一:前后句之间关联词引起的逻辑错误

   前后句之间关联词引起的逻辑错误考点比较集中,主要是:

   1.并列句前后是因果关系、转折关系、选择关系还是递进关系

  【典例   1】I teach them, play with them, but watch them growing up.

   解析:but→and。根据前后句之间的逻辑关系,这里表示三个并列关系的单句,因此应用
and。

  【典例   2】Not all people like to work and everyone likes to play.

   解析:and→but。根据句子意思,“不是所有的人喜欢工作,但是所有的人都喜欢玩儿。”
得知,前后句构成逻辑上转折关系,因此应用                    but。

   2.状语从句与主句之间出现             and, or, so, but 等连接词造成逻辑混乱

  【典例   3】As she gave it to me, when the phone rang and she went to answer it.

   解析:去掉      when。这里主句和从句都使用连接词,主次不分。结合句子逻辑关系,把后
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一个连接词     when 去掉,这样主句是并列分句。同样地,连词                    because 不能与   so 连用,
although 不能与  but 连用。如:

          Because it was getting dark, we walked faster.

          因为天色渐渐黑下来了,我们加快了脚步。

          I didn't go to bed until eleven last night, so I got up late.

          昨晚我十一时才睡觉,因此今天起床晚了。

          Though she was in a hurry, she stopped to talk.

          她虽然很匆忙,仍然停下来说话。

          Life is limited, but there is no limit to learning.

          生命是有限的,但学问是止境的。

   难点二:由比较级引起的逻辑关系错误

   由比较级引起的逻辑关系错误在高考短文改错中呈现出日益增加的趋势。这些错误包括:

   1.该用比较级而没有用或者恰恰相反

  【典例   4】First, let me tell you something more about myself.

   解析:去掉      more。本句中     First 和 more 语义重复,造成逻辑不一致。既然是首先要说,
就不存在更多的信息。换言之,这里不存在比较关系。

    2.比较结构前后逻辑不一致错误

  【典例   5】If you wish to study hard, you must see films more often. 

   解析:more→less。根据句子意思,“如果你想努力学习,你必须更少地去看电影。”逻辑
上表示否定意义,看电影的次数更少而不是更多。

   3.比较的对象不协调、对象不一致等等。

  【典例   6】The population of China is larger than that of any country in Asia. 

   解析:any    后加   other。该句意为,“中国的人口比亚洲其它国家人口多。”因为中国也是亚
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洲国家,因此不能与本身比较,需要排除本身。因此使用比较级要注意比较的对象应协调、对
象应一致。

   难点三:由代词引起的逻辑关系错误

   由于代词引起的逻辑关系错误在高考短文改错中司空见惯,复现率极高,应引起高度注意。
这些错误主要集中在:

   1.前后句之间代词指代对象单复数不一致上

  【典例   7】I think I liked those classes because I felt that it helped me understand how the 
world works.

    解析:it→they。根据语境,这里           they 代指上文提到的       those classes,复数意义。

 【典例    8】What is more, you have to be friends with your pupils and take good care of him.

    解析:him→them。根据语境,这里照料的对象是上文提到的                        your pupils,复数意义。

   2.代词所指代的范围不同引起的逻辑混乱

  【典例   9】If any one of us had any difficulty in our life and study, the other would help him 
out.

   解析:other→others。用于两者之间,而语境暗示“我们中任何人生活和学习中有任何困难,
其他人就会帮助他。”提供帮助的人不止一个,是复数意义                          ,因此应用     the  others 表示其余的
人。

【好题调研】

1. All of them knew about the plan because it was kept a secret.

2. Canada is larger than any other country in Asia.

3. The teacher wasn't looking at me, but I copied something.

4. There’s a little cooking oil left in the house. Would you go to the corner store and get 
some?
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5. She doesn’t know anyone here. She has got someone to talk to.

6. Would you like a cup of coffee and shall we get down to business right away?

7. In American big cities, thousands sell tickets to watch football or basketball games.

8. Thank you so much for your party on Christmas Eve. All of them enjoyed it very much.

9. I agree with most of what you said, but I don’t agree with anything.

10. When my mother was asked, "Have you already taken your medicine?” I said, "Yes.”

答案与解析:

1. All→None。根据句子后半句        it was kept a secret,因此没有一个人知道真相。

2. 去掉  other。加拿大不在亚洲,所以范围不一致,应去掉                    other。

3. but→and。前后句表示逻辑上并列关系。

4. 去掉  a。a little 和 little 都修饰不可数名词,但前者表示肯定关系,后者则表示否定意义。

5. someone→no one。根据前半句,这里逻辑上表示否定意义。

6. and→or。这里表示并列句之间的选择关系。

7. sell→buy。根据语境这里表示人们买票看足球或篮球赛。

8. them→us。根据语境这里逻辑上表示“我们”感到非常满意。

9. anything→everything。这里表示部分否定,应为“但是我们不是对一切都一致同意。”

10. 去掉  was。这里逻辑上表示主动关系,“当母亲问我的时候……”。

【强化闯关】

1. Get up early tomorrow and we’ll miss the first bus to the Great Wall.

2. You have to learn in order to teach. Without enough knowledge, you can never learn well.

3. Suddenly, I caught sight of my English teacher in the crowd. She was smiling but nodding 
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 at me.

 4. Two middle-aged passengers fell into the sea. Unfortunately, both of them could swim.

 5. Each of the students, working hard at his or her lessons, hope to go to university.

 6. On the way up I was busy taking picture since the scenery was so beautiful.

 7. It looks as if my parents treat me as a visitor and a guest.

 8. They wished me success, but it didn't matter that I would win or not.

 9. They would have to ask their parents for money or for permission to do things with the 
 money.

 10. I will never know what was on his mind at the time, nor will anyone.

 11. Now I can't watch much television but a few years ago I used to watch it every night

 12. The foreign teachers here work hard and try his best to make the activities lively and 
 interesting.

 13. Mr. Smith used to smoke heavily and he has given it up.

 14. The number of people present at the concert was much larger than expected. There were 
 many tickets left.

 15. I invited Joe and Linda to dinner, but all of them came.

 答案与解析:

1. and→or。结合语境,这是“祈使句+or+主句”句型,表示前后句之间的内在关系。

2.   第二个    learn→teach。根据语境,“为了教学,你得好好学习。没有足够知识,你就教不好
  学。”得知,这里强调教学而不是学习。

3. but→and。结合语境,“她正微笑着并向我点头。”逻辑上表示并列关系。

4. both→neither。Unfortunately 说明逻辑上这两个人都不会游泳。
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5. hope→hopes。该句中         working hard at his or her lessons 容易起干扰作用,其实句子的主语
  是  Each,单数意义。

6. picture→pictures。既然忙于照相,那么应该不止一张,复数意义。

7. and→or。结合语境,“好像父母把我当作来访者或客人。”逻辑上表示否定意义。

8.        that→whether。结合语境,“不管是赢还是输都没有关系”,逻辑上表示不确定,应用
  whether。

9. would 后加   not。结合语境,这里逻辑上表示否定意义。

10. anyone→else。我永远不知道他当时脑子里想什么,其他任何人也不知道。

11.  去掉   much。根据后半句这里表示现在根本不看电视,所以应去掉                               much。

    12. his→their。这里     their 指代上文提到的        The foreign teachers here,复数意义。

13. and→but。这里逻辑上表示否定意义。

14. larger→smaller。There were many tickets left.说明这里表示相反意义,应用                  smaller。

15. all→neither。结合     but 的转折意义,说明“两者都不”,而                both 则表示“两者都”,逻辑相反。


 第二节   (共   5 小题;每小题     3 分,满分    15 分)

 根据短文内容,从短文后的选项中选出能填入空白处的最佳选项。选项中有两项为多余选项。

     We all know the importance of curiosity, and here are some tips on how to develop it. 

     Keep an open mind. This is essential if you are to have a curious mind. Be open to learning, unlearning, and 
 relearning things.    36    Therefore, you should be prepared to accept this possibility and change your mind. 

        37    Most people just accept the world as it is. This way, they will certainly lose the “holy curiosity”. Try 
 to dig deeper beneath the surface of what is around you. A sure way to dig deeper beneath the surface is asking 
 questions. What, why, when, who, where, and how are the questions curious people always ask.

     Don’t label anything as boring. Whenever you label something as boring, you close one more door of 
 possibilities. Curious people are unlikely to consider things boring.    38    Even if they don’t yet have time to 
 explore them, they will leave the door open to be visited another time. 
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    Take learning as something fun. If you see learning as a burden, there’s no way you will want to dig deeper into 
anything. That will just make the burden heavier. However, if you think of learning as something fun, you will 
naturally want to dig deeper.    39   

    Read diverse materials. It will introduce you to the possibilities and excitement of other worlds which may 
attract your interest in exploring further. One easy way to do this is through reading diverse materials.    40    It’ll 
feed your mind with the excitement of a new world. 

A. Never take things as granted. 

B. Don’t spend too much time on just one world. 

C. Try to pick a book or magazine on a new subject. 

D. Some things you know and believe might be wrong. 

E. It doesn’t matter that you don’t agree to others’ opinions. 

F. Instead, they always see these things as a door to an exciting new world. 

G. So look at life through the glasses of fun and enjoy the learning process. 


第三部分    英语知识运用(共两节,满分             55 分)

第一节    完型填空(共      20 小题;每小题      2 分,满分    40 分)

阅读下面短文,       从短文后所给各题的四个选项(A、B、C                 和 D)中,选出可以填入空白处的最佳选项。
        

   Jazzy is a lovely pug(哈巴狗) who always seems to be smiling. You can’t help but   41

when you look at Jazzy now, because you would never guess the horrible situation she was rescued from and the   
42   this little dog had.

    Jazzy was taken from her   43   owners, who were immediately   44   with animal cruelty. Why? Because 
neighbors had   45   seeing little Jazzyy moving around her back yard with two broken front legs. Her owners, 
who were supposed to   46   her most, did absolutely nothing about it. They had never sought any kind of   47   
for poor Jazzy. Nobody knew how it   48   and it was believed that she was hit by a car, or that someone had done 
this to her.

      49   Jazzy’s cruel owners didn’t take her to the veterinarian, her condition went from bad to worse. Over 
time her front right leg   50   loosely, and her left leg was permanently bent at a sharp angle. The pain must have 
been astonishing. She moved around like a baby seal. She needed   51  .
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    In a Los Angeles animal shelter, things got even   52  . The shelter could not provide the costly operations that 
could be   53   to restore Jazzy’s ability to   54   and lead a normal life, and it was impossible to find a family 
who would be able to   55   a dog in this condition. The difficult   56   was made to euthanize(使安乐死)
sweet Jazzy.

    All   57   was lost. Then a miracle happened. A volunteer from Dogs Without Borders saw Jazzy. Jazzy was 
pulled out of the   58   and rescuers got busy working on a plan to ensure that Jazzy would get treatment. For 
months, Dogs Without Borders cared for Jazzy, while   59   enough money for her operations. Donations came in. 
Finally in December 2013 the money was enough and it was time to get her operations   60  ! By the spring of 
2014, Jazzy had fully recovered.

 41. A. complain       B. forgive        C. celebrate      D. laugh

 42. A. pain           B. shock          C. happiness      D. responsibility

 43. A. lazy           B. original       C. angry          D. new

 44. A. combined       B. charged        C. compared        D. provided

 45. A. reported       B. imagined       C. regretted      D. avoided

 46. A. care for       B. depend on      C. look for       D. talk about

 47. A. food           B. contact        C. treatment      D. information 

 48. A. fell           B. felt           C. improved       D. happened

 49. A. If             B. Until          C. Although       D. Since

 50. A. stepped        B. stood          C. hung           D. waved

 51. A. instruction    B.encouragement   C. help           D. discipline

 52. A. harder         B. worse          C. safer          D. clearer

 53. A. prevented      B. required       C. released       D. checked

 54. A. breathe        B. bark           C. walk           D. listen

 55. A. adopt          B. buy            C. watch          D. catch

 56. A. promise        B. decision       C. appointment    D. experiment

 57. A. hope           B. wealth         C. medicine       D. connection

 58. A. hospital       B. yard           C. shelter        D. home
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 59. A. borrowing      B. saving         C. earning        D. raising

 60. A. corrected      B. done           C. fed            D. developed


第二节   语法填空(共      10 小题;每小题      1.5 分,满分   15 分)

阅读下面材料,       在空白处填入适当的内容或括号内单词的正确形式(不多于三个单词)。

    Last weekend as I was riding in the bike lane alongside the truck, we reached a crossing and it turned to the 
right,   61  (hit) me and my bicycle. Even more upsetting was the fact   62   the driver didn’t stop afterward.   
63  , I was not injured and my bicycle was damaged, but still usable.

    Even days after I reported the event to the police, they failed to   64  (proper) solve this situation or even 
return my calls. Eventually, I decided   65  (contact) University Student Legal Services for help about this matter. 
The small damage may not seem worth all   66   trouble, but what if I had been seriously   67  (injure)? Will 
anyone see punishment for breaking traffic laws and damaging my property?

    Unfortunately, my experience is common, and   68  (accident) between bikes and cars occur far too often. A 
comprehensive study   69  (report) that of the nearly 3,000 cyclist-motorist crashes that occurred between 2000 and 
2010, about 20 percent were hit-and-runs.

    Bicycles are held to the same standards as motor vehicles in most cases ,   70   means that cyclists must obey 
all the traffic rules, and also have the right to get damages in the accidents. I urge both cyclists and motorists to 
become familiar with their rights and duties when sharing the roads.


第四部分    写作(共两节,满分         35 分)

第一节   短文改错(共      10 小题;每小题      1 分,满分    10 分)

假定在英语课上老师要求同桌之间交换修改作文。请你修改你同桌写的以下作文。文中共有                                      10 处语言错误, 
每句中最多有两处。错误涉及一个单词的增加、删除或修改。

  增加:在缺词处加一个漏词符号(∧),并在其下面写出该加的词。

  删除:把多余的词用斜线(\)划掉。

  修改:在错的词下划一横线,并在该词下面写出修改后的词。

  注意:1.每处错误及其修改均仅限一词;

        2.只允许修改     l0 处,多者(从第     11 处起)不计分。
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 I, together with my two friends, were eating dinner at a Chinese restaurant, locating in the center of New York. I 
noticed the young woman eating with two kids. We stopped by and I asked the kids if he believed in Santa. The elder 
boy, whom was about seven years old, pointed his younger sister and said, “She does, but I don’t.” I told them Santa 
was real and as we were paying for our dinner, I paid for theirs, either. I didn’t know that whether the woman was 
alone, but I grow up with my mother supporting us four kids alone. I still feel good thinking I may have helped on 
some small ways. 


  第二节   书面表达(满分       25 分)

 假如你是一名高三年级学生。你发现班上有些同学晚上学习到深夜,白天也不安排休息时间,但往往课堂
上昏昏欲睡;有些同学饮食习惯不好,不吃早餐。请你写一篇发言稿,在班会上劝同学们合理安排作息时间,
注意健康饮食,      保证学习好、身体好。

注意:发言稿须包含上述要点,但可适当发挥,使讲话完整通顺。


    It’ s a pleasure for me to have a chance to make a short speech today. ________________

______________________________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________________________
__________________________________________________________________________

  That’s all. Thank you for listening!


                                        参考答案

听力:

 1-5 BBCCA   6-10 BCCAB    11-15 ABBCA   16-20 CBAAC

阅读:( 60  分)
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(A)   AACA      (B)ACA      (C)CBCA      (D)   DDBA    (七选五)DAFGC


完形:(40    分)

41-45 DABBA    46-50 ACDDC    51-55 CBBCA     56 -60 BACDB

语法填空:(15      分)

61. hitting    62. that   63. Thankfully / Luckily / Fortunately    64. properly

65 to contact  66. the   67 injured    68 accidents  69 reported  70 which

改错:(10    分)

 I, together with my two friends, were eating dinner at a Chinese restaurant, locating in the center of New York. 

                           was                                located

 I noticed the young woman eating with two kids. We stopped by and I asked the kids if he believed in Santa. 

         a                                                            they

 The elder boy, whom was bout seven years old, pointed his younger sister and said, “She does, but I don’t.” 

             who                             at

 I told them Santa was real and as we were paying for our dinner, I paid for theirs, either. I didn’t know 

                                                                   too

 that whether the woman was alone, but I grow up with my mother supporting us four kids alone. I still 

                                   grew

 feel good thinking I may have helped on some small ways. 

                                in                              

  作文:(25    分)

    It’ s a pleasure for me to have a chance to make a short speech today. Recently I have found that some of our 
classmates study late into the night and do not spare any time to take a rest during the day. So they often cannot help 
falling asleep in class. And some classmates seldom have breakfast, which is also a bad habit and will surely do harm 
to their health.

   In my opinion, it’s extremely important for us to have enough sleep an a proper diet. We must try to make wise 
use of our time, and only in this way can we keep fit and study well. I wonder if you agree with me.
                      中国现代教育网     www.30edu.com  全国最大教师交流平台

That’s all. Thank you for listening !
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