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2018-2019学年外研版必修三 Module1 Europ --课件2:Grammar and Writing

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   Module 1 Europe 
Period Three Grammar and Writing
        “一致”是指句子成分之间或词语之间在
性、数等方面应保持一致。
        “主谓一致”是指谓语动词与主语必须在
人称、性、数上保持一致,即主语是复数,
谓语也用复数形式,如are, were, have等,
主语是单数,谓语要用单数形式,如:is, 
was, has, works等。
1. 由and连接的并列成分指的是同一概念,一个人
的双重身份或匹配出现的事物时谓语动词为单数,
由and连接的两个并列成分表示两个不同的概念时
,谓语动词用复数。 
    The worker and writer is from Beijing.  
(那个工人兼作家…) 
    The worker and the writer are from Beijing. (那位
工人和那位作家)
Both Cathy and her daughter Linda have gone fishing in 
Canada. 
Bread and butter is a daily food in the West.

   常见的由and连接的指一个概念的有:
   the needle and thread 针线
   salt and water盐和水
   the folk and knife 刀叉 
   iron and steel 钢铁
   time and tide 岁月
2. everyone of
    one of
    each of
    either of 
    neither of+复数名词作主语,谓语用单数。 
    Each of the students has a book. 
 Each of the girls likes dancing.
    One of them has been abroad. 
    Neither of the two boys is good at  English.
       "one of+复数名词+定语从句"结构
如果one前面没有限定词,这个句型中的“复数名词”
是先行词,定语从句的谓语动词用复数;
如果one前面有the only, the first, the last, the right等
限定词修饰,则one是先行词,定语从句的谓语动词
用单数。
John is the only one of the students who has the keys.
John is one of the students who have the keys.
3. more than one, many a + 单数名词作主语,意义上
是复数,谓语动词常用单数。(形单意复)

  More than one student has tried.
  Many a student and teacher is watching the 
  football match.
  Many a man has died in the war.
4. each/every/no/many a + 单数名词  and 
each/every/no/many a + 单数名词作主语,谓语动词用
单数。
 1.Each book and each paper is found in its place.
 2.Every boy and every girl has the right to receive 
 education.
 3.Many a boy and many a girl has seen
 these painting.
 4.Every hour and minute is important.
  第二个each, every, no, many a可以省略。
 5. a+单数名词+and a half, 
     a+单数名词+or two 作主语时,谓语动词用单数
 1.。  A year and a half has passed.
 2.  A day or two is enough.

 one or two +复数名词, 
 one and a half +复数名词作主语,谓语用复数。

1. One or two boys know it.

2. One and a half months have passed since I saw 
him.

3. A month and a half has passed since I saw him. 
6. all, none, some, any 等不定代词作主语,根 据其
指代的内容而定。 
    All are present . 
    All the food tastes good. 

  none of...结构作主语
  指代不可数名词作主语,谓语用单数;
  指代复数名词作主语,强调全体,谓语用复数更好一
  些;着重个别,则用单数较好。
  None of the money is yours.
  None of us have/has ever been abroad.
7. “a number of+复数名词”作主语, 谓语用复数; “
许多”“the number of+复数名词”作主语,谓语用单
数。“…的数量”
①The number of traffic accidents has increased.
②A number of children like this song.
 8. Quantity/ies of +名词复数/不可数名词

①the quantity of + 复数名词或不可数名词,谓语用单数
。
②a quantity of +复数名词,谓语用复数。
   a quantity of +不可数名词,谓语用单数.
③            复数名词或不可数名词,谓语用复数。
 quantities①Quantities of +  of tea were sold last month.
   ②A large quantity of beer was sold out. 
   ③The quantity of books in the library is amazing. 
9. population 做主语指人口,谓语用单数;
指人的行为、居民等,谓语常用复数;
分数/百分数+ of the population做主语,谓语用复数。

The population of the village is 538.
One third of the population here are workers.

10. the Olympic Games, the Asian Games 做主语,
谓语用复数。
The Olympic Games are held every four years.
     halfhalf  
     mostmost  
     enoughenough
     partpart
     thethe  restrest  
11.  thethe  lastlast  ++ofof  ++名词名词作主语作主语
     lotslots  
     somesome  谓语动词要和 of 之后的
     plentyplenty  名词保持一致。 
     分数分数
     百分数百分数
1.Two-thirds of the people present are against the 
plan.

2.Three-fourths of the surface of the earth is 
covered by sea.

3.Over twenty percent of the city was destroyed in 
the war.

4.Forty-five percent of the doctors were women.

5.Only 40 percent of the students in the class are 
boys.
12. 集体名词class, family, army, team, club, 
   population, enemy, party, crowd, majority, crew, 
   audience, government, public, group, committee等
   作主语。强调整体用单数,指个体成员用复数。 
①  His family is in Harbin. 
②  His family are music lovers.
③  The committee was made up of 10 members.
④  The committee were in the hall. 
 The team is the best in the league.
 这个队在联赛中打得最好。 
   The football team are having baths.
 足球队队员们在洗澡。 

This class consists of 45 students. Mr. Green 
teaches it. 
This class are all diligent. Mr. Green teaches 
them.
1.His family _______ a small one.
2.His family _______ fat and short. 
     A. is, is     B. are, are    
     C. is, are     D. are, is 

此题应选CC。family是一个集合名词,具有单
数(侧重指整体)和复数(侧重指个体)两种可能
。
但是并不是所有的集合名词都具有以上两种用法
: 
1. 有的集合名词总是用作单数(不可数):clothing
衣服,poetry 诗歌,baggage/luggage 行李,
furniture家俱,scenery 景色等。 
2. 有的集合名词总是表示复数意义(但不用复数形
式):people人,police警察,cattle牲口等。
3. goods, clothes, glasses, shoes, scissors及trousers, 
chopsticks, compasses等以复数形式出现的名词作主
语,谓语用复数;
4. news, politics, maths, physics, plastics等形式为复数
而意义为单数的名词作主语,谓语用单数。
The goods belong to Mr. Wang.
No news is good news.
My trousers are new.
13. “the+adj./v-ed/v-ing”作主语
   the + dying, young, old, blind, rich, sick, wounded, poor
及dead等词,相当于复数名词,代表整个类别,故作主
语时谓语用复数。
①The old in China are living a happy life.

②The wounded have been saved.

③The sick have been cured and the lost have been found.
14. 表示时间、距离、钱额、重量、空间、体积等
意义的复数名词作主语,谓语动词常用单数。

1.  Eight hours of sleep is enough.
2.  A hundred miles is a long distance.
3.  Ten pounds was missing from my pocket.
4. Twenty years has passed since he left his hometown. 
15. 动名词、不定式、从句做主语
1).单个动名词或不定式作主语,谓语用单数。
① Making speeches is not her strong point.
② Growing flowers needs constant watering.
2). 由and连接的两个(或多个)动名词或不定式作主语
如果并列的动名词或不定式语义相同或相似,谓语用
单数;如果语义不一致,则谓语用复数。
①Lying and stealing are not right.

②To love and to be loved is sweet to me.

③Weeping and wailing does nothing towards solving 
the problem.
3). 由that, where, when, whether, how等词引导的名词性
从句作主语,主句的谓语常用单数形式。
How they can finish their work is still unknown.
Where we will go has not been decided.

① When and where to hold the meeting _____is  not 
  decided.

② When to hold the meeting and where to have lunch 
  _____are  not decided.
4.) 由what引导的名词性从句作主语,谓语一般用单数(
表语是复数时也可用复数);
如果what从句是带有复数意义的并列结构,主句的谓
语用复数。
What they are after is money.
What we want are/is promises.
What he says and (what he) does do not agree.
16.由由…or……or…,,  either…oreither…or,,  neither…norneither…nor,,  notnot  only…butonly…but  
  also…also…,,  not…but…not…but…  等连接的并列主语,谓语动词常等连接的并列主语,谓语动词常
  和靠近的作主语的名词在单复数上保持一致和靠近的作主语的名词在单复数上保持一致————就就
  近原则近原则。。 

① Not only he but also I am invited. 

② I or his brothers were to blame.

③ Neither I nor he is to attend the meeting.

④ Not only the students but also their teacher is 
  enjoying the film.
Not only I but Jane and Mary _____ tired of having one 
examination after another.  (89’)
A. is      B. are      C. am      D. be

    解析: 由“or, either…or, neither…nor, not…but, 
 not only… but also”连接两个并列主语时,动词与
 靠近的主语保持一致。
17.当 there be/ here be 句型的主语是一系列事物时
,谓语应与最邻近的主语保持一致。 
1. There is a pen, a knife and several books on the 
desk.
2. There are twenty boy-students and twenty-three 
girl-students in the class. 
3.  Here is a letter and a book for you.
4. There are three chairs, two tables and a bike in 
the house.
18. 主语后跟 “with, along with, together with, like, 

unlike, besides, but, except, including, as well as, as 

much as, rather than, more than, no less than, and not +

名词”结构时,谓语动词一般和前面的主语保持一致。 

1. The teacher with a number of students is in the 

classroom.

2. Tom, as much as you, was responsible for the loss. 

3. He more than you is anxious to go there.
A library with five thousand books ____ to the 
nation as a gift.
A. is offered 
B. has offered
C. are offered 
D. have offered
19. 谓语应该跟主语一致还是跟表语一致? 
 We Chinese ____ a hard-working people.
 A. is                 B. are        
 C. is being       D. are being

 此题应选BB。这里应注意的是:我们通常说的是主
 谓一致(即谓语与主语保持一致),而不是表谓一
 致(即不是谓语与表语一致),本题意为:我们中
 国人是一个勤劳的民族。
注意以下类似例子
1.These two dictionaries are a present for my best 
friend Jim.
2.The planets were the object of his study.
3.The most important thing I need is books.
4.The country's leading export is watches.
5.The best part of the meal is the coffee and cookies.
但是有些主语由于本身具有单数和复数两种可能,它
的谓语到底用单数还是复数,要看具体的语境(多数
情况是看其后面词语的单复数):
1.  a.Who is your brother?
    b.Who are your brothers?
2.  a.What he said is quite correct.
    b.What he left me are only a few old books.
1. ______ you or he the teacher of English?
   Neither my sister nor my mother 
    ______ present at the meeting.
    A. Are, was        B. Is, were    
    C. Are, are         D. Is, is  
2. When and where to build the new 
     factory______A  yet.   (91’)
     A. is not decided        
     B. are not decided
     C. has not decided    
     D. have not decided

   解析:  当when和where加不定式指的是同一件事时
 ,谓语动词用单数。 
 3. I, not you, ______ in the wrong. 
     Not I but he ______ been invited.
    A. were, have         B. were, has
    C. was, has             D. was, have

4. E-mail, as well as telephones, ____ an 
important part in daily communication.   (99 Sh2)
    A. is playing       B. have played
    C. are playing  D. play
5. One or two days ____ enough to see  the city.
    A. is       B. are     C. am     D. be
6. Neither my wife nor I myself ____ able to 
persuade my daughter to change her mind.
    A. is      B. are      C. am     D. be
7. Not the teacher, but the students ____ looking 
forward to seeing the film.
    A. is     B. are     C. am     D. be

8. His “Selected Poems” ____ first published in 1965. 
[78]
    A. were  B. was  
    C. has been D. have been
9. A woman with some children ______  soon.
     A. is coming  B. are coming
     C. has come   D. have come
10. No one except my parents ____ anything about this
。
     A. know       B. knows 

   NoC. one is known knows     anything       D. are  aboutknown this except 
   my parents.
11. The teacher as well as the students ______ the book 
already.
  A. has read     B. have read
  C. are reading  D. is reading
12. All but one ____ in the accident.
  A. was killed   B. were killed
  C. will be killed D. are killed 

  All were killed in the accident but one.
13.The number of people invited ___fifty, but a 
number of them ___ absent for different reasons.
A. were; was  B. was; was 
C. was; were  D. were; were
14. ____  of the land in  that district ____ 
covered with trees and grass.  [99sh]
 A. Two fifth; is  B. Two fifth; are  
 C. Two fifths; is  D. Two fifths; are
15. Mathematics ____ the language of  science.
A. is  B. are going to be  C. are D. were

16. A good deal of money ____ spent on books. 
A. have       B. has 
C. have been  D. has been
17. On the wall ____ two large portraits. 
A. hangs      B. hang   
C. hanged     D. hanging
18. “____turn green in spring.    
A. Leaf    B. Leafs  
C. Leave   D. Leaves 

19. Nobody but Jane ____ the secret.
A. know       B. knows  
C. have known  D. is known 
20. All but one ____ here just now. 
A. is    B. was   C. has been  D. were
21. As a result of destroying the forests, a large _____ 
of desert ____ covered the land. 
A. number; has B. quantity; has
C. number; have D. quantity; have
22. Every boy and every girl as well as  some teachers 
who ____ to visit the museum ___ asked to be at the 
school gate before 6:30 in the morning.
   A. are; are B. is; is
   C. are; is D. is; are
            WRITING
1. Choose one of the cities from Great European 
  Cities.
2. Think of some questions about the city.
 Example: How many people live there?
What kind of work do people do there?
3. Find the answers from another source and write 
  an extra paragraph about the city.
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